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STEM Education

Book Description

Year after year, technology advances at an increasingly accelerated pace. In order to keep up with the demands of users and businesses alike, a comprehensive understanding of science and technology must be fostered in the next generation of innovators. STEM Education: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications brings together an impressive array of research on the development of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics curricula at all educational levels. This comprehensive reference covers topics of interest for educators and students, as well as industry professionals, computer scientists, and engineering specialists in a wide variety of disciplines.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright Page
  4. Editorial Advisory Board and List of Reviewers
    1. Editor-in-Chief
    2. Associate Editors
    3. Editorial Advisory Board
  5. Preface
  6. Section 1: Fundamental Concepts and Theories
    1. Chapter 1: STEM in Early Childhood Education
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. MAIN FOCUS OF THE CHAPTER
      5. FINDINGS AND DISCUSSIONS
      6. RESEARCH TOPICS/ISSUES
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      12. ENDNOTES
    2. Chapter 2: Globalisation, Blended Learning, and Mathematics Education
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. MAIN FOCUS
      4. RECOMMENDATIONS
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTION
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    3. Chapter 3: Argumentation and Modeling
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. WHAT ARE ARGUMENTATION AND MODELING?
      4. WHAT SHOULD STUDENTS UNDERSTAND?
      5. INTEGRATING ARGUMENTATION AND MODELS
      6. INTEGRATING ARGUMENTATION AND MODELING
      7. DESIGN GUIDELINES FOR INTEGRATING MODELING AND ARGUMENTATION IN AGENT-BASED COMPUTATIONAL ENVIRONMENTS
      8. A CLOSER LOOK AT THE DISCURSIVE PRACTICES RELATED TO ARGUMENTATION IN THE INTEGRATED MODELING ENVIRONMENTS
      9. SUMMARY AND DISCUSSION
      10. REFERENCES
      11. ENDNOTES
    4. Chapter 4: Creating Open Source Lecture Materials
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. TRENDS IN OPEN COURSEWARE FOR INFORMATION SCIENCES
      3. 2. TRADEOFFS
      4. 3. TECHNIQUES FOR LECTURE MATERIAL PREPARATION
      5. 4. CASE STUDIES
      6. 5. EFFECTIVE PRACTICES FOR ENCOURAGING ADOPTION AND DISSEMINATION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ENDNOTES
    5. Chapter 5: Technological Advances and Teaching Innovation Applied to Health Science Education
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. REFERENCES
    6. Chapter 6: The Necessity of Shared Vision to Achieve Coherence
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. OVERVIEW
      3. DESCRIPTION OF THE PARTNERSHIP AND PARTICIPANTS
      4. THE IMPORTANCE OF INCLUDING DISTRICT LEADERS IN PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT
      5. CONFOUNDING FACTORS
      6. OUR FRAMEWORK FOR PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT
      7. EXAMPLE OF AN ACTIVITY
      8. DIFFERENCES AND SIMILARITIES BETWEEN GROUPS
      9. CONCLUSION/IMPLICATIONS
      10. REFERENCES
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    7. Chapter 7: Mathematics Acquisition and Immigrant Children
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKROUND
      4. STRENGTHS OF IMMIGRANT FAMILIES
      5. TEACHERS' MATHEMATICAL KNOWLEDGE
      6. A DEVELOPMENTALLY APPROPRIATE MATHEMATICS ENVIRONMENT
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    8. Chapter 8: Professionalising Natural Science Education and Multipronged Open Distance Learning
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. ADDRESSING ISSUES THROUGH MULTIPRONGED OPEN DISTANCE LEARNING
      4. CONCLUSION
      5. REFERENCES
      6. ENDNOTES
    9. Chapter 9: Constructing the Knowledge Society
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF KNOWLEDGE SOCIETY IN CHINA
