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Stop Staring: Facial Modeling and Animation Done Right, Third Edition

Book Description

The de facto official source on facial animation—now updated!

If you want to do character facial modeling and animation at the high levels achieved in today's films and games, Stop Staring: Facial Modeling and Animation Done Right, Third Edition, is for you. While thoroughly covering the basics such as squash and stretch, lip syncs, and much more, this new edition has been thoroughly updated to capture the very newest professional design techniques, as well as changes in software, including using Python to automate tasks.

  • Shows you how to create facial animation for movies, games, and more

  • Provides in-depth techniques and tips for everyone from students and beginners to high-level professional animators and directors currently in the field

  • Features the author's valuable insights from his own extensive experience in the field

  • Covers the basics such as squash and stretch, color and shading, and lip syncs, as well as how to automate processes using Python

Breathe life into your creations with this important book, considered by many studio 3D artists to be the quintessential reference on facial animation.

Table of Contents

  1. Copyright
  2. Dear Reader,
  3. Acknowledgments
  4. About the Author
  5. Introduction
    1. Why This Book
    2. Who Should Read This Book
      1. Maya and Other 3D Apps
    3. How Stop Staring Is Organized
      1. What's on the Website
  6. I. Getting to Know the Face
    1. 1. Learning the Basics of Lip Sync
      1. 1.1. The Essentials of Lip Sync
        1. 1.1.1. Analyzing the Right Things
      2. 1.2. Speech Cycles
      3. 1.3. Starting with What's Most Important: Visemes
        1. 1.3.1. Why Phonemes Aren't Best for CGI
          1. 1.3.1.1. Open Mouth Sounds
        2. 1.3.2. Visemes Aren't Tied to Individual Sounds
        3. 1.3.3. Representative Shapes
        4. 1.3.4. Relative Shapes
          1. 1.3.4.1. "Who are you and what are you doing?": Wide/Narrow
          2. 1.3.4.2. "Who are you and what are you doing?": Open/Closed
      4. 1.4. The Simplest Lip Sync
        1. 1.4.1. Creating a Sync Tool 1: Shapes
        2. 1.4.2. Creating a Sync Tool 2: Setup
        3. 1.4.3. Using the Sync Tool
    2. 2. What the Eyes and Brows Tell Us
      1. 2.1. The Two Major Brow Movements
        1. 2.1.1. Brows Up and Down
        2. 2.1.2. Brows Squeeze
        3. 2.1.3. The Brow Squeeze Is Every Expression
      2. 2.2. The Upper Lids' Effect on Expression
        1. 2.2.1. The Upper Lids Show Alertness
        2. 2.2.2. The Upper Lids Usually Stay Relative to the Pupil and Iris
      3. 2.3. The Lower Lids' Effect on Expression
        1. 2.3.1. The Value of a Good Squint
        2. 2.3.2. Squint Is Not Emotion Specific
      4. 2.4. Eyelines: Perception vs. Reality
        1. 2.4.1. Headline vs. Eyelines
        2. 2.4.2. Implied Eyelines
      5. 2.5. Distraction Is the Enemy of Performance
    3. 3. Facial Landmarking
      1. 3.1. Introduction to Landmarking
        1. 3.1.1. Landmarking by Example
        2. 3.1.2. Fixing a Shape by Fixing Its Surroundings
        3. 3.1.3. The Landmarking Process
        4. 3.1.4. Landmarks Are Obvious When They're Alone
      2. 3.2. Landmarking Mouth Creases
        1. 3.2.1. Landmarking to Plan a Point Layout
          1. 3.2.1.1. The Main Crease of the Mouth Area
          2. 3.2.1.2. The Same Crease Does Different Things
        2. 3.2.2. Where Is the Crease Most Intense?
