You are previewing SpeedLiter’s Handbook: Learning to Craft Light with Canon Speedlites, Second Edition.
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SpeedLiter’s Handbook: Learning to Craft Light with Canon Speedlites, Second Edition

Book Description

For anyone new to flash photography–or who has had a frustrating start with it–Speedliter's Handbook is a fantastic in-depth resource. Packed with information presented in a clear and approachable how-to format, this book walks readers through everything from the basics of light to advanced setups using Canon Speedlites.

In this second edition, Syl updates the book to include all the newest Canon gear–such as flashes in the 90, 270, and 600 series, as well as the ST-E3 transmitter–to bring the book completely up to date. Syl also revises the book to include his newest best practices and workflows that have evolved and changed since the first edition of the book.

The book begins by familiarizing the reader with how light works and covers all the key concepts, terminology, and equipment that will serve as a foundation before jumping in. Syl then moves into all the ways Speedlites can be used both on and off camera to create the best light for any given situation, whether that be portraits, wedding, sports, or macro-photography. Speedliter's Handbook covers both manual and E-TTL flash; high-speed sync; stroboscopic flash; set-ups that use from one to a dozen flashes; and much more. Page after page of the book features great photography that illustrates all the techniques discussed. By the end of the book, the reader will have a newfound knowledge of light and will be confident with her ability to craft that light with Canon Speedlites. Syl's blog, pixsylated.com, has become a popular go-to resource for Canon users seeking credible information that will help them improve their photography using Speedlites. 

Table of Contents