      4. CHINA’S INITIATIVES AND PRACTICES IN BUILDING A KNOWLEDGE SOCIETY
      5. STATUS QUO OF KNOWLEDGE SOCIETY IN CHINA
      6. CHINA’S EXPERIENCES AND EXAMPLE FOR AFRICA
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      12. ENDNOTES
    10. Chapter 10: The Infusion of Technology into Teacher Education Programs
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. THE INFUSION OF TECHNOLOGY INTO TEACHER EDUCATION PROGRAMS
      3. THE TECHNOLOGY INTEGRATION IN TEACHER TRAINING PROGRAMS
      4. STANDARDS IN EDUCATION
      5. QUALITY TEACHER EDUCATION PROGRAMS
      6. CHAPTER SUMMARY
      7. REFERENCES
    11. Chapter 11: Active Learning of Science in the European Dimension
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. ACTIVE LEARNING OF SCIENCE IN EUROPEAN DIMENSION
      5. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    12. Chapter 12: Supporting Mathematical Communication through Technology
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. ROLE OF DYNAMIC REPRESENTATIONS IN CLASSROOMS
      5. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION
      6. IMPLICATIONS, CHALLENGES, FUTURE DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    13. Chapter 13: Gestural Articulations of Embodied Spatiality
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. EMBODIED SENSE-MAKING AND GESTURES
      4. GESTURES IN CLASSROOM DISCURSIVE PRACTICE
      5. THE CENTAURI LEARNING PROGRAMME
      6. RESEARCH
      7. OBSERVATIONS FROM A STUDY OF GESTURE DURING STUDENTS’ SENSE-MAKING
      8. ESTABLISHING A SHARED FRAME OF REFERENCE
      9. ENACTING EMBODIED GAME EXPERIENCE
      10. ENABLING DEVELOPMENT OF NEW UNDERSTANDING THAT SURPASSES STUDENTS’ EXISTING VOCABULARY
      11. DISCUSSION
      12. CONCLUSION
      13. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      14. REFERENCES
    14. Chapter 14: Dynamical Software and the Derivative Concept
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. THE DERIVATIVE CONCEPT
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
    15. Chapter 15: Curriculum Contents of Digital Library Education (DLE) in Europe
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LITERATURE REVIEW
      4. METHODOLOGY
      5. FINDINGS OF THE STUDY
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      8. REFERENCES
      9. APPENDIX
    16. Chapter 16: Strategy Instruction and Maintenance of Basic Multiplication Facts through Digital Game Play
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. METHODS
      4. RESULTS
      5. DISCUSSION
      6. FUTURE DIRECTIONS
      7. REFERENCES
  7. Section 2: Tools and Technologies
    1. Chapter 17: Technology in Mathematics Education
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. TYPES OF TECHNOLOGIES AFFECTING STUDENT LEARNING IN MATHEMATICS EDUCATION
      4. TECHNOLOGY INTEGRATED INTO THE CURRICULUM
      5. TECHNOLOGY AS MOTIVATOR
      6. TECHNOLOGY AND THE FUTURE
      7. REFERENCES
    2. Chapter 18: Teaching Mathematics with Tablet PCs
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. STUDY DESCRIPTION
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    3. Chapter 19: Using Educational Computer Games for Science Teaching
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. METHODS
      4. RESULTS
      5. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION
      6. LIMITATIONS
      7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      8. REFERENCES
    4. Chapter 20: Online Simulator Use in the Preparing Chemical Engineers
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CONTEMPORARY UNIVERSITY LEARNERS
      4. EFFECTIVE TEACHING STRATEGIES
      5. TRANSFORMING THE ENGINEERING LEARNING ENVIRONMENT
      6. METHODOLOGY
      7. DATA ANALYSIS
      8. FINDINGS
      9. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS
      10. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      11. REFERENCES
      12. APPENDIX A
      13. APPENDIX B
