You are previewing Streaming Media Architectures, Techniques, and Applications: Recent Advances.
O'Reilly logo
Streaming Media Architectures, Techniques, and Applications: Recent Advances

Book Description

Streaming Media Architectures, Techniques, and Applications: Recent Advances spans a number of interdependent and emerging topics in streaming media. Streaming media is inherently a cross-disciplinary subject that involves information theory, signal processing, communication and networking etc. Coding and transmission definitely lie in the core position in streaming media, and these research topics have been extremely active in recent years. This book is a comprehensive collection of topics including media coding, wireless/mobile video, P2P media streaming, and applications of streaming media.

Table of Contents

  1. Copyright
  2. Editorial Advisory Board
  3. List of Reviewers
  4. Preface
  5. Acknowledgment
  6. 1. Media Coding
    1. 1. Scalable Video Coding: Techniques and Applications for Adaptive Streaming
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. H.264/SVC CODING FUNDAMENTALS AND TRANSPORT INTERFACE
      4. OVERVIEW OF H.264/SVC APPLICATIONS
      5. ADAPTIVE STREAMING OF H.264/SVC CONTENT
        1. Server-Side Adaptation
        2. In-Network Adaptation
        3. Receiver-Side Adaptation
      6. RELATED WORK
      7. FUTURE WORK
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      10. REFERENCES
      11. ADDITIONAL READING
      12. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
        1. Glossary
    2. 2. Adapting Multimedia Streaming to Changing Network Conditions
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
        1. Video Compression Algorithms
        2. Wavelet Compression
      3. APPLICATION STREAMING
        1. Layered Encoding
        2. Rate Shaping
        3. Error Control
        4. Smoothing
        5. Receiver Driven Multicast
        6. Adaptive Synchronization
      4. OPERATING SYSTEM SUPPORT
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
        1. Glossary
    3. 3. 2-D Scalable Multiple Description Coding for Robust H.264/SVC Video Communications
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. COMPARATIVE STUDIES BETWEEN LVC AND MDC
      4. OVERVIEW OF SCALABLE MULTIPLED DESCRIPTION CODING
        1. Recent Development of Scalable MDC
        2. FEC-Based Scalable MDC
      5. TWO-DIMENSIONAL SCALABLE MDC
        1. Architecture of the 2-D SMDC Scheme
          1. 2-D SMDC Rate-Distortion Optimization
        2. Genetic Algorithm for 2-D SMDC Rate-Distortion Optimization
      6. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
    4. 4. Dirac Video Codec: Introduction
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. DEVELOPMENT TIMELINE OF DIRAC VIDEO CODEC
      4. OVERALL ENCODER ARCHITECTURE
        1. Motion Estimation
        2. Overlapped Based-Based Motion Compensation (OBMC)
        3. Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT)
        4. Rate Distortion Optimization Quantization
        5. Entropy Coding
          1. Wavelet Coefficient Coding
          2. Motion Vector Data Coding
      5. PERFORMANCES OF DIRAC VIDEO CODEC
      6. TRANSCODING
      7. VIDEO STREAMING OVER THE NOISSY CHANNEL
        1. Overview of the Combined Source and Channel Coding Scheme
      8. SUMMARY
      9. REFERENCES
    5. 5. 3D Mesh Model Coding
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
        1. 3D Modeling and Data Representations
          1. Polygonal Mesh Modeling
          2. Surface Based Modeling
          3. Volumetric Modeling
        2. Formats of 3D Mesh Models
          1. 3D Data Acquisition
        3. 3D Model Display Technology
          1. OpenGL and Direct3D
          2. Image Based Rendering
          3. Point Rendering
        4. 3D Mesh Model Coding Principals
        5. Quantitative Assessments for 3D Mesh Compression
      4. TYPICAL AND STATE-OF-THE-ART ALGORITHMS
        1. Connectivity Coding
        2. Geometry Coding
        3. Spectral Coding
        4. Dynamic Mesh Coding
        5. Gigantic Mesh Compression