        3. 3.2.3. Even the Big Boys Sometimes Get It Wrong
        4. 3.2.4. Creasing Applied to Each Shape
      3. 3.3. Landmarking Brow Creases
        1. 3.3.1. Brows Up/Raise
        2. 3.3.2. The Shape of Brow Creases
        3. 3.3.3. Brows Down/Squeeze
      4. 3.4. Landmarking the Tilt of the Head
        1. 3.4.1. Every Expression Has a Tilt
        2. 3.4.2. The Significance of Tilts
          1. 3.4.2.1. The Benefits of More Animation on the Head
          2. 3.4.2.2. Musical Head Tilts
  7. II. Animating and Modeling the Mouth
    1. 4. Visemes and Lip Sync Technique
      1. 4.1. Sync: Wide/Narrow Grows Up
        1. 4.1.1. Visemes vs. Sounds
          1. 4.1.1.1. The Visemes
          2. 4.1.1.2. The Non-Viseme Sounds
        2. 4.1.2. Breaking Sounds Down
          1. 4.1.2.1. Spelling, Respelling, and S-P-EH-L-IH-NG
          2. 4.1.2.2. Funneling
      2. 4.2. The Best Order of Sync Operations
        1. 4.2.1. Learn-While-Doing Sync: "Hey, buddy, I don't like your face"
        2. 4.2.2. Finessing Sync
          1. 4.2.2.1. Weighting the Rules
          2. 4.2.2.2. Opposites
          3. 4.2.2.3. Relatives between Absolutes
          4. 4.2.2.4. Stepping
        3. 4.2.3. Sync Subtleties
          1. 4.2.3.1. Cap the Ends
          2. 4.2.3.2. Earlier Is Better
          3. 4.2.3.3. Percussive Sounds
          4. 4.2.3.4. Oh Yeah, Almost Forgot the Tongue!
      3. 4.3. Sync Example 1: "What am I sayin' in here?"
        1. 4.3.1. Identifying Visemes
        2. 4.3.2. Identifying Open/Closed
        3. 4.3.3. Finessing
          1. 4.3.3.1. Inserting Opposites or Stepping
          2. 4.3.3.2. The Tongue
          3. 4.3.3.3. What Bothers Me
      4. 4.4. Sync Example 2: "Was it boys?"
        1. 4.4.1. Identifying Visemes
        2. 4.4.2. Identifying Open/Closed
        3. 4.4.3. Finessing
          1. 4.4.3.1. Inserting Opposites or Stepping
          2. 4.4.3.2. The Tongue
          3. 4.4.3.3. What Bothers Me
    2. 5. Constructing a Mouth and Nose
      1. 5.1. The Best Edge Flow
        1. 5.1.1. Modeling in Circles
        2. 5.1.2. Modeling for Movement
      2. 5.2. The Big Picture
      3. 5.3. Building the Lips
        1. 5.3.1. Edge Loop Consistency into the Mouth
        2. 5.3.2. Cross-Sections
      4. 5.4. Building the Surrounding Mouth Area
        1. 5.4.1. Photorealism
        2. 5.4.2. Cartoony Snout
      5. 5.5. Building the Nose
        1. 5.5.1. A Moment of Hands-On
        2. 5.5.2. Connecting the Nose and Mouth
      6. 5.6. Continuing Toward the Jaw and Cheek
      7. 5.7. Building Teeth
        1. 5.7.1. A Real-Life Lesson in Gums
          1. 5.7.1.1. Placement
          2. 5.7.1.2. The Types of Teeth
        2. 5.7.2. Creating Teeth
          1. 5.7.2.1. The Underside of the Teeth and Roof of the Mouth
          2. 5.7.2.2. Making the Lower Teeth from the Upper Teeth
      8. 5.8. Building the Tongue
        1. 5.8.1. Shaping a Basic Tongue
        2. 5.8.2. A More Refined Tongue
      9. 5.9. The Mouth Wall
    3. 6. Mouth Keys
      1. 6.1. Order of Operations
      2. 6.2. Preparing to Build a Key Set
        1. 6.2.1. Key Set Construction
      3. 6.3. Default Shapes, Additive Shapes, and Tapering
        1. 6.3.1. Additive Shapes Explained
          1. 6.3.1.1. There Are No Shapes, Only Differences
        2. 6.3.2. Tapering: Subtraction of Shapes
          1. 6.3.2.1. Subtraction
          2. 6.3.2.2. Inversing and Tapering
          3. 6.3.2.3. Forks (Tapering the Tapers)
          4. 6.3.2.4. Scrunch = Lots
        3. 6.3.3. The Default Shape Is Bored. Period.