    5. Chapter 21: Using Technology to Engage Students with the Standards for Mathematical Practice
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THEORETICAL BACKGROUND
      4. USING TOOLS STRATEGICALLY IN A DGS ENVIRONMENT
      5. CHOOSING APPROPRIATE TOOLS
      6. THE ROLE OF INSTRUMENTAL GENESIS
      7. IMPLICATIONS, CHALLENGES, FUTURE DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      12. ENDNOTES
    6. Chapter 22: Facebook as an Educational Environment for Mathematics Learning
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. MAIN FOCUS OF THE CHAPTER: EXPERIMENTING WITH MATHEMATICS LEARNING IN SOCIAL NETWORKING SITES
      5. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS: WHAT WE LEARNED FROM OUR EXPERIMENTS
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    7. Chapter 23: The GeoGebra Institute of Torino, Italy
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. THE GEOGEBRA INSTITUTE OF TORINO
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. RESEARCH ON DYNAMIC GEOMETRY SOFTWARE
      5. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    8. Chapter 24: Web-Based Simulations for the Training of Mathematics Teachers
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. BACKGROUND TO THE CASE STUDY
      3. SETTING THE STAGE
      4. CASE DESCRIPTION
      5. CURRENT CHALLENGES FACING THE ORGANIZATION
      6. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      7. REFERENCES
    9. Chapter 25: Experiences in Usability Evaluation of Educational Programming Tools
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. BACKGROUND
      4. 3. THE SREC SYSTEM
      5. 4. THE GREEDEX SYSTEM
      6. 5. LESSONS LEARNED
      7. 6. CONCLUSION
      8. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    10. Chapter 26: Mobile Technology in Higher Education
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. OVERVIEW OF LITERATURE
      4. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
      5. IMPLEMENTATION
      6. THE ROLE OF CONFOUNDING VARIABLES
      7. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      11. ENDNOTES
    11. Chapter 27: Flying a Math Class?
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. THE STUDY
      5. RESEARCH FINDINGS
      6. DISCUSSION AND FURTHER CONSIDERATIONS
      7. FURTHER RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    12. Chapter 28: A Tool for Analyzing Science Standards and Curricula for 21st Century Science Education
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CONCEPTUAL BASIS
      4. TOOL FOR ANALYZING SCIENCE STANDARDS AND CURRICULA (TASSC)
      5. CASE STUDIES USING TASSC
      6. DISCUSSION
      7. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ENDNOTES
    13. Chapter 29: Self-Regulated Learning as the Enabling Environment to Enhance Outcome-Based Education of Undergraduate Engineering Mathematics
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE TEACHING AND LEARNING SITUATION MODEL
      4. CREATING THE SELF-REGULATED LEARNING ENVIRONMENT
      5. CONSTRUCTIVE ALIGNMENT
      6. METHODOLOGY
      7. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      10. REFERENCES
  8. Section 3: Frameworks and Methodologies
    1. Chapter 30: Multiple Perspectives for the Study of Teaching
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. PURPOSE
      4. ASSUMPTIONS ABOUT TEACHER KNOWLEDGE
      5. TEACHING AND TEACHER KNOWLEDGE: FURTHER CONCEPTUALIZATIONS
      6. GENERAL IMPLICATIONS
      7. CONCLUDING THOUGHTS AND CHALLENGES AHEAD
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ENDNOTES
    2. Chapter 31: Learning about the Different Dimensions of Sustainability by Applying the Product Test Method in Science Classes
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. SETTING THE STAGE
      4. CASE STUDY
      5. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      6. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      7. REFERENCES
    3. Chapter 32: Providing Elementary and Middle School Science Teachers with Content and Pedagogical Professional Development in an Online Environment