  1. Title Page
  2. Copyright Page
  3. Dedication Page
  4. Insights on this second edition
  5. Contents
  6. Online Resources
  7. Welcome Speedliter!
    1. This is a Book About How I Shoot
    2. The How and Why of The Handbook
    3. I am a Photographer, Not a Retoucher
    4. Pay Attention to the Sidebars
  8. Chapter 0. Quick Start Guide to Speedliting
    1. The Short Version
    2. Essential Concepts for Speedliters
      1. Control Your Speedlite On Your Camera’s LCD
      2. Think About The Ambient Light Before You Turn On Your Flash
      3. Establish Workflows And Stick To Them
      4. A Pop-Up Flash Is Not A Speedlite
      5. Your Camera’s Hotshoe Is Not The Best Place To Put Your Speedlite
      6. Use Manual: Automatic Modes Limit Your Understanding Of What’s Going On
      7. Always Take Behind-The-Scenes Shots
      8. Take The Shot And Make The Mistake
    3. Control your Speedlite via the LCD on your Camera
      1. Speedlites That Can Display Their Menu On A Camera LCD
      2. EOS Cameras That Can Display Speedlite Menu
      3. Use Your Camera’s My Menu Screen
      4. The New External Flash Function Quick Menu
    4. The Two Kinds of Light in a Flash Photograph
      1. Ambient Light—The Light That Is Already There
      2. Flash—The Light You Create
    5. Manage the Ambient Light First
      1. You Can’t Dim The Sun...Or Can You?
      2. How To Get The Ambient Light You Want
      3. In Av Mode, Use Exposure Compensation To Brighten Or Darken The Ambient Light
    6. Controlling the Brightness of the Flash
      1. Speedlite Mode—Controlling The Power
      2. Manual Flash ≠ Manual Exposure
      3. E-TTL And Manual Modes—Both Have Their Strengths
      4. Fine-Tuning E-TTL With Flash Exposure Compensation
      5. Setting FEC On A 600EX-RT
      6. Setting FEC On A 580EX Or EX II
      7. Setting FEC On A 430EX Or EX II
    7. A Simple Four-Step Workflow
      1. A Simple Four-Step Speedlite Workflow
    8. The Limitations of On-Camera Flash
      1. Why Off-Camera Flash Looks Better
    9. E-TTL Fill Flash: A Great Use for an On-Camera Speedlite
      1. In Bright Sun, Shoot E-TTL Fill Flash
  9. Part 1: Before Speedlites, There was Light
    1. Chapter 1. Learn To See Light
      1. The Short Version
      2. The Poetry of Light
      3. Character of Light
        1. Intensity
        2. Direction
        3. Path
        4. Temperature
        5. Shadowline
        6. Contrast
        7. Consistency
        8. Highlights
        9. Chiaroscuro
      4. How You See vs. How Your Camera Sees
        1. You Have Two Eyes, Your Camera Has One
        2. You See Brighter Brights And Darker Darks
        3. You Can Distinguish Many More Colors Than Your Camera Can Record
        4. Your Brain Adjusts Various Light Sources To White; Your Camera Might Not
    2. Chapter 2. Exposure Exposed
      1. The Short Version
      2. Connecting Exposure Settings: Aperture, Shutter Speed, and ISO
        1. Think “Stop” To Connect Exposure Settings
      3. Aperture: Controlling Depth of Field
        1. Whole, Half, And Third Stops
        2. Aperture And Depth Of Field
        3. Lens Focal Length And Depth Of Field
      4. Shutter Speed: Managing Motion or Ambient Light
      5. ISO: Connecting the Aperture and Shutter Speed
      6. Equivalent Exposures
        1. The Inverse Relationship Between Aperture And Shutter Speed
        2. Equivalent Exposure = Same Number Of Stops In The Opposite Direction
        3. Strategies For Choosing Aperture And Shutter Speed
        4. ISO Watches As Shutter And Aperture Dance Together
        5. Use Equivalent Exposures To Express Your Vision
      7. Exposure Modes
        1. M—Manual
        2. Av—Aperture Priority
        3. Tv—Shutter Priority
        4. B—Bulb
        5. [C1, C2, C3]—Camera User Settings
        6. P—Program
        7. “Green Box”—Full Automatic
        8. [CA]—Creative Automatic
      8. Metering, Metering Zones, and Metering Modes
        1. Metering Zones
        2. Metering Patterns
      9. Exposure Evaluation for Flash Photography
        1. Good Idea: Use The Image On Your Camera’s LCD To Check Lighting
        2. Bad Idea: Use The Image On Your Camera’s LCD To Judge The Exposure
        3. Essential Idea: Use Your Camera’s Histogram To Evaluate Exposure
        4. Three Things Your Camera’s Histogram Can Tell You
        5. Don’t Worry About The Shape Of The Histogram
        6. What The Histogram Can’t Do For You
      10. Your Vision Determines the Proper Exposure
    3. Chapter 3. Mechanics Of Light
      1. The Short Version
      2. Taking Color’s Temperature
        1. Color Temperature Is A Matter Of Degrees
      3. White Balance
        1. White Balance Settings
        2. White Balance In Action
        3. Which White Balance Setting To Use?
      4. Incidence Incidentally
        1. Light On The Straight And Narrow
        2. Mirror, Mirror...
        3. Direct vs. Diffuse Reflection
      5. Soft Light Proves that Size is Relative
        1. Consider Your Shadow’s Edge
        2. Big Is Not Always Big
        3. Making Speedlites Appear Larger Is A Big Part Of Speedliting
      6. Falling Off, Or How to Love the Inverse Square Law
        1. A Way To Visualize The Inverse Square Law In Action
        2. The Inverse Square Law Is Trying To Tell Us Something
      7. Thinking About Flash-to-Subject Distance as Stops
        1. 1.4—The Photographer’s Magic Number
        2. My F-Stop Measuring Stick
    4. Chapter 4. Manage The Ambient Light
      1. The Short Version
      2. The Role of Ambient Light
        1. Sources Of Ambient Light
        2. The Clues Of Ambient Light
        3. What You Can Do To Manage Ambient Light
      3. Shutter Speed: The Key to Controlling Ambient Light in Flash Exposures
        1. Why Shutter Speed Does Not Control Flash Exposure