        6. Gigantic 3D Mesh Streaming
        7. MPEG-4 3D Mesh Coding Standard
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
        1. Glossary
  7. 2. Wireless / Mobile Video
    1. 6. A Cross-Layer Design to Wireless/Mobile Video Streaming
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. BACKGROUND
        1. 2.1 Challenges in Wireless/Mobile Video Streaming System Design
          1. 2.1.1 Wireless/Mobile Radio Channel
          2. 2.1.2 Application Characteristics
        2. 2.2 Error Control Techniques
          1. 2.2.1 Physical and Link Layer
          2. 2.2.2 Application Layer
        3. 2.3 Cross-Layer Design
          1. 2.3.1 Concepts and Definitions
          2. 2.3.2 Classifications of Cross-Layer Approaches
      4. 3. CROSS-LAYER WIRELESS/MOBILE VIDEO STREAMING
        1. 3.1 Requirements of Cross-Layer Video Streaming Systems
          1. 3.1.1 Preliminary Issues
          2. 3.1.2 System Requirements
          3. 3.1.2.1 Abstraction of System Parameters
            1. 3.1.2.2 Interface for Information Exchange - Cross-layer Signaling
            2. 3.1.2.3 Flexibility of Compressed Videos
        2. 3.2 Cross-layer Wireless/Mobile Video Streaming System
          1. 3.2.1 Network-Centric Approach - MAC-Centric QoS Control
            1. 3.2.1.1 End-to-End Cross-Layer QoS Architecture for Wireless Video Delivery
            2. 3.2.1.2 QoS Support of Mobile WiMax
          2. 3.2.2 Application-Centric Approach - Adaptive Error Control
            1. 3.2.2.1 Communication Channels for Adaptive Error Control
            2. 3.2.2.2 Joint Source Coding and Optimal Energy Allocation
            3. 3.2.2.3 Systematic Cross-layer Approach to Wireless Video Streaming
      5. 4. TOWARD PRACTICAL CROSS-LAYER VIDEO STREAMING SYSTEM
        1. 4.1 H.264/SVC for Wireless/Mobile Video Streaming
        2. 4.2 Characteristics of Wireless/Mobile Video Streaming Application
        3. 4.3 H.264/SVC Based Cross-Layer Wireless/Mobile Video Streaming
      6. 5. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
    2. 7. Bitrate Adaptation of Scalable Bitstreams in a UMTS Environment
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. NETWORK ARCHITECTURE AND PROTOCOLS
        1. Video Streaming Issues
        2. Long Term Feedbacks
        3. Media Aware Network Element (MANE)
      4. A DISTORTION MODEL
        1. Calculation of Distortion Contributions
        2. Model Validation and Parameter Values
      5. SCHEDULING ALGORITHMS
        1. A MANE Approach with SVC
        2. Distortion Based Policy and Long Term Feedbacks
      6. SUMMARY
      7. REFERENCES
    3. 8. Robust Video Streaming over MANET and VANET
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
        1. Error Resilience Techniques
        2. Path Diversity in Video Streaming
        3. Peer-to-Peer Video Streaming
      4. EXPLOITING PATH DIVERSITY OVER A MANET
        1. MANET Simulation
      5. COMBINING AD HOC AND P2P
      6. VIDEO DISTRIBUTION IN A VANET
        1. VANET Simulation
      7. RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
        1. Glossary
    4. 9. Scalable Video Delivery over Wireless LANs
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. BACKGROUND OF SCALABLE VIDEO CODING AND IEEE 802.11 WLAN
        1. 2.1 Scalable Extension of H.264/AVC Video Coding Standard
          1. 2.1.1 Overview of Scalable Video Coding
          2. 2.1.2 Basic Concepts of SVC
          3. 2.1.3 Profiles & Levels of SVC
        2. 2.2 IEEE 802.11 WLAN
          1. 2.2.1 MAC Layer
            1. 2.2.1.1 Distributed Coordination Function (DCF)
            2. 2.2.1.2 Point Coordination Function (PCF)
            3. 2.2.1.3 Enhanced Distributed Channel Access (EDCA)
            4. 2.2.1.4 HCF Controlled Channel Access (HCCA)
            5. 2.2.1.5 MAC Protocol Data Unit Format
          2. 2.2.2 Physical Layer
            1. 2.2.2.1 The Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS) PHY
            2. 2.2.2.2 The Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS) PHY
            3. 2.2.2.3 IEEE 802.11a Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) PHY