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. STUDY CONTEXT AND METHODS
      5. STUDY RESULTS AND FINDINGS
      6. DISCUSSION
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSION
      9. AUTHOR NOTE
      10. REFERENCES
      11. ADDITIONAL READING
      12. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    4. Chapter 33: Implementing the Understanding by Design Framework in Higher Education
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. ORGANIZATION BACKGROUND
      3. SETTING THE STAGE
      4. CASE DESCRIPTION
      5. CURRENT CHALLENGES FACING THE ORGANIZATION
      6. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    5. Chapter 34: Designing and Teaching an Online Elementary Mathematics Methods Course
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. OVERVIEW
      4. METHODS OF EVALUATING THE COURSE
      5. DATA ANALYSIS
      6. FINDINGS
      7. DISCUSSION AND IMPLICATIONS
      8. CONCLUDING THOUGHTS
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    6. Chapter 35: Sustainability in Higher Education through Basic Science Research
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CURRENT STATUS OF HIGHER EDUCATION AND BASIC RESEARCH IN INDIA
      4. PHARMACEUTICAL GLOBALIZATION AND DRUG DISCOVERY RESEARCH
      5. PHARMACY EDUCATION AND IMPACT ON PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRIES
      6. NEED FOR INDUSTRY-ORIENTED TRAINING FOR PHARMACIST
      7. DEVELOPMENTS IN THE BASIC SCIENCE RESEARCH IN THE CONTEXT OF HIGHER EDUCATION
      8. ADVANTAGES OF INTEGRATING BASIC SCIENCE RESEARCH PROGRAM
      9. SCOPE FOR IMPROVEMENT AND FUTURE PERSPECTIVES
      10. CONCLUSION
      11. REFERENCES
    7. Chapter 36: cSELF (Computer Science Education from Life)
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. THE NEED FOR BROADENING PARTICIPATION
      3. 2. THE ROLE OF CULTURALLY SITUATED EDUCATION
      4. 3. COMPUTER SCIENCE EDUCATION FROM LIFE (cSELF)
      5. 4. THE cSELF PROGRAM
      6. 5. DESIGN AGENCY
      7. 6. THE RELEVANCE OF cSELF’S CURRICULUM TO COMPUTER SCIENCE EDUCATION STANDARDS
      8. 7. THE ARTS-COMPUTING DISCONNECT: WHY WE NEED THE cSELF PROGRAM
      9. 8. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
    8. Chapter 37: TPACK Pathways that Facilitate CCSS Implementation for Secondary Mathematics Teacher Candidates
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. MOVING TEACHER CANDIDATES ALONG TPACK PATHWAYS TO SUPPORT CCSS-M IMPLEMENTATION
      5. IMPLICATIONS, CHALLENGES, AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    9. Chapter 38: Bridging the Academia-Industry Gap in Software Engineering
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. MOTIVATION
      3. INTRODUCTION TO THE CO-FOSS MODEL
      4. STEPS TO DEVELOPING AND DELIVERING A CO-FOSS COURSE
      5. CASE STUDIES: THE EXPERIENCE AT THREE SCHOOLS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      10. APPENDIX: CO-FOSS RESOURCES
    10. Chapter 39: Improving Learning Strategies for Mathematics through E-Learning
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. AN EXPERIENCE OF A BLENDED COURSE
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    11. Chapter 40: Collaboration Not Competition
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. COLLABORATION NOT COMPETITION: INTERNATIONAL EDUCATION EXPANDING PERSPECTIVES ON LEARNING AND WORKFORCE ARTICULATION
      3. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
      4. DEVELOPING INTERNATIONAL PROGRAMS TO BENEFIT TEACHING AND LEARNING
      5. OUTCOMES OF INTERNATIONAL COLLABORATION
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      9. REFERENCES
    12. Chapter 41: Active Learning, Mentoring, and Mobile Technology
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. OVERVIEW OF THE LITERATURE
      4. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
      5. RESULTS
      6. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      10. ENDNOTES
