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SQL Queries for Mere Mortals: A Hands-On Guide to Data Manipulation in SQL, Second Edition by Michael J. Hernandez, John L. Viescas

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Evolution of the ANSI/ISO Standard

SQL/86 was soon criticized in public reviews, by the government, and by industry pundits such as C. J. Date. Some of the problems cited by these critics included redundancy within the SQL syntax (there were several ways to define the same query), lack of support for certain relational operators, and lack of referential integrity. Although X3H2 knew of these problems even before SQL/86 was published, the committee decided that it was better to release a standard now (even though it still needed work) than to have no standard at all.

Both ISO and ANSI addressed the criticism pertaining to referential integrity by adopting refined versions of their standards. ISO published “ISO 9075:1989 Database Language SQL ...

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