        2. Dial The Background Down With Faster Shutter Speeds
        3. Going All The Way—Turn Day Into Night With A Fast Shutter
        4. Drag The Shutter To Brighten The Background
      4. The Effect of Aperture and ISO on Ambient Light in Flash Photography
        1. Aperture Affects Flash And Ambient Equally
        2. ISO Also Affects Flash And Ambient Equally
      5. Blending Ambient and Flash
        1. Matching The Color Of Your Ambient Light
        2. Matching The Direction Of Your Ambient Light
    5. Chapter 5. Position Is Relative
      1. The Short Version
      2. The Lighting Compass
        1. Every Light Has An Angle
        2. You Can Tell A Lot About A Light By Its Angle
        3. Light Gets Brighter When It Comes At You
      3. On-Axis and Off-Axis Light
        1. Defining On-Axis Flash
        2. Off-Axis Flash Is Easy
      4. Light from Above...And Below
        1. The Lighting Inclinometer
        2. Shadows Fall...Usually
  10. Part 2: Speedlites Fundamentally
    1. Chapter 6. Meet The Speedlites
      1. The Short Version
      2. Which Canon Speedlite is Right for You?
        1. Considerations For Buying A Speedlite
      3. Speedlite 600EX-RT
        1. The World’s First Radio-Enabled Speedlite
      4. Speedlite 600EX-RT Function Buttons in Non-Wireless Modes
        1. E-TTL Menu
        2. M (Manual) Menu
        3. Multi (Stroboscopic) Menu
        4. Ext.A (External Auto) Menu
        5. Ext.M (External Manual) Menu
      5. Speedlite 580EX II
        1. A Versatile Speedlite
      6. Speedlite 430EX II
        1. A Great Starter Speedlite
      7. Speedlite 320EX
        1. An Entry-Level Speedlite That Provides A Full Set of Features
      8. Speedlite 270EX II
        1. A Compact Speedlite For Small Cameras And Travel
      9. Speedlite 90EX
        1. Canon’s Smallest Master Speedlite
      10. Legacy Canon Ex Speedlites
        1. 580EX
        2. 550EX
        3. 430EX
        4. 420EX
        5. 380EX
        6. 270EX
        7. 220EX
      11. Speedlite Transmitter ST-E3-RT
        1. A Low-Profile Transmitter For Radio Speedliting
      12. Speedlite Transmitter ST-E2
        1. Transmitter For Optical Wireless Speedlite Control
        2. Resist The ST-E2 Temptation
      13. Macro Ring Lite MR-14EX II
      14. Macro Twin Lite MT-24EX
      15. Third-Party Speedlights and Transmitters
        1. Considerations For Buying Third-Party Gear
    2. Chapter 7. Control Your Speedlite
      1. The Short Version
      2. Control Issues: How, When, and Where
        1. Breaking Speedlite Control Down Into Three Simple Tasks
      3. How—Setting the Flash Power via Mode
        1. The Basic Flash Modes: Manual And E-TTL
        2. Specialized Modes: Multi And External
      4. When—Using Sync to Specify when the Speedlite Fires
        1. Sync Begins With A Pair Of Curtains
        2. 1st-Curtain: The “Normal” Sync
        3. 2nd-Curtain: The “Motion” Sync
        4. High-Speed Sync: The “Midday” Sync
        5. How To Change Speedlite Sync
        6. Slow-Speed Sync / Dragging The Shutter
      5. Where, Part 1—Using Zoom as a Flash Modifier
        1. Automatic Zoom
        2. Manual Zoom
        3. Pull-Out Wide-Angle Diffuser
        4. Creating Dramatic Light With Zoom
      6. Where, Part 2—Using Pan and Tilt to Aim the Speedlite
        1. The Range Of Pan And Tilt
        2. Basics Of Bounce
        3. Flying The Light Over Or Around
        4. Beyond Bounce—Feathering
        5. Pan And Tilt When Shooting Optical Wireless
    3. Chapter 8. Flashing Manually
      1. The Short Version
      2. Manual Flash—Getting Started with the Most Versatile Flash Mode
        1. To Start, Just Play With Manual
      3. When to Use Manual Flash
        1. Use Manual When The Distance From Subject To Flash Is Fixed
        2. Use Manual To Learn The Basics
        3. Use Manual When The Subject Will Pass Through A Preset Zone
        4. Use Manual To Maximize Your Speedlite’s Power
        5. Use Manual When Triggering Flashes And Strobes With Optical Slave Eyes
      4. The Numbers of Manual Mode
        1. Whole Stops Of Flash Power
        2. Intermediate-Stops of Flash Power on the 600EX-RT
        3. Intermediate-Stops of Flash Power On the 580EX/EX II And 430EX/EX II
      5. Setting Power Manually on The 600EX-RT
      6. Setting Power Manually on The 580EX / EX II
      7. Setting Power Manually on The 430EX / EX II
      8. Setting Power Manually on The 320EX / 270EX II / 90EX
      9. Setting Manual Power on The LCD of 2012–Newer Camera Models
      10. Setting Manual Power on The LCD of 2007–2011 Camera Models
      11. My Workflow: Using One Speedlite in Manual Mode
        1. Camera Mode (Varies By Situation)
        2. Decide On The Role Of The Speedlite
        3. Evaluate Ambient Light
        4. Setting Up The Speedlite
    4. Chapter 9. E Is For Evaluative
      1. The Short Version
      2. Deciding When to Set Your Speedlite to E-TTL
        1. Best Situations For E-TTL
        2. The Frustrations Of E-TTL
      3. The Mechanics of E-TTL
        1. Ambient And Flash Metering Are Done Separately
        2. E-TTL Begins With The Preflash
        3. How ETTL Meters Ambient And Flash
        4. The Evaluative Part Of E-TTL
        5. Sometimes E-TTL Considers Camera-To-Subject Distance...But Not Always
        6. E-TTL—The Best Fill Flash For Backlight
      4. Limitations of E-TTL
        1. E-TTL On-Camera Flash Will Still Look Like On-Camera Flash
        2. E-TTL Does Not Factor In Your Visual Intent
        3. E-TTL And Hyper-Fast Blinkers
        4. E-TTL And Optical Slave Eyes
      5. E-TTL and Camera Modes
        1. Manual (M)
        2. Aperture Priority (Av)
        3. Program (P) Or Full Auto
        4. Shutter Priority (Tv)
      6. FEC—Flash Exposure Compensation
