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Sports Marketing, 5th Edition

Book Description

Now in a fully revised and updated 5th edition, Sports Marketing: A Strategic Perspective is the most authoritative, comprehensive and engaging introduction to sports marketing currently available. It is the only introductory textbook to adopt a strategic approach, explaining clearly how every element of the marketing process should be designed and managed, from goal-setting and planning to implementation and control.

Covering all the key topics in the sports marketing curriculum, including consumer behavior, market research, promotions, products, pricing, sponsorship, business ethics, technology and e-marketing, the book introduces core theory and concepts, explains best practice, and surveys the rapidly-changing, international sports business environment. Every chapter contains extensive real-world case studies and biographies of key industry figures and challenging review exercises which encourage the reader to reflect critically on their own knowledge and professional practice. The book’s companion website offers additional resources for instructors and students, including an instructors' guide, test bank, presentation slides and useful weblinks.

Sports Marketing: A Strategic Perspective is an essential foundation for any sports marketing or sports business course, and an invaluable reference for any sports marketing practitioner looking to improve their professional practice.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Half Title
  3. Title Page
  4. Copyright Page
  5. Dedication
  6. Table of Contents
  7. Preface
  8. Acronyms
  9. List of figures and tables
  10. PART I: CONTINGENCY FRAMEWORK FOR STRATEGIC SPORTS MARKETING
    1. CHAPTER 1 Emergence of sports marketing
      1. What is sports marketing?
      2. Understanding the sports industry
        1. Historical development of sports marketing in (North) America
        2. Sport as entertainment
        3. A marketing orientation
        4. Growth of the sports industry
        5. The structure of the sports industry
        6. The consumers of sport
        7. The sports product
        8. Career spotlight: Chris Ferris
          1. Different types of sports products
          2. The multidimensional nature of the sports product
          3. Producers and intermediaries
        9. Sports marketing hall of fame: Mark McCormack
      3. Basic marketing principles and processes applied to sport
        1. The sports marketing mix
        2. The exchange process
        3. The strategic sports marketing process
        4. Girls get their game on – with great gear: sports teams cater to women fans with new lines of feminine fashion
      4. Summary
      5. Key terms
      6. Review questions
      7. Exercises
      8. Internet exercises
      9. Endnotes
    2. CHAPTER 2 Contingency framework for strategic sports marketing
      1. NBA Releases 2011–2012 Regular Season Schedule
      2. Contingency framework for strategic sports marketing
      3. Contingency approaches
      4. Internal and external contingencies
      5. Internal contingencies
        1. Vision and mission
        2. Organizational objectives and marketing goals
        3. Organizational strategies
        4. Organizational culture
      6. External contingencies
        1. Competition
        2. Technology
        3. On the industry’s radar
          1. Cultural and social trends
          2. Physical environment
          3. Political, legal, and regulatory environment
        4. Big-time college sports is an out-of control monster
          1. Demographics
        5. Ethnic studies: MLB forms diversity comittee
          1. The economy
          2. Monitoring the external contingencies
      7. Assessing the internal and external contingencies: SWOT analysis
      8. Summary
      9. Key terms
      10. Review questions
      11. Exercises
      12. Internet exercises
      13. Endnotes
  11. PART II: PLANNING FOR MARKET SELECTION DECISIONS
    1. CHAPTER 3 Research tools for understanding sports consumers
      1. Marketing research in action: the Gary Southshore RailCats
      2. Hitting a home run with the digital generation
      3. The marketing research process
        1. Defining the problem or opportunity
        2. Case study: a sponsorship measurement solution
          1. Choosing the research design type
          2. Identifying data collection techniques
          3. Secondary data
          4. Primary data
        3. Drivers should take a spin online, study shows – sports business journal
      4. Designing data collection instruments
        1. Designing the sample
        2. Data analysis
      5. Preparing a final report
        1. Case study: ESPN; survey shows split on racial opportunity
      6. Summary
      7. Key terms
      8. Review questions
      9. Exercises
      10. Internet exercises
      11. Endnotes
    2. CHAPTER 4 Understanding participants as consumers
      1. Model of participant consumption behavior
        1. Participant decision-making process
