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### 4.1. Measures of Central Tendency

Although the graphs discussed in Chapter 3, “Presenting Data in Charts and Tables,” are extremely useful for getting a visual picture of what the distribution of a CTQ or CTP looks like, you need to compute measures of central tendency or location. Three measures of central tendency will be developed: the arithmetic mean (often called the mean or average), the median, and the mode. If you compute these measures from a sample, they are statistics. If you compute these measures from a population, they are parameters. (To distinguish sample statistics and population parameters, Roman letters are used for sample statistics, and Greek letters are used for population parameters.)

#### The Arithmetic Mean

The arithmetic ...

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