        1. FEC Increments
        2. Adjust FEC In The Same Direction As The Dominant Tones In Your Shot
        3. Set FEC On Your Camera Or Your Speedlite, But Not On Both
        4. Options To Set FEC Via Your Camera
        5. Setting FEC Via The Top-panel FEC Button
        6. Setting FEC Via The Quick Control Screen
        7. Creating An FEC Button Via Custom Controls
        8. Setting FEC Via The Flash Settings Menus
        9. Setting FEC Directly On The 600EX-RT
        10. Setting FEC Directly On The 580EX II
        11. Setting FEC Directly On The 480EX II
        12. Use EC And FEC At The Same Time
      7. FEL—Flash Exposure Lock
        1. Putting FEL To Work
        2. You Have 16 Magical Seconds
        3. FEL Is Not Always Available
        4. Activating FEL On Your Camera
        5. Use FEL When Shooting Alternate Compositions
      8. Troubleshooting E-TTL
        1. E-TTL Over-Exposes Your Shots
        2. E-TTL Does Not Change The Flash Power
        3. E-TTL Always Fires At Full Power
    5. Chapter 10. Specialty Flash Modes
      1. The Short Version
      2. Beyond Manual and E-TTL
        1. Multi (MULTI)
        2. External Auto (Ext.A)
        3. External Manual (Ext.M)
        4. Group (Gr)
      3. Multi Mode: Flashing Again and Again
        1. What You Need For Multi/Stroboscopic
        2. The Three Settings For Stroboscopic Flash
        3. How Many Pops Of Light Do You Need?
        4. Maximum Number Of Flashes
        5. Setting The Hertz
        6. Power Level
        7. Shutter Speed
        8. Setting Your 600EX-RT Speedlite For Stroboscopic Flash
        9. Setting Your 500-Series Speedlite For Stroboscopic Flash
      4. Single Speedlite Stroboscopic
        1. Is A Single Speedlite Enough For Stroboscopic?
      5. Multi Speedlite Stroboscopic
        1. Advantage #1: Better Light Quality
        2. Advantage #2: More Pops
        3. Advantage #3: Broader Field Of Light
        4. Advantage #4: More Even Light
        5. Advantage #5: Faster Pops
        6. How To Configure A Slave For Stroboscopic Flash
      6. Other Considerations for Stroboscopic
        1. Move In The Right Direction
        2. Play With Gels
        3. Spinning vs. Linear Motion
        4. Pitch Black Is Not Pitch Black
      7. External Flash Metering: Think “E–TTL Without the Preflash”
        1. Canon Re-Introduces External Flash Metering On Speedlites
        2. Making A Case For External Flash Metering
      8. External Auto (Ext.A)—Talks with the Camera
        1. The Automatic Aspect Of External Auto: Aperture And ISO
        2. Setting Your 600EX-RT Speedlite For External Auto Flash
        3. Flash Exposure Compensation In External Auto Mode On The 600EX-RT
        4. Setting Your 580EX II Speedlite For External Automatic Flash
        5. Flash Exposure Compensation In External Auto Mode On The 580EX II
      9. External Manual (Ext.M)—Works Independently of the Camera
        1. Setting Your 600EX-RT Speedlite As An External Manual Flash
        2. Activating Your 580EX II Speedlite As An External Manual Flash
        3. Setting The Aperture And ISO On A 580EX II
        4. Fine-Tune Flash In External Manual Mode—Almost Like FEC
      10. Other Tips for External Flash Metering
        1. How To Use The Distance Scale With External Flash Metering
        2. There Is No High-Speed Sync For External Flash Metering
      11. The Basics of Group Mode
        1. The Flexibility Enabled By Group Mode
        2. The Gear Required For Group Mode
        3. Learn More About Group Mode
  11. Part 3: Off-Camera Speedliting
    1. Chapter 11. Triggers For Off-Camera Flash
      1. The Short Version
      2. Choosing an Off-Camera Trigger is Always a Matter of Control
        1. Cords As Triggers
        2. Optical Wireless Triggers
        3. Radio Wireless Triggers
      3. E-TTL Cords: Affordable and Versatile Control of An Off-camera Speedlite
        1. Coiled vs. Straight E-TTL Cords
        2. Hand-holding A Speedlite Connected To An Off-Camera Cord
        3. Flash Brackets With Off-Camera Cord
        4. Extra-Long E-TTL Cords
        5. OCF Gear—My Little E-TTL Cord Company
        6. Connecting Your E-TTL Cord To A Lightstand
      4. Optical Slaves Eyes: Enable Canon Speedlites to Be Used With Other Brands
        1. Canon Speedlites Need A Canon-Compatible Optical Slave Eye
        2. Sonia Canon-Compatible Optical Slaves: Think Green
        3. OCF Gear Smart Eye™
      5. Canon’s Built-in Optical Wireless System
      6. “Fire Now!” Manual Radio Triggers
        1. Yongnuo RF-603C II Transceiver
        2. Cactus V5 Transceiver
        3. Vello FreeWave Fusion Pro
        4. Pocket Wizard PlusX / Plus III / MultiMax
      7. “Power-Adjusting” Manual Radio Triggers
        1. Yongnuo YN-560-TX Flash Controller
        2. Yongnuo YN-560 IV Speedlite
        3. Cactus V6 Transceiver
        4. PocketWizard AC-3 Zone Controller
      8. E-TTL Radio Triggers Compared to the 600EX-RT Radio-Enabled Speedlite
        1. Yongnuo YN-622C-TX Flash Controller
        2. Phottix Odin II Controller
        3. Phottix Mitros+ Transceiver Flash
        4. RadioPopper PX
        5. PocketWizard ControlTL: MiniTT1/FlexTT5
      9. Comparison of Trigger Systems
    2. Chapter 12. Optical Wireless: The Canon Way
      1. The Short Version
      2. Canon’s Optical and Radio Wireless Systems
        1. Canon’s Optical Wireless Uses Pulsed Light
        2. Canon’s Radio Wireless Uses Invisible Radio Waves
      3. The Optical Master: Someone has to be in Command
        1. Most Settings Are Made On The Master
        2. The Flashtube Is The Transmitter
        3. Range And Coverage Of A Master Speedlite
        4. Line-Of-Sight: The Master Must Have A Visual Path To The Slaves
      4. The Optical Slave: Worker Bee of Wireless Flash
