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Step-by-Step Programming with Base SAS 9.4 by SAS Institute

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Character values
This section illustrates the flexibility that SAS provides for manipulating character values. In addition to the functions that are described in this section, the following character functions are also frequently used:
COMPBL
removes multiple blanks from a character string.
COMPRESS
removes specified character(s) from the source.
INDEX
searches the source data for a pattern of characters.
LOWCASE
converts all letters in an argument to lowercase.
RIGHT
right-aligns the source.
SUBSTR
extracts a group of characters.
TRANSLATE
replaces specific characters in a character expression.
UPCASE
returns the source data in uppercase.
The INDEX and UPCASE functions are discussed in Acting ...

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