            4. 2.2.2.4 IEEE 802.11b High-Rate DSSS (HR/DSSS) PHY
            5. 2.2.2.5 IEEE 802.11g PHY
      4. 3 CROSS-LAYER DESIGNS FOR SVC OVER WLAN
        1. 3.1 Cross-Layer Paradigms for Scalable Video over WLAN
        2. 3.2 Cross-Layer Design for Multiple Video Streaming to Heterogeneous Mobile Clients
          1. 3.2.1 Cross-Layer Optimization
            1. 3.2.1.1 APP Layer Packet Prioritization
            2. 3.2.1.2 MAC Layer Packet Scheduling
            3. 3.2.1.3 Interface Queue Control
          2. 3.2.2 Performance Validation
        3. 3.3 Cross-Layer Design for Energy Efficient Scalable Video Multicast over WLANs
          1. 3.3.1 Cross-Layer Methodology for Energy-Efficient Resource Allocation
          2. 3.3.2 Cross-Layer Design for Energy-Efficient Scalable Video Multicast
        4. 3.4 Enhanced Cross-Layer Design
          1. 3.4.1 Cross-Layer Design at Encoder and Application Layer
          2. 3.4.2 Network Layer Optimization for SVC Packet Delivery
          3. 3.4.3 MAC and PHY Layers Optimization
      5. 4. SUMMARY
      6. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
        1. Glossary
    5. 10. Video Delivery in Wireless Sensor Networks
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. PRELIMINARIES FOR WVSN
        1. Video Generation
        2. Video Delivery
        3. Video Playback
      4. 3. CHARACTERISTICS AND CHALLENGES FOR ROUTING IN A WVSN
        1. Addressing Challenge
        2. Resource Constraint Challenge
        3. QoS Requirement Challenge
      5. 4. STATE OF THE ART VIDEO ROUTING TECHINIQUES
        1. 4.1. Addressing Techniques
          1. 4.1.1. Content-Based Addressing
          2. 4.1.2. Location-Based Addressing Techniques
          3. 4.1.3. Hierarchical Addressing Techniques
          4. 4.1.4. Global ID Routing Attempts
        2. 4.2. Energy-Efficient Routing Techniques
        3. 4.3. QoS Techniques
      6. 5. METRICS AND PERFORMANCE EVALUATION CRITERIA
        1. Resource Conservation Performance
        2. Path Formation Performance
        3. Data Delivery Performance
        4. Network Performance
      7. 6. RECENT RESEARCH RESULTS
      8. 7. CONCLUSION
        1. Addressing Challenge
        2. Energy Challenge
        3. QoS Challenge
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
        1. Glossary
  8. 3. P2P Media Streaming
    1. 11. Peer-to-Peer Networks: Protocols, Cooperation and Competition
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. OVERVIEW OF P2P SYSTEM STRUCTURES
      4. 3. P2P-BASED FILE SHARING: BITTORRENT SYSTEMS
        1. 3.1 System Description
          1. 3.1.1 The BitTorrent System Design: Control Level
          2. 3.1.2 The BitTorrent System Design: Reciprocation Level
        2. 3.2 Piece Selection Mechanisms
          1. 3.2.1 Rarest Piece First Selection
          2. 3.2.2 Random Piece First Selection
          3. 3.2.3 End Game Piece Selection
        3. 3.3 Peer Selection Mechanisms
          1. 3.3.1 Leecher's Peer Selection Mechanism
            1. 3.3.1.1 The TFT Mechanism
            2. 3.3.1.2 The Optimistic Unchoke Mechanism
            3. 3.3.1.3 Anti-Snubbing
          2. 3.3.2 Seed's Peer Selection Mechanism
          3. 3.3.3 Modeling the Peer Selection Mechanism
        4. 3.4 Limitations of BitTorrent Systems
          1. 3.4.1 Free-Riding in BitTorrent Systems
          2. 3.4.2 Lack of Fairness in BitTorrent Systems
      5. 4. P2P-BASED MEDIA STREAMING
        1. 4.1 Challenges and Requirements for Media Streaming
        2. 4.2 Peer Clustering Strategies
        3. 4.3 Overlay Constructions: Tree-Based and Data-Briven Approaches
          1. 4.3.1 Tree-Based Approach: Description
            1. 4.3.1.1 Group Management Mechanism
            2. 4.3.1.2 Parent Selection Algorithm
          2. 4.3.2 Data-Driven Approach
            1. 4.3.2.1 Group Management Mechanism
            2. 4.3.2.2 Prioritization and Scheduling Mechanisms
            3. 4.3.2.3 Group Update Mechanism
        4. 4.4 Incentives for Resource Reciprocation
      6. 5. FORESIGHTED RESOURCE RECIPROCATION STRATEGIES