        1. Where To Make Settings On The Slave
        2. The Receiver Is On The Front Of The Slave
        3. The Slave’s Ready Indicator
        4. Twist The Slave
        5. Zooming A Slave
      5. Master and Slave Settings for Optical Wireless
        1. Settings That Must Be Made On The Optical Master
        2. Settings That Must Be Made On The Optical Slave
      6. Using a Pop-Up Flash as an Optical Master
        1. Master Set-Up Via Camera LCD On 7D- and xxD-Series
        2. Master Set-Up Via Camera LCD On Rebel T6i, T5i, T4i, and T3i
      7. Activating a Speedlite as an Optical Master
        1. Activating The 600EX-RT As An Optical Master
        2. Activating The 580EX II As An Optical Master
        3. Activating The 580EX As An Optical Master
        4. Activating The 550EX As An Optical Master
        5. Using The Text-Based Speedlite Control Menu To Activate An Optical Master
        6. Using The Icon-Based Speedlite Control Menu To Activate An Optical Master
      8. Moving Your Master Speedlite Off-Camera
        1. In Bright Sun, Position The Master Speedlite Where The Slaves Can See It
        2. Master As Off-Camera Key Or Fill Light
        3. Run An Optical Master Over To The Window To Talk To Slaves Outside
        4. Control An Optical Master And Slaves Inside A Softbox
      9. To Fire Or Not To Fire: The Optical Master Wants to Know
        1. Why You Might Want To Disable The Master
        2. Why You Might Want To Enable The Master
        3. The Speedlite LCD Makes It Hard To Tell If The Master Is Enabled Or Disabled
        4. Master Flash Firing On/Off Via The 600EX-RT LCD Panel
        5. Disabling And Enabling The Master On The 580EX II / 580EX LCD Panel
        6. Disabling And Enabling The Master On The 550EX LCD Panel
        7. Disabling And Enabling A Pop-Up Master
        8. Disabling And Enabling Speedlite Master Via Camera LCD
      10. Activating a Speedlite as an Optical Slave
        1. Activating The 600EX-RT As An Optical Slave
        2. Activating The 580EX II As An Optical Slave
        3. Activating The 580EX As An Optical Slave
        4. Activating The 550EX As An Optical Slave
        5. Activating The 430EX II As An Optical Slave
        6. Activating The 430EX As An Optical Slave
        7. Activating The 320EX As An Optical Slave
        8. Activating The 270EX II As An Optical Slave
      11. Channels: Master and Slaves Must Be the Same
        1. Setting The Channel On The 600EX-RT Optical Master
        2. Setting The Channel On The 600EX-RT Optical Slave
        3. Setting The Channel On The 580EX II / 580EX
        4. Setting The Channel On The 550EX
        5. Setting The Channel On The 430EX II / 430 EX
        6. Setting The Channel On The 320EX
        7. The Channel Is Preset On The 270EX II
        8. Using The Text-Based Speedlite Control Menu To Select The Channel For An Optical Master
        9. Using The Icon-Based Speedlite Control Menu To Select The Channel For An Optical Master
        10. Setting The Channel When Using The Pop-Up Flash In Master Mode
      12. Groups: Assigning Jobs to Specific Speedlites
        1. Setting The Flash Group On A 600EX-RT Optical Slave
        2. Setting The Flash Group On A 580EX II Optical Slave
        3. Setting The Flash Group On A 580EX Optical Slave
        4. Setting The Flash Group On A 550EX Optical Slave
        5. Setting The Flash Group On A 430EX II Optical Slave
        6. Selecting A Group On A 430EX Optical Slave
        7. Setting The Flash Group On A 320EX Optical Slave
        8. The Group Is Preset On A 270EX II Optical Slave
      13. Adjusting E-TTL Flash Power in Optical Wireless
        1. Flash Groups: ALL, A:B, A:B C
        2. E-TTL Ratios / FEC In E-TTL Wireless
        3. The Right And Left Of Ratios
        4. Converting Ratios To Stops
      14. A:B Ratios: Two-Group E-TTL
        1. Hard Light With Ratios For Portraits
        2. Soft Light With Ratios For Portraits
        3. Ratio Between On-Camera Fill And Off-Camera Key
        4. Ratio Between Opposing Off-Camera Speedlites
      15. A:B C Ratios: Three-Group E-TTL
        1. Canon’s View Of Three-Group Photography
        2. Setting Group C Via Camera LCD Monitor
        3. Setting Group C Via Master 600EX-RT LCD
        4. Setting Group C Via Master 580EX II LCD
        5. Setting Group C Via Slave LCD Panel
      16. Adjusting Manual Flash Power in Optical Wireless
        1. Setting Manual Power For Wireless Groups Via Camera LCD Monitor
        2. Setting Manual Flash Power Via LCD On A 600EX-RT
        3. Setting Up Wireless Manual Via LCD Panel On A 580EX II Or 580EX
        4. Setting Up Wireless Manual Via LCD Panel On A 550EX
      17. Adjusting Multi Flash Power in Optical Wireless
      18. Activating a Speedlite as an Independent Slave
        1. Setting Up A 600EX-RT As An Individual Slave
        2. Setting Up A 580EX II / 580EX / 550EX / 430EX II / 430EX As An Individual Slave
    3. Chapter 13. Radio Speedliting: Canon’s New Frontier
      1. The Short Version
      2. Why the 600EX-RT is a Revolutionary Speedlite
        1. The Advantages Of Radio Over Optical Wireless
        2. Interactive Menu System Makes Control Much Easier
        3. Fully Compatible With Entire Range of Canon Optical-Wireless Speedlites
        4. ST-E3-RT Transmitter Matches The Interface Of The 600EX-RT Speedlite
      3. Canon Options for Radio Master and Slave
        1. Two Options For A Canon Radio Master
        2. Only One Option For A Canon Radio Slave
      4. The 600EX-RT Interactive Menu System
        1. The Two Buttons That Cause Changes On The Screen Display
        2. In Radio Wireless, Push The Menu Button To See More Options
      5. Pre-2012 Cameras and Radio Wireless
        1. 2012 And Newer EOS Cameras (Post-2011)