        2. Types of consumer decisions
      2. Psychological or internal factors
        1. Personality
        2. Motivation
        3. Perception
        4. Learning
        5. Attitudes
      3. Sociological or external factors
        1. Culture
        2. Spotlight on international sports marketing: Sport England
          1. Social class
          2. Reference groups
        3. Sports marketing hall of fame: The Babe: Babe Didrikson Zaharias
          1. Family
        4. High school sports participation tops 7.6 million, sets record
          1. Situational Factors
        5. P90X vs. insanity: which is the best for you?
      4. Summary
      5. Key terms
      6. Review questions
      7. Exercises
      8. Internet exercises
      9. Endnotes
    3. CHAPTER 5 Understanding spectators as consumers
      1. Factors influencing attendance
        1. Fan motivation factors
        2. Baseball suffers drop in attendance
        3. Sports marketing hall of fame: David Stern
        4. Sports wagering
          1. Game attractiveness
          2. Economic factors
          3. Competitive factors
          4. Demographic factors
          5. Stadium factors
          6. Value of sport to the community
        5. Career spotlight: Marc Reeves
          1. Sports involvement
        6. Spotlight on international sports marketing: a comparative analysis of spectator involvement: United States vs. United Kingdom
          1. Fan identification
      2. Summary
      3. Key terms
      4. Review questions
      5. Exercises
      6. Internet exercises
      7. Endnotes
    4. CHAPTER 6 Segmentation, targeting, and positioning
      1. Segmentation
        1. Bases for segmentation
        2. Technical report – Sport England Market Segmentation
        3. Generation M2: media in the lives of 8- to 18-year-olds
        4. espnW: a brand for female athletes
        5. The IWFL and the history of women’s tackle football
        6. NFL may be hitting stride with female fans
        7. Move over Fútbol. The NFL scores big with Latinos
        8. Spotlight on international sports marketing: NBA continues to grow internationally
          1. Choosing more than one segment
      2. Target markets
        1. Evaluation of target markets
      3. Positioning
        1. Repositioning
        2. Baseball continues to assist storm relief efforts
      4. Summary
      5. Key terms
      6. Review questions
      7. Exercises
      8. Internet exercises
      9. Endnotes
  12. PART III: PLANNING THE SPORTS MARKETING MIX
    1. CHAPTER 7 Sports product concepts
      1. Defining sports products
        1. Goods and services as sports products
        2. Career Spotlight: Rodger Collins, President Packaged Beverages, Dr. Pepper Snapple Group
          1. Classifying sports products
      2. Product characteristics
        1. Spotlight on international sports marketing: the 5 worst athlete-endorsed products of all time
          1. Branding
        2. Spotlight on sports marketing ethics: NCAA Native American mascot controversy
        3. Miami Marlins attendance reverts to old Sun Life Stadium levels
        4. Sports Marketing Hall of Fame: Phil Knight
          1. Licensing
          2. Quality
      3. Product design
      4. Summary
      5. Key terms
      6. Review questions
      7. Exercises
      8. Internet exercises
      9. Endnotes
    2. CHAPTER 8 Managing sports products
      1. Nike announces new Nike+ FuelBand – measuring movement to make life a sport
      2. New sports products
        1. Sports Marketing Hall of Fame: Bill Rasmussen
          1. Types of new products
        2. Spotlight on Sports Marketing Ethics: college sports have become too commercialized
      3. The new product development process
        1. Idea generation
        2. Idea screening
        3. Analysis of the sports product concept or potential
        4. Developing the sports product
        5. Test marketing
        6. Commercialization
        7. New product success factors
      4. Product life cycle
        1. Introduction
        2. Growth
        3. Fantasy sports becoming big business as popularity continues to rise
          1. Maturity
        4. John McEnroe’s bold move to revive US tennis
          1. Decline
          2. Other life cycle considerations
        5. Spotlight on International Sports Marketing: X Games global expansion continues with TV deals in new host markets, syndication deals in multiple other countries
      5. Diffusion of innovations
        1. Types of adopters
      6. Summary
      7. Key terms
      8. Review questions
      9. Exercises
      10. Internet exercises
      11. Endnotes
    3. CHAPTER 9 Promotion concepts
      1. Communications process
        1. Sports Marketing Hall of Fame: Bill Veeck
          1. Source
          2. Encoding
        2. Spotlight on Sports Marketing Ethics: endorsements remain buyers’ market
          1. Message
          2. Medium
          3. Decoding
        3. Spotlight on Sports Marketing Ethics: how impact of “Tiger Recession” changed athlete marketability
          1. Receiver
