Chapter 5

In This Chapter

Understanding the basic types of measurement

Learning the fundamental statistical measures of central tendency

Understanding hypothesis testing

This chapter introduces some of the most important statistical concepts you need to get started with big data. It also introduces several summary measures that represent the key properties of a dataset.

A *dataset* may consist of the elements of a *population* of interest, or it may take the form of a sample. A *sample* is a *subset* of a population; it’s chosen in such a way that it accurately represents the underlying population. For most empirical applications, sample data is used instead of population data due to the time and cost required to analyze an entire population.

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