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Storage Networking Protocol Fundamentals

Book Description

A comparative analysis of Ethernet, TCP/IP, and Fibre Channel in the context of SCSI

  • Introduces network administrators to the requirements of storage protocols

  • Explains the operation of network protocols to storage administrators

  • Compares and contrasts the functionality of Ethernet, TCP/IP, and Fibre Channel

  • Documents the details of the major protocol suites, explains how they operate, and identifies common misunderstandings

  • References the original standards and specifications so you can get a complete understanding of each protocol

  • Helps you understand the implications of network design choices

  • Discusses advanced network functionality such as QoS, security, management, and protocol analysis 

  • Corporations increasingly depend on computer and communication technologies to remain competitive in the global economy. Customer relationship management, enterprise resource planning, and e-mail are a few of the many applications that generate new data every day. Effectively storing, managing, and accessing that data is a primary business challenge in the information age. Storage networking is a crucial component of the solution to meet that challenge.

    Written for both storage administrators who need to learn more about networking and network administrators who need to learn more about storage, Storage Networking Protocol Fundamentals is a concise introduction to storage networking protocols. The book picks up where Storage Networking Fundamentals left off by focusing on the networking protocols that underlie modern open systems: block-oriented storage networks.

    The first part of the book introduces you to the field of storage networking and the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) reference model. The second part compares networked storage technologies, including iSCSI (Small Computer Systems Interface over IP) and Fibre Channel. It also examines in detail each of the major protocol suites layer-by-layer within the OSI reference model. The third part discusses advanced functionalities of these technologies, such as quality of service (QoS), load-balancing functions, security, management, and protocol analysis. You can read this book cover to cover or use it as a reference, directly accessing the particular topics of interest to you.

    “Storage networking is a critical concept for today’s businesses, and this book provides a unique and helpful way to better understand it. Storage networking is also continuously evolving, and as such this book may be seen as an introduction to the information technology infrastructures of the future.”

    —from the foreword by Claudio DeSanti, vice-chairman of the ANSI INCITS T11 Technical Committee