    13. Chapter 42: Using Project-Based Learning to Teach Sustainability Issues to Elementary Students
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. ORGANIZATION BACKGROUND
      4. SETTING THE STAGE
      5. CASE DESCRIPTION
      6. CURRENT CHALLENGES FACING THE ORGANIZATION
      7. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      8. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
      11. APPENDIX A: CONTENT ASSESSMENT
      12. APPENDIX B: STUDENT FOCUS GROUP INTERVIEW QUESTIONS
    14. Chapter 43: Integration of the Computer Games into Early Childhood Education Pre-Service Teachers' Mathematics Teaching
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. MATHEMATICS EDUCATION IN EARLY CHILDHOOD
      4. EDUCATIONAL COMPUTER GAMES: WHY AND HOW TO USE THEM
      5. THE COURSE DESIGN
      6. FUTURE TRENDS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    15. Chapter 44: Linking Education to Creating a Knowledge Society
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND: CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK OF THE KNOWLEDGE ECONOMY
      4. EDUCATION AND THE KNOWLEDGE ECONOMY IN QATAR
      5. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  9. Section 4: Cases and Applications
    1. Chapter 45: 3D Multi-User Virtual Environments in Science Education
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. POTENTIAL OF 3D MUVE IN SCIENCE EDUCATION
      5. CHALLENGES OF USING 3D MUVE IN SCIENCE EDUCATION
      6. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR IMPLEMENTATION
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    2. Chapter 46: Learning about Sustainability in a Non-Formal Laboratory Context for Secondary Level Students
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. ORGANIZATION BACKGROUND
      4. SETTING THE STAGE
      5. AN EXEMPLARY CASE IN PRACTICE: CHEMISTRY OF THE ATMOSPHERE
      6. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      8. REFERENCES
    3. Chapter 47: Analysis of Discourse Practices in Elementary Science Classrooms using Argument-Based Inquiry during Whole-Class Dialogue
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. ARGUMENTATION IN PRACTICE
      4. SCIENTIFIC ARGUMENTATION IN CLASSROOMS
      5. SUSTAINED UNDERSTANDING AND PEDAGOGICAL PRACTICE OF SCIENTIFIC ARGUMENTATION
      6. ELEMENTS OF CONVERSATIONAL DIALOGUE
      7. METHODOLOGY AND PARTICIPANTS
      8. RESULTS
      9. SUMMARY OF LOW IMPLEMENTATION
      10. SUMMARY OF MEDIUM LEVEL IMPLEMENTATION
      11. SUMMARY OF HIGH LEVEL IMPLEMENTATION
      12. DISCUSSION
      13. CONCLUSION
      14. REFERENCES
    4. Chapter 48: A Research of Employing Cognitive Load Theory in Science Education via Web-Pages
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. MATERIAL AND METHODS
      4. FUNCTIONS OF THE SCIENCE EDUCATION AND LEARNING WEB
      5. RESEARCH OF THE EXPERIMENT
      6. RESULTS
      7. DISCUSSION
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
    5. Chapter 49: A Comparative Study on Undergraduate Computer Science Education between China and the United States
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. UNDERGRADUATE COMPUTER SCIENCE EDUCATION IN THE UNITED STATES
      4. 3. UNDERGRADUATE COMPUTER SCIENCE EDUCATION IN CHINA
      5. 4. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF COMPUTER SCIENCE PROGRAMS BETWEEN CHINA AND THE UNITED STATES
      6. 5. CONCLUDING REMARKS
      7. 6. FUTURE WORK
      8. REFERENCES
    6. Chapter 50: Teaching a Socially Controversial Scientific Subject
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CONCLUSION
      4. REFERENCES
    7. Chapter 51: The Role of Authentic Science Research and Education Outreach in Increasing Community Resilience
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. ORGANIZATIONAL BACKGROUND
      3. CASE STUDIES
      4. REFERENCES
    8. Chapter 52: Teaching Political Science Students to Find and Evaluate Information in the Social Media Flow