        2. Pre-2012 EOS Cameras
        3. Other Concerns Of Shooting Pre-2012 EOS Cameras With Radio Wireless
        4. Need A Reason To Upgrade Your Camera?
      6. Master and Slave Settings for Radio Wireless
      7. Activating The 600EX-RT as a Radio Master
        1. Activating The Radio Master On The Speedlite LCD
        2. Activating The Radio Master On Cameras That Lack The Quick Control Menu For Flash Function Settings
        3. Activating The Radio Master On The Camera’s Quick Control Menu
      8. Activating The 600EX-RT as a Radio Slave
        1. Activating The 600EX-RT As A Radio Slave
      9. Channel: Master and Slaves Must Be the Same
        1. There Are 16 Options For The Channel Setting
        2. Setting The Channel On The Radio Master/Slave
        3. Setting The Radio Master’s Channel Via The On-Camera Quick Control Menu
      10. Wireless ID: Master and Slaves Must Be the Same
        1. Setting The Wireless ID On The 600EX-RT Radio Master/Slave
        2. Setting The Radio Master’s Wireless ID Via The On-Camera Quick Control Menu
      11. Flash Groups: Assigning Jobs to Specific Speedlites
        1. Setting The Flash Group On A 600EX-RT Radio Slave
        2. The Ratio Setting On The Master Controls The Number Of Flash Groups In The Shot
      12. The Link Light Confirms your Master/Slave Communications
        1. Radio Master Link Light
        2. Radio Slave Link Light
        3. What To Check If The Link Light Is Not Illuminated
        4. What To Check If The Link Light Is Red
        5. What To Check If The Link Light Is Intermittent
      13. To Fire Or Not To Fire: The Radio Master Wants to Know
        1. Do You Want On-Camera Flash From Your Hotshoe-Mounted Master?
        2. Have You Moved Your Master Off-Camera?
        3. Enabling/Disabling The Radio Master On The Speedlite LCD
        4. Enabling/Disabling The Radio Master On The Camera’s Quick Control Menu
      14. Fine-Tuning E-TTL Flash Power in Radio Wireless
        1. How The Ratio Setting Affects Power Adjustment In E-TTL Wireless
        2. The Right And Left Of Ratios
        3. Think Of Ratios In Terms Of Stops
        4. Ratio First, Then Use FEC Globally
        5. Setting An E-TTL Ratio On A Radio Master
        6. Setting An E-TTL Ratio Via The On-Camera Quick Control Menu
      15. Setting Manual Flash Power in Radio Wireless
        1. How The Ratio Setting Affects Power Adjustment In Manual Wireless
        2. Setting Manual Flash Power On A Radio Master
        3. Setting Manual Flash Power Via The On-Camera Quick Control Menu
      16. Multi Mode in Radio Wireless
        1. How The Ratio Setting Affects Power Adjustment In Multi Wireless
        2. Multi Mode Settings On A Radio Master
        3. Controlling Multi Mode In Radio Wireless Via The On-Camera Quick Control Menu
      17. Group Mode: An Exciting and New Way to Speedlite
        1. Controlling Flash Groups Individually In Group Mode
        2. Global Flash Exposure Compensation In Group Mode
        3. Controlling Group Mode Via The On-Camera Quick Control Menu
      18. Remote Release and Linked Shot
        1. Making The Connection
        2. Remote Release
        3. Linked Shot—Master and Slave(s)
        4. The Delay In Linked Shot
        5. Linked Shot—Will The Speedlite Fire?
      19. Non-Canon Speedlites with Radio Built-In
        1. Yongnuo YN-600EX-RT Speedlite and YN-E3-RT Transmitter
        2. Phottix Mitros+ Speedlite And Odin Transmitter
        3. Yongnuo YN-560 IV/III Flashes And YN-560TX Transmitter
  12. Part 4: Gear for Speedliting
    1. Chapter 14. Go Ahead, Mod Your Speedlite
      1. The Short Version
      2. Why Mod?
        1. Two Places For Mods
        2. Three Purposes Of Mods
      3. Built-In Modifiers
        1. Tilt And Pan
        2. Zoom
        3. Wide-Angle Diffuser
        4. Catchlight Panel
      4. Options for Mounting Mods
        1. Honl Speed Strap
        2. Vello Cinch Strap
        3. DIY Strap
        4. Built-In Strap
      5. Globe and Dome Diffusers
        1. Strobros Globe Diffuser
        2. Sto-Fen Omni-Bounce
        3. Vello Universal Bounce Diffuser
        4. Use A Dome Diffuser In Close
      6. Bounce Reflectors
        1. Rogue FlashBender Large
        2. Honl 8″ Speed Snoot/Reflector
        3. Vello 8″ Snoot/Reflector
        4. LumiQuest ProMax Bounce System
        5. Your Hand...Seriously
      7. Softboxes that Attach to Speedlites
        1. Lastolite Ezybox Speed-Lite
        2. Impact Quikbox Micro
        3. Westcott Pocket Box Kit
        4. Rogue FlashBender 2 Large Softbox
        5. Fstoppers Flash Disc
        6. LumiQuest Softbox III
        7. Vello Universal Softbox
      8. Ring Light Adapters
        1. RoundFlash Magnetic Ringflash
        2. Ray Flash 2
        3. Orbis
        4. Use A Ring Light Adapter Off-Camera
      9. Grids
        1. Strobros Beauty Dish II And Grids
        2. Rogue 3-In-1 Honeycomb Grid
        3. Lastolite Strobo Grids
        4. Honl Speed Grids
      10. Snoots
        1. Rogue FlashBender Large
        2. Honl 8″ Speed Snoot/Reflector
        3. Strobros Snoot
        4. Lastolite Strobo Collapsible Snoot
      11. Projectors
        1. Spiffy Gear Light Blaster
        2. Lastolite Strobo Gobo
      12. Flags
        1. Rogue FlashBender Large
        2. Other Flags
        3. DIY Flags
        4. Consider Whether To Use The Black Or White Side To The Light
        5. Use Two Flags To Create A Slash Of Light
      13. Random Essentials
        1. Gels
        2. Rosco Cinefoil
        3. Gaffer’s Tape
      14. Deciding Which Mods are Right for You
        1. Two Novice Essentials
        2. Gear For The Enthusiast
        3. A Well-Stocked Speedliting Kit
    2. Chapter 15. Those Big Modifiers Always Get in the Way
      1. The Short Version
      2. Why Mod In a Big Way
        1. Three Types Of Big Modifiers
      3. Umbrellas
        1. Umbrella Fabrics
        2. Umbrella Sizes
        3. Convertible Umbrellas
        4. Collapsible (Double-Fold) Umbrellas
        5. Configurable Umbrellas
        6. Umbrella Pistol Grips
        7. How To Mount An Umbrella On A Light Stand
        8. Positioning Umbrellas On The Set
        9. Mounting Multiple Speedlites
        10. Double Umbrella Setups
        11. Use A Large Parabolic Umbrella To Create A Wide Field Of Soft Light
      4. Softboxes Made for Speedlites
        1. Anatomy Of A Softbox
        2. Softboxes That Mount Speedlites On The Inside
        3. Softboxes That Mount A Speedlite (Or Two) On The Outside
      5. Using Speedlites with Studio Softboxes
        1. Softbox Adapters For Speedliting
      6. Beauty Dishes
        1. Rigid Beauty Dishes For Speedliting
        2. Collapsible Beauty Dishes For Speedliting
      7. Scrims and Diffusion Panels
        1. Scrim And Diffuser Fabrics
        2. Styles
        3. How Diffuser Position Affects Light Quality
      8. Reflectors
        1. Foam Core Reflectors
        2. Fabric Reflectors
      9. Flags and Solids
        1. Flags
        2. Solids
    3. Chapter 16. Get A Grip
      1. The Short Version
      2. Mounting a Speedlite Anywhere
        1. Speedliting Begins With A Shoe
        2. Swivel Adapters
        3. Clamps
        4. Making A Special Connection
        5. Flexible Arms And Their Cousins
      3. Sometimes You Have to Take a Stand
        1. Lightweight Stands
        2. C-Stands—When Stability Matters
      4. Reaching Out: Poles, Booms, and Boom Stands
