In Chapter 5, we covered probabilities and the outcomes of ‘experiments’. This chapter uses probability to discuss the distribution of values of numerical variables. Fallowfield et al. (2005: 97) recommended exploring data distributions before using inferential statistical procedures, warning against dismissing this activity as being too simplistic. The probability of a variable taking some valid value for a given case or element is one. That is, we are certain that each case will have a value for each variable of interest. Probability can be used to describe the likelihood of each potential value occurring. For example, the probability distribution for the number of sets in completed men’s singles matches ...

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