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. EVALUATING POLITICAL SCIENCE INFORMATION IN A WORLD OF CHANGING EXPERTISE
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      10. ENDNOTES
    9. Chapter 53: Subject Specialization and Science Teachers' Perception of Information and Communication Technology for Instruction in Kwara State
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. RESULTS
      4. DISCUSSION
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. RECOMMENDATIONS
      7. REFERENCES
    10. Chapter 54: Enhancing Diversity in STEM Interdisciplinary Learning
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. ORGANIZATION BACKGROUND
      3. U.S. STEM PLIGHT AND MINORITIES
      4. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      5. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      6. REFERENCES
      7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    11. Chapter 55: Improving Novice Programmers' Skills through Playability and Pattern Discovery
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. GAME BUILDING WORKSHOP
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    12. Chapter 56: Viewing the Implementation of the CCSS through the Lens of One Transformative District-University Partnership
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. A BRIEF HISTORY
      4. COGNITIVE DEMAND
      5. THE STANDARDS FOR MATHEMATICAL PRACTICE: MP4: MODEL WITH MATHEMATICS AND MP5: USE APPROPRIATE TOOLS STRATEGICALLY
      6. LEADERSHIP
      7. TRANSITIONING TO THE COMMON CORE
      8. THE FUTURE
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    13. Chapter 57: Effects of Implementing STEM-I Project-Based Learning Activities for Female High School Students
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. RESEARCH MOTIVES
      3. 2. LITERATURE REVIEW
      4. 3. RESEARCH DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION
      5. 4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
      6. 5. CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTIONS
      7. REFERENCES
    14. Chapter 58: Collaborative Teams as a Means of Constructing Knowledge in the Life Sciences
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. ORGANIZATION BACKGROUND
      3. SETTING THE STAGE
      4. CASE DESCRIPTION
      5. CURRENT CHALLENGES FACING THE ORGANIZATION
      6. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    15. Chapter 59: Comparison of Two Classrooms
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. METHODOLOGY
      4. RESULTS
      5. ECOLOGY
      6. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    16. Chapter 60: Death in Rome
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. PRE-SERVICE TEACHERS AND GAME-BASED LEARNING
      4. CASE STUDY: PRE-SERVICE TEACHERS AND GAME-BASED INQUIRY LEARNING
      5. CURRICULUM CONTENT AND WORKSHOP DESIGN
      6. SUMMARY
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
    17. Chapter 61: English Language Learners' Online Science Learning
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. ORGANIZATION BACKGROUND
      3. SETTING THE STAGE
      4. CASE DESCRIPTION
      5. CURRENT CHALLENGES FACING THE ORGANIZATION
      6. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    18. Chapter 62: Earth System Science in Three Dimensions
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. ORGANIZATION BACKGROUND
      3. SETTING THE STAGE
      4. CASE DESCRIPTION
      5. STUDY DESIGN AND FINDINGS
      6. FINDINGS AND ANALYSIS
      7. CURRENT CHALLENGES FACING THE ORGANIZATION
      8. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    19. Chapter 63: Video Gaming for STEM Education
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. GAMEPLAY AND LEARNING
      3. STEM EDUCATION
      4. CONCLUSION
      5. REFERENCES
      6. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  10. Section 5: Issues and Challenges
    1. Chapter 64: Self-Regulated Learning as a Method to Develop Scientific Thinking
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE ROLE OF SCIENTIFIC THINKING IN SCIENCE EDUCATION