    Table of Contents

    1. Copyright
      1. Dedication
    2. About the Author
      1. About the Technical Reviewers
    3. Acknowledgments
    4. Icons Used in This Book
    5. Foreword
    6. Introduction
      1. Objectives
      2. Intended Audiences
      3. Organization
    7. I. Storage Networking Landscape
      1. 1. Overview of Storage Networking
        1. Brief History of Storage
          1. Intelligent Interface Models
          2. Serial Transmission Techniques
          3. Modern Storage Networks
        2. Drivers for Change
        3. What Is a Storage Network?
        4. Block Storage Protocol Review: ATA, SCSI, and SBCCS
          1. ATA
          2. SCSI
          3. SBCCS
        5. Mainframe Storage Networking: ESCON and FICON
          1. ESCON
          2. FICON
        6. File Server Protocol Review: CIFS, NFS, and DAFS
          1. CIFS
          2. NFS
          3. DAFS
        7. Backup Protocols: NDMP and EXTENDED COPY
          1. NDMP
          2. SCSI-3 Extended Copy
        8. Optical Technologies: SONET/SDH, DWDM/CWDM, and RPR/802.17
          1. SONET/SDH
          2. DWDM/CWDM
          3. RPR/802.17
        9. Virtualization Implementations: Host, Storage Subsystem, and Network
          1. Host Implementations
          2. Storage Subsystem Implementations
          3. Network Implementations
        10. Summary
        11. Review Questions
      2. 2. OSI Reference Model Versus Other Network Models
        1. OSI Reference Model
          1. Network Models, Specifications, and Implementations
          2. Seven-Layer Model
            1. Layer 1—Physical Layer
            2. Layer 2—Data-Link Layer
            3. Layer 3—Network Layer
            4. Layer 4—Transport Layer
            5. Layer 5—Session Layer
            6. Layer 6—Presentation Layer
            7. Layer 7—Application Layer
          3. Implementation Considerations
        2. SCSI Bus Interface and the ANSI T10 SCSI-3 Architecture Model
        3. Ethernet and the IEEE 802 Reference Model
        4. TCP/IP Suite and the ARPANET Model
        5. Fibre Channel Architecture and ANSI T11 Model
          1. Fibre Channel Model and the OSI Reference Model
          2. Fibre Channel Specifications
        6. Summary
        7. Review Questions
      3. 3. Overview of Network Operating Principles
        1. Conceptual Underpinnings
          1. Throughput
          2. Topologies
          3. Service and Device Discovery
        2. SCSI Parallel Interface
          1. The Right Tool for the Job
          2. SPI Throughput
          3. SPI Topologies
          4. SPI Service and Device Discovery
        3. Ethernet
          1. Low Overhead Paradigm
          2. Ethernet Throughput
          3. Ethernet Topologies
          4. Ethernet Service and Device Discovery
        4. TCP/IP Suite
          1. Value of Ubiquitous Connectivity
          2. TCP/IP Throughput
          3. TCP/IP Topologies
          4. TCP/IP Service and Device Discovery
            1. Discovery Contexts
              1. Manual Configuration
              2. Semi-Manual Configuration
              3. Automated Configuration
        5. Fibre Channel
          1. Merger of Channels and Packet Switching
          2. FC Throughput
          3. FC Topologies
          4. FC Service and Device Discovery
        6. Summary
        7. Review Questions
      4. 4. Overview of Modern SCSI Networking Protocols
        1. iSCSI
          1. iSCSI Functional Overview
          2. iSCSI Procedural Overview
        2. FCP
          1. FCP Functional Overview
          2. FCP Procedural Overview
        3. FCIP
          1. FCIP Functional Overview
          2. FCIP Procedural Overview
        4. iFCP
          1. iFCP Functional Overview
          2. iFCP Procedural Overview
        5. Summary
        6. Review Questions
    8. II. OSI Layers
      1. 5. OSI Physical and Data-Link Layers
        1. Conceptual Underpinnings
          1. Addressing Schemes
          2. Address Formats
          3. Delivery Mechanisms
            1. Dropped Frames or Packets
            2. Duplicate Frames or Packets
            3. Corrupt Frames or Packets
            4. Acknowledgement
            5. Guaranteed Delivery
            6. Flow Control and QoS
            7. Guaranteed Bandwidth
            8. Guaranteed Latency
            9. Fragmentation, Reassembly, and PMTU Discovery
            10. In-order Delivery
          4. Link Aggregation
          5. Transceivers
        2. SCSI Parallel Interface
          1. SPI Media, Connectors, Transceivers, and Operating Ranges
          2. SPI Encoding and Signaling
          3. SPI Addressing Scheme
          4. SPI Name Assignment and Resolution
          5. SPI Address Assignment and Resolution
          6. SPI Media Access
          7. SPI Network Boundaries
          8. SPI Frame Formats
          9. SPI Delivery Mechanisms
          10. SPI Link Aggregation
          11. SPI Link Initialization
        3. Ethernet
          1. Ethernet Media, Connectors, Transceivers, and Operating Ranges
          2. Ethernet Encoding and Signaling
          3. Ethernet Addressing Scheme
          4. Ethernet Name Assignment and Resolution
          5. Ethernet Address Assignment and Resolution
          6. Ethernet Media Access
          7. Ethernet Network Boundaries
          8. Ethernet Frame Formats
          9. Ethernet Delivery Mechanisms
          10. Ethernet Link Aggregation
          11. Ethernet Link Initialization
        4. Fibre Channel
          1. FC Media, Connectors, Transceivers, and Operating Ranges
          2. FC Encoding and Signaling
          3. FC Addressing Scheme
          4. FC Name Assignment and Resolution
          5. FC Address Assignment and Resolution
          6. FC Media Access
          7. FC Network Boundaries
          8. FC Frame Formats
          9. FC Delivery Mechanisms
          10. FC Link Aggregation
          11. FC Link Initialization
        5. Summary
        6. Review Questions
      2. 6. OSI Network Layer
        1. Internet Protocol
          1. IPv4 Overview
          2. Data-Link Support
            1. Ethernet
            2. PPP
          3. Addressing Scheme
          4. Name Assignment and Resolution
          5. Address Assignment and Resolution
          6. Network Boundaries
          7. Packet Formats
          8. Delivery Mechanisms
