**Index**

*For alphabetization purposes, (a) differences in fonts and case are ignored; (b) quotation marks are ignored; (c) other punctuation symbols—hyphens, underscores, parentheses, etc.—are treated as blanks; (d) numerals precede letters; (e) blanks precede everything else.*

= (equality), 3, 53

≠ (inequality), 54

:= (assignment), 3, 53

(is defined as), 201, 254

| (Sheffer stroke), 403

↓ (Peirce arrow), 403

∈ (member of), 91

∉ (not member of), 92

≡ (equivalent to), 125, 209, 367, 400, 412

⇒ (implies), 366, 400

⇔ (bi-implies, equivalent to), 367

⊂ (properly included in), 93

⊃ (properly includes), 93

⊆ (included in), 93

⊇ (includes), 93

→ (functional dependency), 152, 291

→→ (multivalued dependency), 348

!! (image relation reference), 224

∃ (existential quantifier), 375

∀ (universal quantifier), 375

θ-join, 194-195

0-tuple, 85, 94

1NF, *see* first normal form

2NF, *see* second normal form

2VL, *see* two-valued logic

3NF, *see* third normal form

3VL, *see* three-valued logic

4NF, *see* fourth normal form

5NF, *see* fifth normal form

Abbey, Edward, 157, 411

access method, 16

ACID properties, 295

aggregate operators, 228-235

empty argument, 232, 233-235

relation valued, 252

vs. summaries, *see* summary

algebra, *see* relational algebra

“alias,” 350, 448

ALL BUT, 181-182

ALL or ANY comparison, 63, 432-436

ALTER TABLE, 32, 179, 199, 220

alternate key, 151

ambiguity, 364-365, 425-426

AND (aggregate operator), ...