      4. INCORPORATING SCIENTIFIC THINKING INTO INSTRUCTION
      5. TEACHING EXPLICIT AND REFLECTIVE APPROACHES TO THE NATURE OF SCIENCE
      6. STUDENTS’ NOS KNOWLEDGE
      7. MECHANISMS OF EXPLICIT AND REFLECTIVE INSTRUCTION
      8. SELF-REGULATED LEARNING AND THE NATURE OF SCIENCE
      9. FORETHOUGHT
      10. PERFORMANCE
      11. SELF-REFLECTION
      12. COMPARING NAÏVE AND SKILLFUL SELF-REGULATED NOS LEARNERS
      13. EVIDENCE OF SELF-REGULATION OF NATURE OF SCIENCE KNOWLEDGE
      14. FUTURE OF NOS RESEARCH
      15. REFERENCES
    2. Chapter 65: A Novel Strategy to Improve STEM Education
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. PHILANDER SMITH COLLEGE AND E-SCIENCE SYSTEMS
      5. IMPROVING STEM EDUCATION: THE E-SCIENCE APPROACH
      6. FINDINGS
      7. FUTURE TRENDS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      10. REFERENCES
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    3. Chapter 66: Conceptual Mapping Facilitates Coherence and Critical Thinking in the Science Education System
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. BACKGROUND: CRITICAL THINKING, MEANINGFUL LEARNING, CONCEPTUAL MAPS, AND THE SCIENCE EDUCATION SYSTEM
      3. CONCEPTUAL MAPPING FACILITATES CRITICAL THINKING IN THE SCIENCE EDUCATION SYSTEM
      4. DISCUSSION
      5. REFERENCES
      6. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    4. Chapter 67: Using the Flipped Classroom Instructional Approach to Foster a Mathematics-Anxious-Friendly Learning Environment
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. METHOD AND RESEARCH FRAMEWORK
      5. RESEARCH FINDINGS: HERMENEUTIC THEMES
      6. INSTRUCTIONAL IMPLICATIONS INFORMED BY THE HERMENEUTIC THEMES
      7. IMPLEMENTING THE IMPLICATIONS IN THE FLIPPED CLASSROOM INSTRUCTION
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    5. Chapter 68: Pass, Fail, or Incomplete?
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. SETTING THE STAGE: THE DEPARTMENT
      4. SETTING THE STAGE: THE CLASSROOM
      5. CASE DESCRIPTION: METHODS
      6. CASE DESCRIPTION: RESULTS
      7. CASE DESCRIPTION: DISCUSSION
      8. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      9. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      10. CONCLUSION
      11. REFERENCES
    6. Chapter 69: Remote Access to Scientific Laboratory Equipment and Competency-Based Approach to Science and Technology Education
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. REVIEW OF LITERATURE
      4. KEY CHARACTERISTICS OF THE REMOTE ACCESS TO LABORATORY EQUIPMENT
      5. COMPETENCY BASED E-LEARNING
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
    7. Chapter 70: Rooted in Teaching
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. ROOTED IN TEACHING: DOES ENVIRONMENTAL SOCIALIZATION IMPACT TEACHERS’ INTEREST IN SCIENCE-RELATED TOPICS?
      3. LITERATURE REVIEW
      4. PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
      5. RESULTS
      6. DISCUSSION
      7. IMPLICATIONS
      8. LIMITATIONS AND FUTURE RESEARCH
      9. REFERENCES
    8. Chapter 71: Women's Roles
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. RECOMMENDATIONS
      5. FUTURE OF WOMEN’S ROLES IN TECHNOLOGY
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    9. Chapter 72: Using Technology in a Studio Approach to Learning
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. THE EXTENDED CASE STUDY
      5. DISCUSSION
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    10. Chapter 73: Developing an Online Mathematics Methods Course for Preservice Teachers
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. OVERVIEW
      3. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
      4. METHODOLOGY
      5. FINDINGS: MODIFICATIONS OF THE COURSE
      6. IMPLICATIONS AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
  11. Section 6: Emerging Trends
    1. Chapter 74: Opening Both Eyes
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. INTEGRATED GEOLOGICAL-BIOLOGICAL LEARNING: A HISTORICAL REFERENCE