          2. Feedback
          3. Noise
      2. Promotion planning
        1. Target market considerations
        2. Push strategy
        3. Pull strategy
        4. Promotional objectives
        5. The hierarchy of effects
        6. Establishing promotional budgets
        7. Choosing an integrated promotional mix
      3. Summary
      4. Key terms
      5. Review questions
      6. Exercises
      7. Internet exercises
      8. Endnotes
    4. CHAPTER 10 Promotion mix elements
      1. Advertising
        1. Advertising objectives
        2. Advertising budgeting
        3. Creative decisions
        4. Spotlight on Sports Marketing Ethics: Sex sells? Trend may be changing
        5. Spotlight on Sports Marketing Ethics: Lance Armstrong’s fall from athletic grace doesn’t diminish his greatest triumph
        6. Armstrong faces $200 million salary loss with reputation hit
          1. Media strategy
        7. Big 4 jersey rights value put at $370M
          1. Media scheduling
          2. Personal selling
        8. Career Spotlight: Kevin Rochlitz, Vice President, National Partnerships and Sales, Baltimore Ravens
          1. The strategic selling process
          2. Sales promotions
          3. Public relations
        9. NBA cares evolving after 5 years of service
      2. Summary
      3. Key terms
      4. Review questions
      5. Exercises
      6. Internet exercises
      7. Endnotes
    5. CHAPTER 11 Sponsorship programs
      1. Scheuring Speed Sports announces partnership with Ford Motor Company
      2. Growth of sponsorship
        1. Cleveland Cavaliers 2013–2014 promotional schedule
        2. Adelaide United energised by new sponsorship
      3. Designing a sports sponsorship program
        1. Understanding why sponsorship continues to grow
          1. Sponsorship objectives
          2. Awareness
          3. Competition
        2. London 2012 sponsors and ambush – and the lessons for Rio 2016
        3. Beats by Dre gives headphones to British athletes, angering IOC
        4. Spotlight on Sports Marketing Ethics: BRAZIL: Congress adopts legislation to curb ambush marketing during 2016 summer Olympics
        5. Behind the scenes at the 2013 Waste Management Open
        6. Lance Armstrong Nike contract terminated
          1. Sponsorship budgeting
          2. Choosing the sponsorship opportunity
        7. Fenton High School looking at boosting corporate sponsorship of athletics
        8. Hot Seahawks add Boeing, Starbucks deals
        9. Spotlight on Sports Marketing Ethics – Nike won’t drop Penn State’s Paterno, so we should drop Nike
          1. Sponsorship implementation and evaluation
        10. Career Spotlight: Lesa Ukman and IEG
      4. Summary
      5. Key terms
      6. Review questions
      7. Exercises
      8. Internet exercises
      9. Endnotes
    6. CHAPTER 12 Pricing concepts and strategies
      1. What is price?
        1. Deal to end lockout reached
      2. The determinants of pricing
        1. Sports Marketing Hall of Fame: Pete Rozelle
          1. Internal factors
        2. Spotlight on Sports Marketing Ethics: astronomical athlete salaries: are they worth it?
          1. External factors
          2. Consumer demand
          3. Estimating demand
          4. Economy
          5. Competition
          6. Legal issues
        3. The NFL vs. ticket scalpers: Super Bowl edition
          1. Technology
        4. New Era Tickets uses iovation to keep scalpers and fraudsters out of the arena
      3. Price adjustments
        1. Orioles raise season-ticket prices slightly, expand variable-pricing system
          1. Price increases and reductions
          2. Price discounts
      4. Summary
      5. Key terms
      6. Review questions
      7. Exercises
      8. Internet exercises
      9. Endnotes
  13. PART IV: IMPLEMENTING AND CONTROLLING THE STRATEGIC SPORTS MARKETING PROCESS
    1. CHAPTER 13 Implementing and controlling the strategic sports marketing process
      1. Dew action sports tour
      2. Implementation
        1. Busy offseason ahead for Arena Football League: fan take
          1. Communication
        2. Sports Marketing Hall of Fame: Gary Davidson
          1. Staffing and skills
          2. Coordination
        3. Career Spotlight: Megan Dotson, Director of Marketing, Greenville Road Warriors (hockey)
          1. Rewards
          2. Information
          3. Creativity
        4. The 100 worst things in sports
          1. Budgeting
      3. Control
        1. Planning assumptions control
        2. Process control
        3. How athletes are fighting for endorsement dollars
          1. Contingency control
      4. Summary
      5. Key terms
      6. Review questions
      7. Exercises
      8. Internet exercises
      9. Endnotes
  14. Appendix A: Career opportunities in sports marketing
    1. Job opportunities in sports marketing
    2. Cover letters and resumés
    3. Interviewing
    4. Where to look for additional information
  15. Appendix B: Some sports marketing sites of interest on the Internet
  16. Glossary
  17. Illustration credits
  18. Index