        4. 6.3.4. Deciding What to Include
        5. 6.3.5. What to Build?
        6. 6.3.6. Binding Sufficiently for Building
      4. 6.4. Building the Shapes
        1. 6.4.1. Open
        2. 6.4.2. Smile / Wide
          1. 6.4.2.1. Basic Ingredients
          2. 6.4.2.2. Advanced Ingredients
          3. 6.4.2.3. Style
        3. 6.4.3. Narrow / OO
          1. 6.4.3.1. Basic Ingredients
          2. 6.4.3.2. Advanced Ingredients
          3. 6.4.3.3. Cartoon Style
          4. 6.4.3.4. Snouts
        4. 6.4.4. Upper Lip Up
          1. 6.4.4.1. Basic Ingredients
          2. 6.4.4.2. Advanced Ingredient: Path
          3. 6.4.4.3. Cartoon Style
        5. 6.4.5. Upper Lip Down
          1. 6.4.5.1. Basic Ingredients
          2. 6.4.5.2. Advanced Ingredients
          3. 6.4.5.3. Cartoons/Snouts
        6. 6.4.6. Lower Lip Down
          1. 6.4.6.1. Basic Ingredients
        7. 6.4.7. Lower Lip Up
        8. 6.4.8. Frown
          1. 6.4.8.1. Basic Ingredients
          2. 6.4.8.2. Advanced Ingredients
          3. 6.4.8.3. Cartoon Style
        9. 6.4.9. Sneer
          1. 6.4.9.1. Basic Ingredients
          2. 6.4.9.2. Advanced Ingredient: Path
          3. 6.4.9.3. Cartoon Style
        10. 6.4.10. Joint-Built or Soft-Mod Shapes
          1. 6.4.10.1. Mouth Move Left/Right
          2. 6.4.10.2. Jaw Left/Right Forward/Back
        11. 6.4.11. The Tongue
  8. III. Animating and Modeling the Eyes and Brows
    1. 7. Building Emotion: The Basics of the Eyes
      1. 7.1. Building an Upper Face for Practice
        1. 7.1.1. Modeling the Pieces
          1. 7.1.1.1. The Face
          2. 7.1.1.2. The Brows
          3. 7.1.1.3. The Upper Lids
          4. 7.1.1.4. The Lower Lids
          5. 7.1.1.5. The Eyeballs
        2. 7.1.2. Parenting Our Face Together
        3. 7.1.3. Rigging Our Face
          1. 7.1.3.1. Creating Our Control
          2. 7.1.3.2. Rigging the Face Control
            1. 7.1.3.2.1. IF BY EXPRESSIONS
            2. 7.1.3.2.2. IF BY UTILITY NODES
          3. 7.1.3.3. Rigging the Eye Control
            1. 7.1.3.3.1. IF BY EXPRESSIONS
            2. 7.1.3.3.2. IF BY UTILITY NODES
          4. 7.1.3.4. Rigging the Upper Lids
            1. 7.1.3.4.1. IF BY EXPRESSION
            2. 7.1.3.4.2. IF BY UTILITY NODES
          5. 7.1.3.5. Rigging the Lower Lids
            1. 7.1.3.5.1. IF BY EXPRESSION
            2. 7.1.3.5.2. IF BY UTILITY NODES
          6. 7.1.3.6. Rigging the Brows Up/Down
            1. 7.1.3.6.1. IF BY EXPRESSION
            2. 7.1.3.6.2. IF BY UTILITY NODES
          7. 7.1.3.7. Brow Emotion!