        1. 5.1 Challenges of Incentive Design: Cooperation and Competition
        2. 5.2 Formalization of Resource Reciprocation as Stochastic Games
          1. 5.2.1 Group-Based Resource Reciprocation
          2. 5.2.2 Modeling Resource Reciprocations as Stochastic Games
            1. 5.2.1.1 State Space
            2. 5.2.1.2 Action Space
            3. 5.2.1.3 State Transition Probability
            4. 5.2.1.4 Reward
        3. 5.3 Foresighted Resource Reciprocation Strategy
        4. 5.4 Bounded Rationality on Resource Reciprocation
          1. 5.4.1 Bounded Rationality: Attitude towards Resource Reciprocations
          2. 5.4.2 Bounded Rationality: Limited Memory and Computation Power
          3. 5.4.3 Practical Implementation of Foresighted Strategies
      7. 6. NEW DIRECTIONS FOR GAME-THEORETIC APPROACHES TO INCENTIVE DESIGN IN P2P NETWORKS
      8. 7. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE CHALLENGES
      9. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      10. REFERENCES
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
        1. Glossary
    2. 12. A Survey of P2P Data-Driven Live Streaming Systems
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1 INTRODUCTION
      3. 2 LIVE STREAMING AND THE INTERNET
        1. Single-Tree Peer-to-Peer Overlays
        2. Multiple-Trees or "Structured Meshes"
      4. 3 DATA-DRIVEN PEER-TO-PEER LIVE STREAMING
        1. Definitions
          1. Node Internals
          2. Data Exchange Protocols
          3. Classes and Global Properties
        2. The Evolution of Data-Driven Systems
        3. Classification and Notes on Performance Evaluation
          1. System Class vs. Protocol Type
          2. Peer and Chunk Selection
          3. Stream Coding
      5. 4 P2P LIVE STREAMING AND THE INTERNET
        1. Large-Scale Deployed Systems
        2. Measurement Studies
        3. Current Research
          1. Heterogeneous and Non-Cooperative Scenarios
          2. Network Locality Support
          3. User Dynamics and Streaming Experience
          4. Security
      6. 5 SUMMARY
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ENDNOTES
    3. 13. Epidemic Live Streaming
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. MODEL
        1. The Stream
        2. System Resources
        3. The Epidemic Approach
        4. Performance
      4. OPTIMAL DIFFUSION SCHEMES
      5. HOMOGENEOUS BANDWIDTH SYSTEMS
        1. Model and Algorithms
        2. Recursive Formulas
          1. Latest Blind Chunk / Random Peer
          2. Latest Blind Chunk / Random Useful Peer
          3. Delayed Updates
          4. Overload Regime
          5. Validation
        3. Simulation Results
          1. Reference Scenario
          2. Impact of the Number of Peers
          3. Impact of Bandwidth Provisioning
          4. Restricted Neighborhoods
      6. HETEROGENEOUS SYSTEMS AND RESOURCE-AWARE ALGORITHMS
        1. Model and Algorithms
          1. Peer Selection Process
            1. Random Peer Selection (rp)
            2. Bandwidth-Aware Selection(ba)
            3. Latency-Aware Selection(la)
            4. Tit-for-Tat Peer Selection(tft)
            5. Data-Driven Peer Selection
            6. Hybrid Selection
          2. Implementation Issues
        2. Recursive Formulas
        3. Simulation Results
          1. Reference Scenario
          2. Awareness-Agnostic Peer Selection Trade-Off
          3. Source Scheduling
          4. Convergence Time and Epoch Length
      7. OPTIMIZING PARAMETERS
        1. Methodology
        2. Chunk Size and Performance
          1. Chunk Miss Ratio
          2. Delay
          3. Overhead
          4. Suitable Range for c
        3. Size of Probe Set
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
    4. 14. A Chunkless Peer-to-Peer Transport Protocol for Multimedia Streaming
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. BACKGROUND
        1. 2.1 Taxonomy of P2P Systems
          1. 2.1.1 Taxonomy Based on the Application
          2. 2.1.2 Taxonomy Based on the Control/Overlay Structure
            1. P2P System for Content Retrieval
            2. P2P Systems for Media Streaming
