You are previewing Special Edition Using MS-DOS® 6.22, Third Edition.
O'Reilly logo
Special Edition Using MS-DOS® 6.22, Third Edition

Book Description

Special Edition Using MS-DOS 6.22, Third Edition is an update to the successful best seller and the only up-to-date title on the market today. This edition will add to the second edition's coverage in the following areas:

  • Updates the entire book to reflect current technology and provide better readability.

  • Updates compatibility with the addition of Windows ME/2000 operating systems.

  • Table of Contents

    1. Copyright
    2. About the Author
    3. Tell Us What You Think!
    4. INTRODUCTION
      1. Who Should Read This Book?
      2. What Hardware Do You Need?
      3. What Versions Are Covered?
      4. What Is Not Covered?
      5. How Is This Book Organized?
        1. Part I: DOS Fundamentals
        2. Part II: Files and Directories
        3. Part III: Controlling DOS
        4. Part IV: Maximizing DOS
        5. Appendixes
      6. Conventions Used in This Book
    5. I. DOS Fundamentals
      1. 1. DOS and the Personal Computer
        1. DOS, Windows, and the PC
        2. Other Flavors of DOS
        3. PC Hardware
          1. The PC Architecture
          2. Computer Memory
          3. Peripheral Devices
        4. What Happens When the Power Is Turned On?
        5. DOS and Random Access Memory
          1. Conventional Memory
          2. Expanded Memory
          3. Extended Memory
        6. DOS and Disks
      2. 2. Starting DOS
        1. Booting Your Computer
          1. Understanding the Boot Disk
          2. Creating a Floppy Boot Disk
        2. System Configuration
          1. CONFIG.SYS
          2. AUTOEXEC.BAT
        3. Creating Multiple Configurations
          1. Creating a Default Configuration
          2. Displaying Color Menus
          3. Using the Configuration Menu As a System Menu
        4. Project: Controlling the Boot Process
      3. 3. Using DOS Commands
        1. Understanding Dos Commands
          1. Internal Versus External
        2. Understanding the Elements of a DOS Command
          1. The Command Syntax
          2. The Command-Line Parameters
          3. The Optional Switches
        3. Getting Help
          1. Using the Command-Line Help Switch
          2. Using the Online Help System
            1. Navigating the Help System
            2. Printing a Topic
            3. Searching for a Topic
            4. Exiting the Help System
        4. Issuing DOS Commands
          1. Editing and Canceling Commands
          2. Using Scroll Control
          3. Using Wildcards in DOS Commands
        5. Troubleshooting
      4. 4. Using the DOS Shell
        1. What Is the DOS Shell?
        2. Starting the DOS Shell
          1. Using the Shell Interface
          2. Selecting an Area
          3. Moving Around an Area
        3. Using the DOS Shell Menus
          1. Using the Menu Bar
          2. Using Pull-Down Menus
          3. Using Keystroke Commands
          4. Using Dialog Boxes
            1. Using a Text Box
            2. Using a List Box
            3. Using Option Buttons
            4. Using Option Check Boxes
            5. Using Command Buttons
          5. Modifying the View
            1. Logging On to a Different Disk
            2. Switching Between Dual and Single File Lists
            3. Displaying All Files
            4. Switching Between the Program List and the Program/File Lists
        4. Using the Shell Screen Modes
        5. Using the Program List
          1. Working with Program Groups
            1. Adding a Program Group
            2. Modifying Program Group Properties
            3. Deleting a Program Group
            4. Changing the Order of a Group's Listings
          2. Working with Program Items
            1. Adding a Program Item
            2. Modifying Program Items
            3. Deleting a Program Item
            4. Using Shortcut Keys
        6. Working with Directories
          1. Expanding and Collapsing Branches
          2. Creating Directories
        7. Working with Files
          1. Selecting a Single File
          2. Selecting Multiple Files
          3. Selecting All Files
          4. Deselecting All Files
          5. Selecting Files Across Directories
          6. Copying Files in the Shell
          7. Moving a File in the Shell