            1. 7.1.3.7.1. IF BY EXPRESSION
            2. 7.1.3.7.2. IF BY UTILITY NODES
          8. 7.1.3.8. Updating the Mouth Rigging
            1. 7.1.3.8.1. IF BY EXPRESSIONS
            2. 7.1.3.8.2. IF BY UTILITY NODES
      2. 7.2. Using "Box Head"
      3. 7.3. Rules of the Game
        1. 7.3.1. Eye Rules: Focus and Distraction
          1. 7.3.1.1. Focus and Motion
          2. 7.3.1.2. Timing
          3. 7.3.1.3. Involuntary Distraction Is the Enemy of Performance
        2. 7.3.2. Brow Rules
          1. 7.3.2.1. Limit Your Range
          2. 7.3.2.2. Darting Motion
          3. 7.3.2.3. Sometimes the Best Shape Is No Shape
        3. 7.3.3. Order of Operations
          1. 7.3.3.1. Sync
          2. 7.3.3.2. Head Tilt
          3. 7.3.3.3. Eyes
          4. 7.3.3.4. Eyelids
          5. 7.3.3.5. Brows
          6. 7.3.3.6. Finesse
      4. 7.4. Example Animations
        1. 7.4.1. "What Am I Sayin' in Here?"
          1. 7.4.1.1. Head Tilt
          2. 7.4.1.2. Eyes
          3. 7.4.1.3. Eyelids
          4. 7.4.1.4. Brows
          5. 7.4.1.5. Finesse
        2. 7.4.2. Beautiful Perfect
          1. 7.4.2.1. Head Tilt
          2. 7.4.2.2. Eyes
          3. 7.4.2.3. Eyelids
          4. 7.4.2.4. Brows
          5. 7.4.2.5. Finesse
        3. 7.4.3. Default Grey
          1. 7.4.3.1. Head Tilt
          2. 7.4.3.2. Eyes
          3. 7.4.3.3. Eyelids
          4. 7.4.3.4. Brows
          5. 7.4.3.5. Finesse
      5. 7.5. Continuing and Practicing
    2. 8. Constructing Eyes and Brows
      1. 8.1. Building Eyeballs
        1. 8.1.1. Two Ways to Model the Pupil
          1. 8.1.1.1. Sculpt the Pupil from the Eyeball
          2. 8.1.1.2. Cut a Hole
        2. 8.1.2. Building the Cornea
      2. 8.2. Building the Eye Sockets
        1. 8.2.1. Creating the Tear Duct
        2. 8.2.2. Detailing the Inside of the Lid
        3. 8.2.3. Building the Remaining Eye Area
      3. 8.3. Building the Brow and Forehead
        1. 8.3.1. Sliding Skin
        2. 8.3.2. Dealing with Nose Edge Density
          1. 8.3.2.1. Straight-Through
          2. 8.3.2.2. Up-N-Over
        3. 8.3.3. Geometry versus Texture Wrinkles
          1. 8.3.3.1. The Four-Point Crease Profile
        4. 8.3.4. Brow Hair
          1. 8.3.4.1. For Fur or PaintFX Eyebrows
          2. 8.3.4.2. The Fur on the Model from this Book
    3. 9. Eye and Brow Keys
      1. 9.1. Brow Shapes and Texture Maps
        1. 9.1.1. UV Mapping
          1. 9.1.1.1. Cylindrical Mapping
          2. 9.1.1.2. Cleanup
        2. 9.1.2. Faking Deformation
          1. 9.1.2.1. What Is a Bump Map?
          2. 9.1.2.2. What Is a Displacement Map?
          3. 9.1.2.3. What Is a Normal Map?