        1. Poles—Because Light Comes From Above
        2. Booms and Boom Stands
      5. Rails and Other Multi-Lite Mounts
        1. Mounts For Multiple Speedlites
        2. DIY Light Rails
        3. Turn Your C-Stand Into A Light Rail
      6. Staying Flexible: Bungies, Straps, and Gaff
        1. Bungies
        2. Velcro Straps
        3. Gaffer’s Tape
    4. Chapter 17. Keeping The Energy Up
      1. The Short Version
      2. Batteries Basically
      3. Single-Use Batteries
        1. Alkaline
        2. Lithium (Avoid)
      4. Rechargeable Batteries
        1. Nickel-Metal Hydride (NiMH)
        2. Low-Discharge Nickel-Metal Hydride (LD-NiMH)
      5. Best AA Batteries
        1. Best AA: When Life Gets In The Way
        2. Best AA: When Maximum Power Matters
        3. Best AA: When Finding Them Matters
      6. Battery Strategies
        1. Buying Batteries
        2. Avoid Mixing Batteries
        3. How I Manage Batteries
      7. External Battery Packs
        1. Speedlites With External Power Ports
        2. Overheating Is A Risk
        3. Your Speedlite Still Needs Internal Batteries
        4. External Power Options Via Custom Functions
        5. AA-Battery External Battery Packs
        6. High-Capacity External Battery Packs
      8. Charging Batteries
        1. The Risk Of Inexpensive Chargers
        2. What Makes A Charger Smart
        3. Maha C801D—My Favorite Charger
        4. Maha C204W—A Great Four-Cell Charger
      9. Carrying Batteries
        1. StoraCell Battery Caddy
  13. Part 5: Speedliting In Action
    1. Chapter 18. Getting The Most Out of On-Camera Flash
      1. The Short Version
      2. Pop-Up Flash vs. Speedlite
        1. The Convenience Of Pop-Up Flash Cannot Be Denied
        2. The Pop-Up Flash Is Best At Close Distances
        3. The Pop-Up Flash Always Looks Straight Ahead
        4. A Pop-Up Flash Cannot Be Zoomed
        5. The Pop-Up Flash As A Transmitter
        6. A Pop-Up Flash Will Not Do High-Speed Sync
        7. The Best Uses For A Pop-Up Flash
      3. Fill Shadows with On-Camera Flash
        1. On-Camera Key vs. On-Camera Fill Light
        2. E-TTL Is The Best Mode For Fill Flash
        3. High-Speed Sync Is A Huge Help With Fill Flash
      4. Create Soft Light By Bouncing On-Camera Flash
      5. Are Diffusers for On-Camera Flash Helpful?
      6. Other Tips for On-Camera Flash
        1. Place Your Shadows By Rotating Your Camera
        2. Align The Flash With Your Subject’s Nose
        3. Use A Flash Bracket That Centers The Speedlite Above The Lens
        4. That Little White Card Is Effective Only At Very Close Distances
        5. Dish Diffusers Waste Lots Of Light Unless There Is A Bounce Surface Nearby
    2. Chapter 19. Portraits With One Speedlite
      1. The Short Version
      2. Back to Basics, Quickly
        1. One Speedlite, So Many Jobs
        2. Location, Location, Location
      3. Shoot: Position Your Modifier with intention
        1. To Start, Raise The Modifier Slightly Above Your Subject’s Head
        2. Push Your Mod In For Softer Light, Pull It Out For Crisper Shadows
        3. Lighting Details
        4. Camera Details
      4. Shoot: One Speedlite with Fill Reflector
        1. Fly A Bit Of Light Past Your Subject For Fill
        2. Get Your Fill Reflector In Close
        3. Lighting Details
        4. Camera Details
      5. Shoot: Creating Soft Fill Light with a Big Umbrella
        1. Windowlight May Be Soft, But It Is Still Directional
        2. Blending Fill Flash Into Windowlight With A Large, White Umbrella
        3. Lighting Details
        4. Camera Details
      6. Shoot: Broad and Short Lighting
        1. Think About The Direction Of The Nose
        2. Rotate The Subject Or Move The Light
        3. Lighting Details
        4. Camera Details
      7. Shoot: Think of The Shutter as a Light Modifier
        1. Directing Your Viewer’s Focus
        2. Lighting Details
        3. Camera Details
      8. Shoot: Just a Slash of Light
        1. Use A Narrow Softbox To Light The Subject, But Not The Background
        2. Lighting Details
        3. Camera Details
      9. Shoot: RING The Lens with Light
        1. The Distinctive Look Of A Ring Flash
        2. The RoundFlash Is My Favorite Ring Light Adapter For Speedlites
        3. Lighting Details
        4. Camera Details
      10. Shoot: Nose to The Gridded Light
        1. Grids Are A Favorite Modifier
        2. A Window Creates Rim Light
        3. Lighting Details
        4. Camera Details
      11. Shoot: One-Light White Seamless
        1. Most Of The Flash Lights The Background
        2. Maximize The Separation Between The Wall And The Subject
        3. Lighting Details
        4. Camera Details
      12. Shoot: Speedliting a Silhouette
        1. Use Zoom To Create The Background Pattern
        2. Hide The Flash
        3. Sometimes Less Is More
        4. Lighting Details
        5. Camera Details
      13. Shoot: Does Softbox Size Matter?
        1. All Three Ezyboxes Create Soft Light
        2. The Difference Is The Reach Of The Light
        3. Lighting Details
        4. Camera Details
    3. Chapter 20. Portraits With Multiple Speedlites
      1. The Short Version
      2. Opening Horizons with Multiple Speedlites
        1. Advantages Of Multiple Speedlites
        2. Ways To Trigger Multiple Speedlites
        3. Deciding Among The Candidates For A Second (Or Third, Or...) Speedlite
      3. Shoot: Clamshell Lighting, Top to Bottom
        1. Meet The Clamshell—A Two-Speedlite Glamour Setup
        2. Control The Top-Bottom Ratio To Adjust The Shadows
        3. Clamshell With The Gear You Have
        4. A Clamshell With Optical Wireless
        5. Lighting Details
        6. Camera Details
      4. Shoot: Classic Three-Light Portrait
        1. Three Lights United By One Cause
        2. A Great Time To Use Wireless Manual Flash
        3. Build The Lighting One Flash At A Time
        4. Lighting Details
        5. Camera Details
      5. Shoot: Multiple Softboxes for Fill Flash
        1. Foliage Looks Better When Backlit
        2. Sorting Out The Ambient Exposure
        3. High-Speed Sync For Fill Flash
        4. Sometimes Photoshop Is The Best Option
        5. Lighting Details
        6. Camera Details
      6. Shoot: Three-Light Sports Portrait
        1. As Always, Start With The Ambient Light
        2. On-Camera Master Enabled For Fill Flash
        3. Creating Synergy Between Hatchet Lighting And Fill Flash
        4. Flag The Hatchets With FlashBenders
        5. Lighting Details
        6. Camera Details
      7. Shoot: Crossfire Lighting
        1. Crossfire Provides A Wide Range Of Lighting Angles
        2. Work Around The Subject In An Arc
        3. One-Light Crossfire Lighting
        4. Lighting Details
        5. Camera Details
      8. Shoot: Hard and Soft Light Outdoors
        1. To Start, Drop Your Subject In Shade
        2. Push A Large Softbox In On Top Of Your Subject
        3. Hard Light Adds Snap To Soft Light
        4. Hide Speedlites In The Shot To Light Environmental Elements
        5. Lighting Details
        6. Camera Details
      9. Shoot: Paired Speedlites in a Beauty Dish
        1. The Look Of The Beauty Dish
        2. Radio Speedliting On Older Cameras
        3. Underexposed Ambient
        4. Lighting Details
        5. Camera Details
      10. Shoot: Creating A Big Patch of Soft Light
        1. Creating A Big Field Of Soft Light