          9. ICMP
          10. Interface and Port Initialization
        2. Fibre Channel
        3. Summary
        4. Review Questions
      3. 7. OSI Transport Layer
        1. TCP/IP Suite
          1. UDP
            1. UDP Operational Overview
            2. UDP Packet Formats
            3. UDP Delivery Mechanisms
            4. UDP Connection Initialization
          2. TCP
            1. TCP Operational Overview
            2. TCP Packet Formats
            3. TCP Options
              1. Maximum Segment Size
              2. Window Scale
              3. Selective Acknowledgement
              4. Timestamps
            4. TCP Delivery Mechanisms
            5. TCP Connection Initialization
        2. Fibre Channel
          1. FC Operational Overview
          2. FC Frame Formats
          3. FC Delivery Mechanisms
          4. FC Connection Initialization
        3. Summary
        4. Review Questions
      4. 8. OSI Session, Presentation, and Application Layers
        1. iSCSI Operational Details
          1. iSCSI Addressing Scheme
          2. iSCSI Name Assignment and Resolution
          3. iSCSI Address Assignment and Resolution
          4. iSCSI Session Types, Phases, and Stages
          5. iSCSI Data Transfer Optimizations
          6. iSCSI PDU Formats
          7. iSCSI Login Parameters
          8. iSCSI Delivery Mechanisms
            1. Error Recovery Classes
            2. Error Recovery Hierarchy
            3. PDU Boundary Detection
            4. PDU Retransmission
            5. iSCSI In-Order Command Delivery
            6. iSCSI Connection and Session Recovery
        2. FCP Operational Details
          1. FCP Addressing Scheme
          2. FCP Name Assignment and Resolution
          3. FCP Address Assignment and Resolution
          4. FCP Session Establishment
          5. FCP Data Transfer Optimizations
          6. FCP IU Formats
          7. FCP Additional Login Parameters
          8. FCP Delivery Mechanisms
            1. Error Detection
            2. Exchange Level Error Recovery
            3. Sequence Level Error Recovery
            4. FCP IU Boundary Detection
            5. FCP In-Order Command Delivery
            6. FCP Connection and Session Recovery
        3. FCIP Operational Details
          1. Architecture and Functional Models
            1. VE_Port Functional Model
            2. B_Access Functional Model
          2. FCIP Addressing Scheme
          3. FCIP Packet and Frame Formats
          4. FCIP Session Establishment
          5. FCIP Delivery Mechanisms
          6. FCIP Data Transfer Optimizations
        4. Summary
        5. Review Questions
    9. III. Advanced Network Functionality
      1. 9. Flow Control and Quality of Service
        1. Conceptual Underpinnings of Flow Control and Quality of Service
        2. Ethernet Flow Control and QoS
          1. Ethernet Flow Control
          2. Ethernet QoS
        3. IP Flow Control and QoS
          1. IP Flow Control
          2. IP QoS
        4. TCP Flow Control and QoS
          1. TCP Flow Control
          2. TCP QoS
        5. iSCSI Flow Control and QoS
          1. iSCSI Flow Control
          2. iSCSI QoS
        6. FC Flow Control and QoS
          1. FC Flow Control
          2. FC QoS
        7. FCP Flow Control and QoS
          1. FCP Flow Control
          2. FCP QoS
        8. FCIP Flow Control and QoS
          1. FCIP Flow Control
          2. FCIP QoS
        9. Summary
        10. Review Questions
      2. 10. Routing and Switching Protocols
        1. Conceptual Underpinnings of Routing and Switching Protocols
        2. Ethernet Switching Protocols
        3. IP Routing Protocols
        4. FC Switching Protocols
        5. Summary
        6. Review Questions
      3. 11. Load Balancing
        1. Conceptual Underpinnings of Load Balancing
        2. Load Balancing with Networking Technologies
          1. Ethernet Load Balancing
          2. IP Load Balancing
          3. FC Load Balancing
        3. Load Balancing with Session-Oriented Technologies
          1. iSCSI Load Balancing
          2. FCP Load Balancing
          3. FCIP Load Balancing
        4. End Node Load-Balancing Techniques
        5. Summary
        6. Review Questions
      4. 12. Storage Network Security
        1. Conceptual Underpinnings of Storage Network Security
        2. AAA Protocols
        3. Management Protocols
        4. Ethernet Security
        5. IP Security
        6. TCP Security
        7. iSCSI Security
        8. Fibre Channel Security
        9. FCP Security
        10. FCIP Security
        11. Summary
        12. Review Questions
      5. 13. Storage Management Protocols
        1. Conceptual Underpinnings of Storage Management Protocols
        2. TCP/IP Management
        3. FC Management
        4. SCSI Management
        5. Summary
        6. Review Questions
      6. 14. Protocol Decoding and Traffic Analysis
        1. The Purpose of Protocol Decoding
        2. Methods of Traffic Capture
        3. Types of Protocol Decoders
        4. Protocol Decoder Screenshots
        5. Purpose of Traffic Analysis
        6. Types of Traffic Analyzers
        7. Summary
        8. Review Questions
    10. IV. Appendixes
      1. A. Standards and Specifications
        1. American National Standards Institute (ANSI) InterNational Committee for Information Technology Standards (INCITS) T10
        2. ANSI INCITS T11
        3. Distributed Management Task Force (DMTF)
        4. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
        5. Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)
        6. Storage Networking Industry Association (SNIA)
        7. Direct Access File System (DAFS) Collaborative
        8. International Organization for Standardization (ISO)/International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC)
        9. International Telecommunication Union-Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-T)
        10. Vendor Documents
      2. B. Acronyms and Abbreviations
      3. C. Answers to Review Questions
        1. Chapter 1
        2. Chapter 2
        3. Chapter 3
        4. Chapter 4
        5. Chapter 5
        6. Chapter 6
        7. Chapter 7
        8. Chapter 8
        9. Chapter 9
        10. Chapter 10
        11. Chapter 11
        12. Chapter 12
        13. Chapter 13
        14. Chapter 14
    11. Glossary