        3. 9.1.3. Stringing Multiple Maps Together
          1. 9.1.3.1. Controlling the Map Blend
          2. 9.1.3.2. Adding More Maps
          3. 9.1.3.3. Displacement, Normal, or Color Variations
      2. 9.2. Building Realistic Brow Shapes
        1. 9.2.1. browsOutUp
        2. 9.2.2. browsOutDn
        3. 9.2.3. browsMidUp
        4. 9.2.4. browsMidDn
        5. 9.2.5. browsSqueeze
        6. 9.2.6. Squint
        7. 9.2.7. Blinks
      3. 9.3. Tying Up Loose Ends
        1. 9.3.1. Asymmetry (Tapering)
        2. 9.3.2. Pupil Dilation Keys
  9. IV. Bringing It Together
    1. 10. Connecting the Features
      1. 10.1. Building the Ear
        1. 10.1.1. Bottom of the Ear
        2. 10.1.2. Preparing the Ear to Join with the Head
          1. 10.1.2.1. Finishing with One Continuous Outside Edge
          2. 10.1.2.2. Making More of the Head
      2. 10.2. Assembling the Head Pieces
        1. 10.2.1. Mirroring: Working on Half of the Head
        2. 10.2.2. Building the Rest of the Head
          1. 10.2.2.1. Finishing the Neck
          2. 10.2.2.2. Mirroring
        3. 10.2.3. Silhouetting the Chin
    2. 11. Skeletal Setup, Weighting, and Rigging
      1. 11.1. Skeleton
        1. 11.1.1. Shape-Based Rig
          1. 11.1.1.1. Head and Neck
          2. 11.1.1.2. Jaw
        2. 11.1.2. Joint-Based Setup
          1. 11.1.2.1. The Jaw and Sub-Jaws
            1. 11.1.2.1.1. CREATING A SUB-JAW
            2. 11.1.2.1.2. USING SUB-JAWS
          2. 11.1.2.2. Skeleton Resolutions
            1. 11.1.2.2.1. TOP-SHELF (400)
            2. 11.1.2.2.2. HIGH-INTERMEDIATE (250)
            3. 11.1.2.2.3. MIDDLE-OF-THE-ROAD (125)
            4. 11.1.2.2.4. THE GAME CUT SCENE (50)
            5. 11.1.2.2.5. THE IN-GAME (20)
          3. 11.1.2.3. Animation Rig vs. Bind Rig
      2. 11.2. Eyelid Rigs
        1. 11.2.1. Eye Aim/Anim Setup
        2. 11.2.2. Joint Lid Setup
          1. 11.2.2.1. Hierarchy
          2. 11.2.2.2. Tracking
          3. 11.2.2.3. Lid Controls
          4. 11.2.2.4. Finishing Up
        3. 11.2.3. Shape Lids
          1. 11.2.3.1. Control Object and Attributes
          2. 11.2.3.2. Lower Lid Shapes
          3. 11.2.3.3. Upper Lid Shapes
          4. 11.2.3.4. Making Room for the Blink Shape
          5. 11.2.3.5. Lid Collisions
          6. 11.2.3.6. Send In the Blinks!
          7. 11.2.3.7. Combining Anim and Track Values
          8. 11.2.3.8. Finishing Up
      3. 11.3. Extra Eye Fun
        1. 11.3.1. Squishy Eyes
        2. 11.3.2. Cornea Bump
      4. 11.4. Sticky Lips
        1. 11.4.1. Shared Steps
          1. 11.4.1.1. Getting Tweaks Out of the Way
          2. 11.4.1.2. Making the Sticky Object
          3. 11.4.1.3. Making the Loft
        2. 11.4.2. Manual Steps
          1. 11.4.2.1. Getting Top and Bottom Positions
          2. 11.4.2.2. Resolving the Sticky Position
          3. 11.4.2.3. Controlling Stickiness
          4. 11.4.2.4. Rinse, Repeat
          5. 11.4.2.5. Driving Vertices with StickyPos
          6. 11.4.2.6. Sticky Control Driven Keys
        3. 11.4.3. Using the Tools
          1. 11.4.3.1. Make Stickers
          2. 11.4.3.2. Load Verts
          3. 11.4.3.3. Load Stickers
          4. 11.4.3.4. Link Verts to Stickers
          5. 11.4.3.5. Default Zips
          6. 11.4.3.6. Refining the Links
    3. 12. Interfaces for Your Faces