        2. Filling A Big Umbrella With Speedlites
        3. An Easy Situation For Optical Wireless
        4. Lighting Details
        5. Camera Details
      11. Shoot: Multiple Speedlites in a Softbox
        1. Why I Prefer A Softbox To An Umbrella
        2. Westcott’s Apollo Softboxes—A Great Softbox For Speedlites
        3. Multiple Speedlites Inside Shorten The Recycle Time
        4. Master And Slaves Together Inside The Softbox
        5. Lighting Details
        6. Camera Details
      12. Shoot: Multi-LIGHT, Second-Curtain Sync
        1. The Camera Must Sense That A Canon Speedlite Is Connected
        2. If You Do Not Use Canon Wireless, Then Second-Curtain Sync Remains Active
        3. Lighting Details
        4. Camera Details
    4. Chapter 21. Gelling For Effect
      1. The Short Version
      2. Gels Quickly
        1. The Main Uses Of Gels
      3. If Color Correction Is Needed, Did Something Go Wrong?
        1. Why Hollywood Invented Color Correction Gels
        2. Color...It’s A Balancing Act
      4. The Daylight Cycle Affects The Color of Sunlight
        1. Understanding Blue Hour And Golden Hour
      5. Think About White Balance as a Creative Tool
        1. Creativity Is Often A Matter Of Balance
        2. Disconnect The Color Of Your Flash From The Color Of The Ambient Light
        3. Using A RAW Workflow With Gels
      6. Gel Systems
        1. Canon’s 600EX-RT Gel Holder
        2. Rogue Lighting Filter Kits
        3. Rosco Strobist Gel Collection
      7. How I Mount Gels
        1. Velcro Speed Strap—My Favorite
        2. Gaffer’s Tape—Inexpensive and Versatile
        3. Gels Under Modifiers
      8. Getting Dramatic with Color
      9. My Favorite Gels
        1. Must Have: CTO Gels
        2. Must Have: Color Effect Gels
        3. Optional: Other Color Correction Gels
      10. Shoot: Gelled Fill Flash at Sunset
        1. It’s Not Whether To Fill, It’s How To Fill
        2. Use A Bit Of CTO Gel To Warm The Fill
        3. Lighting Details
        4. Camera Details
      11. Shoot: Golden Hour at any Time
        1. Creating The Look Of A Rising/Setting Sun
        2. Suck Out The Ambient Light First
        3. Ask Your Subject To Confirm That The Flash Is In View
        4. Lighting Details
        5. Camera Details
      12. Shoot: Bluer Than Blue Skies
        1. The Tricky Tungsten Trick
        2. Put Your Subject In Shade First
        3. Lighting Details
        4. Camera Details
      13. Shoot: Coloring the Night
        1. Hide The Ambient Light
        2. Daylight WB, Two Gels, A Flag, And A Grid
        3. Be Open To “Accidents”
        4. Lighting Details
        5. Camera Details
    5. Chapter 22. Slicing Time With High-Speed Sync
      1. The Short Version
      2. High-Speed Sync is a Game Changer for Flash Photographers
        1. Three Types Of Shots You Can Make With High-Speed Sync
      3. Activating High-Speed Sync
        1. Activating HSS On The 600EX-RT
        2. Activating HSS On The 500- And 400-Series EX Speedlites
        3. Activating HSS On 2012 And Newer Camera Models
        4. Activating HSS On Pre-2011 Camera Models
      4. Syncing Flash Normally
        1. X-Sync Speed
        2. Why Flash Won’t Sync At Faster Shutter Speeds
        3. Your Camera Will Override Your Settings
      5. High-Speed Sync Changes the Way Your Speedlite Fires
        1. Changing The Way The Speedlite Fires
        2. The Power Hit In High-Speed Sync
      6. Workflow for Creating Dramatic Light with HSS
        1. Use HSS To Emphasize The Subject And De-Emphasize The Background
      7. Alternatives to High-Speed Sync
        1. Faux-Speed Sync
        2. Neutral Density Filters
      8. Shoot: Flashing Wide Open in Full Sun
        1. On-Camera Flash In Full Sun
        2. Camera Details
      9. Shoot: Dimming the Sun
        1. Previsualizing The Shoot
        2. Revisualizing And Seizing The Moment
        3. Dimming The Sun Makes The Shot
        4. Hatchet Lighting At Its Best
        5. Lighting Details
        6. Camera Details
      10. Shoot: Fill Flash with High-Speed Action
        1. Create A Zone Of Fill Light
        2. Squeeze Every Photon Out By Switching To Manual
        3. Move The Master To A Spot That The Slaves Can See
        4. Lighting Details
        5. Camera Details
      11. Shoot: When High-Speed Sync is Not the Best Choice
        1. Using Flash Duration As A Shutter
        2. The Soggy Evidence
        3. Lighting Details
        4. Camera Details
    6. Chapter 23. Gang Lighting
      1. The Short Version
      2. Gang Lighting—A New Way to Light
        1. Smashing Pumpkins: Lessons Learned
        2. Gang Light As A Light Modifier
        3. Gang Light Overcomes HSS Power Loss
        4. How To Be A Gang Lighter
        5. The Math Of Gang Lighting
        6. The Perfect Excuse For A Meetup
        7. Building Rails For Gang Light
        8. Other Options For Mounting Gang Lights
        9. Comparing A Bunch Of Speedlites To Other Options
        10. Options For Firing Gang Lights
      3. Shoot: Smashing Pumpkins
        1. Freezing Supersonic Seeds
        2. Why Line-Of-Sight Wireless Would Have Failed
        3. Changing The Weather With High-Speed Sync
        4. Lighting Details
        5. Camera Details
      4. Shoot: Hiding a Cluttered Background
        1. The Falloff Is The Key
        2. Speedlites Mimicking A Long Softbox
        3. Lighting Details
        4. Camera Details
      5. Shoot: Pushing Back Against The Desert Sun
        1. Gang Lighting Fill Flash At High Noon
        2. A Bit Of Photoshop
        3. Lighting Details
        4. Camera Details
  14. Part 6: Appendixes
    1. Appendix 1: Menus—600EX-RT / ST-E3-RT Radio Wireless
      1. E-TTL Menu 1—Radio Master
      2. E-TTL Menu 2—Radio Master
      3. E-TTL Menu 3—Radio Master
      4. E-TTL Menu 4—Radio Master
      5. Manual Menu 1—Radio Master
      6. Manual Menu 2—Radio Master
      7. Manual Menu 3—Radio Master
      8. Manual Menu 4—Radio Master
      9. Multi Menu 1—Radio Master
      10. Multi Menu 2—Radio Master
      11. Multi Menu 3—Radio Master
      12. Multi Menu 4—Radio Master
      13. Group Menu 1—Radio Master
      14. Group Menu 2—Radio Master
      15. Group Menu 3—Radio Master
      16. Group Menu 4—Radio Master
      17. Slave Menu 1—Radio Wireless
      18. Slave Menu 2—Radio Wireless
      19. Slave Menu 3—Radio Wireless
    2. Appendix 2: Menus—600EX-RT Optical Wireless
      1. E-TTL Menu 1—Optical Master
      2. E-TTL Menu 2—Optical Master
      3. E-TTL Menu 3—Optical Master
      4. Manual Menu 1—Optical Master
      5. Manual Menu 2—Optical Master
      6. Manual Menu 3—Optical Master
      7. Multi Menu 1—Optical Master
      8. Multi Menu 2—Optical Master
      9. Multi Menu 3—Optical Master
      10. Slave Menu 1—Optical Wireless
      11. Slave Menu 2—Optical Wireless
    3. Appendix 3: Menus—600EX-RT Non-Wireless
      1. E-TTL—Non-Wireless
      2. Manual—Non-Wireless
      3. Multi—Non-Wireless
      4. External Auto—Non-Wireless
      5. External Manual—Non-Wireless
    4. Appendix 4: Custom And Personal Functions
      1. Setting Custom Functions
      2. The Must-Change Custom Function
      3. 600EX-RT Custom Functions
      4. 600EX-RT Personal Functions
      5. ST-E3-RT Custom Functions
      6. ST-E3-RT Personal Functions
      7. 580EX II
      8. 580EX
      9. 550EX
      10. 430EX II
      11. 430EX
      12. 320EX
      13. 270EX II
      14. 270EX
  15. Index