            3. Tree-Based Networks
            4. Mesh-Based Network
        2. 2.2 Existing P2P Systems
          1. 2.2.1 P2P Systems for File Sharing
          2. 2.2.2 P2P Systems for Media Streaming
        3. 2.3 Requirements of P2P Networks for Streaming
        4. 2.4 Network Coding
      4. 3 THE PPETP PROTOCOL
        1. 3.1 Introductory Remarks
          1. 3.1.1 Overview of a PPETP Session
        2. 3.2 Mathematical Description
          1. 3.2.1 Properties
        3. 3.3 Protocol Description
          1. 3.3.1 Packet Types
          2. 3.3.2 Peer Handshaking Details
          3. 3.3.3 Peer Departure
          4. 3.3.4 Overlay Network Structure
        4. 3.4 API Description
      5. 4 FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. 5 CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
        1. Glossary
      10. ENDNOTES
  9. 4. Applications of Streaming Media
    1. 15. Low Latency Audio Streaming for Internet-Based Musical Interaction
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1 INTRODUCTION
      3. 2 FUNDAMENTALS IN MUSIC COGNITION
      4. 3 PHYSICAL AND TECHNICAL FUNDAMENTALS
        1. 3.1 Device Blocking and Driver Buffering
        2. 3.2 Coding (Optional)
        3. 3.3 Signal Propagation and Transmission
        4. 3.4 Principle of Internet-Based Low-Delay Audio Networking
      5. 4 ALTERNATIVE INTERACTION APPROACHES
        1. 4.1 Category A: Realistic Interaction Approach (RIA)
        2. 4.2 Category B1: Master Slave Approach (MSA)
        3. 4.3 Category B2: Laid Back Approach (LBA)
        4. 4.4 Category B3: Delayed Feedback Approach (DFA)
        5. 4.5 Category C1: Latency Accepting Approach (LAA)
      6. 5 CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
        1. Glossary
    2. 16. The 3rd Generation Partnership Project Packet-Switched Streaming (3GPP-PSS): Fundamentals and Applications
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. THE 3RD GENERATION PARTNERSHIP PROJECT PACKET-SWITCHED STREAMING (3GPP-PSS) PROTOCOL
        1. PSS: Functional Protocols
          1. PSS: Protocol Stack
          2. PSS: Domain Architecture
          3. PDP Context Activation Procedure
          4. PSS: Streaming Multimedia Session Establishment
        2. General Service Architecture
        3. Interworking with Other Core Network Services
          1. Interworking with WAP
          2. Interworking with MMS
        4. PSS Releases
          1. Release 4: Simple Streaming
          2. Release 5: Enhanced Streaming Service
          3. Release 6: Some Extensions
        5. End-to-End Bit-Rate Adaptation
        6. Adaptation of Continuous Media
          1. Quality Metrics
          2. Reliable Streaming
          3. New Codecs
        7. Digital Rights Management (DRM)
        8. Progressive Downloading
      5. SUMMARY
        1. Release 7
          1. Transport
          2. Service Personalization
          3. Service Management
          4. Security
          5. Charging/Billing
        2. Release 8
      6. IMS BASED PSS AND MBMS USER SERVICE ARCHITECTURE
        1. Standardized QoS Characteristics
          1. General
          2. Standardized QCI Characteristics
        2. Allocation and Retention Priority Characteristics
        3. QoS Information Elements among Various Releases
        4. QoS Information Elements Releases 8 and After
        5. Industrial and Research-Based Advances
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
        1. Glossary
    3. 17. Perspectives of the Application of Video Streaming to Education
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
        1. Synchronous Videolectures
        2. Asynchronous Applications
        3. Summarizing Videolectures
        4. Extracting Text from the Audio Track
        5. Lecture Segmentation
        6. Search, Semantic Indexing and Multimodal Access
        7. Gesture Analysis
        8. Videolectures Annotation
      3. OTHER TOPICS
      4. CONCLUSION
      5. REFERENCES
      6. KEY TERM AND DEFINITIONS
        1. Glossary
      7. ENDNOTES
  10. Compilation of References
  11. About the Contributors