      1. 12.1. The Two Big Problems of Facial Control
        1. 12.1.1. Reduction
          1. 12.1.1.1. Visemes
          2. 12.1.1.2. Tapering
          3. 12.1.1.3. Interface Exclusivity
          4. 12.1.1.4. Dominance
        2. 12.1.2. Corrective and Contextual Shapes
      2. 12.2. Buffer Networks
        1. 12.2.1. Demo Blend
        2. 12.2.2. Building the First Half
          1. 12.2.2.1. Blasting Attributes
          2. 12.2.2.2. Connections: For Real This Time
          3. 12.2.2.3. Changing the Range from 0–1 to 0–10
        3. 12.2.3. Building the Second Half
          1. 12.2.3.1. Node Rundown
            1. 12.2.3.1.1. WIDGETS
            2. 12.2.3.1.2. DIRECT
            3. 12.2.3.1.3. INTERNALA AND INTERNALB
            4. 12.2.3.1.4. SUPERDIRECT
            5. 12.2.3.1.5. FINAL
            6. 12.2.3.1.6. VOLUME
          2. 12.2.3.2. Clamp Nodes
        4. 12.2.4. Sharing Setups
          1. 12.2.4.1. Mismatched Shape Names
          2. 12.2.4.2. In-Scene Sharing
          3. 12.2.4.3. Eyes, Lids, and Sticky Lips
        5. 12.2.5. Chicken-and-Egg Problems
      3. 12.3. Sliders
        1. 12.3.1. Making the Widget
          1. 12.3.1.1. Compass Output
            1. 12.3.1.1.1. NORTH/SOUTH
            2. 12.3.1.1.2. EAST/WEST
          2. 12.3.1.2. Corners
            1. 12.3.1.2.1. THE NORTHEAST CORNER
            2. 12.3.1.2.2. THE NORTHWEST CORNER
            3. 12.3.1.2.3. THEORY BREAK 1
            4. 12.3.1.2.4. THE SOUTHEAST CORNER
            5. 12.3.1.2.5. THE SOUTHWEST CORNER
            6. 12.3.1.2.6. THEORY BREAK 2
          3. 12.3.1.3. Tidying Up
        2. 12.3.2. Using the Widget
          1. 12.3.2.1. Widgets for Eyes, Lids, and Sticky Lips
          2. 12.3.2.2. Buffer Networks
        3. 12.3.3. Separate Viewport
      4. 12.4. Skeletal Control
        1. 12.4.1. Smile
          1. 12.4.1.1. Reset the Pose
          2. 12.4.1.2. Cleanup
        2. 12.4.2. Brows Out Up
        3. 12.4.3. Wrinkle Maps
      5. 12.5. Layered Controls
        1. 12.5.1. Phonemes
          1. 12.5.1.1. A_I
          2. 12.5.1.2. E
          3. 12.5.1.3. O and U
          4. 12.5.1.4. Cleanup
        2. 12.5.2. Buffer Network Locations
          1. 12.5.2.1. The End
          2. 12.5.2.2. Widgets
          3. 12.5.2.3. Parallel to Widgets and Direct
        3. 12.5.3. Implications
      6. 12.6. Corrective, Contextual, XYZ, Half, and Dominant Shapes
        1. 12.6.1. Dominant Shapes
        2. 12.6.2. Correctives and Contextual Shapes
          1. 12.6.2.1. Correctives
            1. 12.6.2.1.1. SCULPT
            2. 12.6.2.1.2. EXTRACT
            3. 12.6.2.1.3. HOOKUP
            4. 12.6.2.1.4. ADVANCED USAGE
          2. 12.6.2.2. Contextuals
        3. 12.6.3. XYZs and Halves
          1. 12.6.3.1. Half Shapes
          2. 12.6.3.2. XYZ Shapes
      7. 12.7. Just Interface Me
    4. 13. Squash, Stretch, and Secondaries
      1. 13.1. Local Rigs
        1. 13.1.1. Joints
          1. 13.1.1.1. Eye and Eyelid Joints
        2. 13.1.2. Separate the Big Blends
      2. 13.2. Global Rigs
        1. 13.2.1. Separating out the "Special" Objects
          1. 13.2.1.1. Lattices
          2. 13.2.1.2. Wraps
        2. 13.2.2. Plugging B, C, D... into A
          1. 13.2.2.1. The Elastigirl Parachute
      3. 13.3. The "Real" Character Has No Rig!