      4. BENEFITS OF INTEGRATED SCIENTIFIC LEARNING: THE HUMAN CONSTRUCTIVIST VIEW
      5. INTEGRATED GEOLOGICAL-BIOLOGICAL LEARNING IN K-12, COLLEGE, AND INFORMAL EDUCATIONAL SETTINGS
      6. DISCUSSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR IMPLEMENTING A GEOLOGICAL-BIOLOGICAL APPROACH
      7. CHALLENGES AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS OF INTEGRATED GEOLOGICAL-BIOLOGICAL LEARNING
      8. REFERENCES
    2. Chapter 75: Pre-Service Teachers' Self-Efficacy and Attitudes toward Learning and Teaching Science in a Content Course
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. ORGANIZATION BACKGROUND
      3. SETTING THE STAGE
      4. CASE DESCRIPTION
      5. DISCUSSION
      6. CURRENT CHALLENGES FACING THIS RESEARCH
      7. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    3. Chapter 76: Developing Scientific Literacy
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. ORGANIZATION BACKGROUND
      3. SETTING THE STAGE
      4. CASE DESCRIPTION
      5. DISCUSSION
      6. CURRENT CHALLENGES FACING THIS RESEARCH
      7. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    4. Chapter 77: New Trends in Service Science and Education for Service Innovation
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. NEW DEFINITIONS OF SERVICE
      4. 3. NEW DIRECTIONS FOR SERVICE INNOVATION
      5. 4. SYSTEM’S APPROACH TO CREATION OF SERVICE VALUE
      6. 5. KNOWLEDGE SCIENCE RELATED TO ANALYSIS OF PEOPLE
      7. 6. EDUCATION FOR SERVICE INNOVATION - INNOVATION MANAGEMENT OF SERVICE AND TECHNOLOGY (iMOST) COURSE
      8. 7. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
    5. Chapter 78: K-20 Education in Relation to Library Science
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. MANIFESTATIONS OF LIBRARY SCIENCE IN K-20 EDUCATION
      5. THE POTENTIAL IMPACT OF LIBRARY SCIENCE ON K-20 EDUCATION
      6. CONDITIONS FOR OPTIMIZING LIBRARY SCIENCE IN K-20 EDUCATION
      7. FUTURE TRENDS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    6. Chapter 79: Blend the Lab Course, Flip the Responsibility
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. EXAMPLES OF OTHER COURSES
      5. METHODS
      6. FINDINGS
      7. DISCUSSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    7. Chapter 80: Presenting Physics Content and Fostering Creativity in Physics among Less-Academically Inclined Students through a Simple Design-Based Toy Project
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. LITERATURE REVIEW
      4. 3. METHODOLOGY
      5. SURVEY INSTRUMENT
      6. RESULTS
      7. VIEWS OF STUDENTS ABOUT THIS ACTIVITY
      8. DISCUSSION
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
      11. ADDITIONAL READING
      12. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    8. Chapter 81: Shaping the Librarian's Library
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. COLLECTION POLICY
      5. USERS OF LIS COLLECTIONS
      6. MATERIAL TYPES AND SOURCES
      7. REFERENCE MATERIALS
      8. IDENTIFYING CORE MATERIALS
      9. SELECTION STRATEGIES AND TOOLS
      10. CHALLENGES AND TRENDS
      11. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      12. CONCLUSION
      13. REFERENCES
      14. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    9. Chapter 82: Environmental Science Education in the 21st Century
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. TAKING A CHANCE
      4. AN ONLINE REAL-WORLD RESEARCH EXPERIENCE
      5. BENEFITS AND SUCCESS OF THE CHANCE RESEARCH MODULES
      6. THE ADOPTION OF THE CHANCE RESEARCH MODULES
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      9. REFERENCES
    10. Chapter 83: Why Immersive, Interactive Simulation Belongs in the Pedagogical Toolkit of “Next Generation” Science
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. AN OVERVIEW OF SIMCITY™ 4
      4. THE INTERACTIVE SIMULATION: INDUSTRY OVERLOAD
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ENDNOTES