        1. 13.3.1. Anytime You Rig Something, It's Just a Plug
      4. 13.4. Not Using Wraps Changes a Few Things
        1. 13.4.1. Point-Level Rigging
        2. 13.4.2. No Parenting to Joints
      5. 13.5. Tutorial: Rigging Squoosh
        1. 13.5.1.
          1. 13.5.1.1. Taper Big Shapes
          2. 13.5.1.2. Make a Skeleton
          3. 13.5.1.3. Identify "Specials"
          4. 13.5.1.4. Create Lattices
          5. 13.5.1.5. Make Wraps
          6. 13.5.1.6. Hierarchies
          7. 13.5.1.7. Making the Teeth Behave
          8. 13.5.1.8. Adding More Rigs: The Real Fun
      6. 13.6. Gotchas
        1. 13.6.1.
          1. 13.6.1.1. Pivot Location
          2. 13.6.1.2. Tooth Line and Tooth Scale
          3. 13.6.1.3. Limiting
          4. 13.6.1.4. Deformation Order
      7. 13.7. Secondaries
        1. 13.7.1. Creating the Secondary Rig
        2. 13.7.2. Hooking It All Up
          1. 13.7.2.1. Duplicate the Skeleton
          2. 13.7.2.2. Pin to the Mesh
          3. 13.7.2.3. Double-Transform Fix
          4. 13.7.2.4. Orientation
          5. 13.7.2.5. Closing Notes
    5. 14. A Shot in Production
      1. 14.1. Scene 1: Bartender
        1. 14.1.1. Sync Special Cases
        2. 14.1.2. Head Tilts
        3. 14.1.3. Eyes
        4. 14.1.4. Lids
        5. 14.1.5. Brows
        6. 14.1.6. Mouth Emotion
        7. 14.1.7. Other Tilts and Finesse
      2. 14.2. Scene 2: Lack of Dialogue
        1. 14.2.1. Sync Special Cases
          1. 14.2.1.1. "That's the way it is sometimes."
          2. 14.2.1.2. The Cough
          3. 14.2.1.3. Neighborhood
          4. 14.2.1.4. Character Two
        2. 14.2.2. Head Tilts
        3. 14.2.3. Eyes
          1. 14.2.3.1. Character Two
        4. 14.2.4. Lids
        5. 14.2.5. Brows
        6. 14.2.6. Mouth Emotion
        7. 14.2.7. Other Tilts and Finesse
      3. 14.3. Scene 3: Dunce Cap
        1. 14.3.1. What Order to Do Things?
        2. 14.3.2. Your Process with This Scene
      4. 14.4. Scene 4: Salty Old Sea Captain
        1. 14.4.1. Sync Special Cases
        2. 14.4.2. Head Tilts
        3. 14.4.3. Eyes
        4. 14.4.4. Lids
        5. 14.4.5. Brows
        6. 14.4.6. Mouth Emotion
        7. 14.4.7. Other Tilts and Finesse
      5. 14.5. Scene 5: Pink or Blue?
        1. 14.5.1. Sync Special Cases
          1. 14.5.1.1. Toon Sync Differences
          2. 14.5.1.2. Hitting the "Clicks"
          3. 14.5.1.3. Use Smiles and Frowns in Your Sync When You've Got the Time
          4. 14.5.1.4. Exaggerated Closeds
        2. 14.5.2. Tilts
        3. 14.5.3. Eyes
        4. 14.5.4. Lids
        5. 14.5.5. Brows
        6. 14.5.6. Mouth Emotion
        7. 14.5.7. Other Tilts
      6. 14.6. Scene 6: Great Life
        1. 14.6.1. What Order to Do Things?
        2. 14.6.2. Your Process with This Scene
      7. 14.7. That's All, Folks!