          8. Using the Shell to View a File
          9. Associating Files with Programs
        8. Using the Task Swapper
        9. Project: Using the Help System
    6. II. Files and Directories
      1. 5. Understanding Files and Directories
        1. Introducing the DOS File System
          1. Understanding Files
          2. Understanding Filenames
            1. Creating Filenames
            2. Avoiding Reserved Names
          3. Observing File-Naming Conventions
          4. Understanding File Attributes
            1. Changing File Attributes with the ATTRIB Command
            2. Establishing Read-Only Files
        2. Understanding the Role of Directories
        3. Expanding the File System Through Subdirectories
          1. Understanding Pathname Expressions
          2. Creating Directories with MKDIR (MD)
          3. Changing the Current Directory with CHDIR (CD)
          4. Deleting Directories with RMDIR (RD)
          5. Using DELTREE to Delete Directories
          6. Renaming Directories
        4. Helping DOS Find Files with PATH
        5. Listing Directories with TREE
        6. Using a Temporary Directory
        7. Troubleshooting
      2. 6. Understanding Disks and Disk Drives
        1. Understanding the Disk's Magnetic Storage Technique
        2. Understanding Disk Drives
          1. Hard Disk Drives
          2. Floppy Disk Drives
          3. Write-Protecting a Floppy Disk
        3. Understanding the Dynamics of the Disk Drive
          1. Disk Drive Heads
          2. Disk Tracks
          3. Disk Cylinders
          4. Disk Sectors
        4. Understanding Disk Formats
          1. Floppy Disk Formats
          2. Raw Capacity and Usable Capacity
          3. Hard Disk Drive Formats
        5. Understanding DoubleSpace
          1. Installing DoubleSpace
          2. Controlling the Operation of DoubleSpace
          3. Displaying Compressed Drive Information
          4. Changing the Size of a Compressed Drive
          5. Changing the Compression Ratio
          6. Formatting a Compressed Drive
          7. Deleting a Compressed Drive
          8. Creating a New Compressed Drive
          9. Using Other DoubleSpace Features
        6. Case Study: Adjusting for Drift
      3. 7. Preparing and Maintaining Disks
        1. Understanding Disk Preparation
        2. Preparing Floppy Disks with the FORMAT Command
          1. Formatting Floppy Disks
          2. FORMAT's Other Tasks
          3. Using FORMAT's Switches
            1. Performing a Quick Format (/Q)
            2. Performing an Unconditional Format (/U)
            3. Adding System Files (/S)
        3. Preparing the Hard Disk
          1. Dividing a Hard Disk with FDISK
            1. Checking Partition Status
          2. Partitioning a Drive
          3. Formatting a Hard Disk
        4. Disk Commands
          1. Naming Disks with LABEL
          2. Examining Volume Labels with VOL
          3. Using SYS to Transfer the DOS System
        5. Getting the Most Speed from Your Hard Disk
          1. Using a Disk Cache (SMARTDrive)
          2. Using FASTOPEN
          3. Using a RAM Disk
          4. Defragmenting Your Disk
            1. Understanding the Effects of Fragmentation
            2. Understanding the Basic Operation of DEFRAG
        6. Getting the Most Space from Your Hard Disk
          1. Deleting Unnecessary Files
          2. Using File Compression
          3. Archiving Files
        7. Projects
          1. Analyzing a Disk with CHKDSK
          2. Analyzing a Disk with the SCANDISK Utility
      4. 8. Managing Your Files
        1. Using DOS to Work with Files
        2. Listing Files with the DIR Command
          1. Issuing the DIR Command
          2. Understanding the Operation of the DIR Command
          3. Displaying a Screen of Information with the DIR Command
            1. Using the Attributes Switch (/A)
            2. Using the Order Switch (/O)
            3. Using the /B and /L Switches
          4. Searching for Files with the DIR Command
          5. Customizing the DIR Command
        3. Viewing Files
          1. Understanding Types of Files
          2. Using the TYPE Command to View Files
        4. Copying Files
          1. Using the COPY Command
            1. Copying Groups of Files
            2. Combining Text Files
            3. Renaming Files with COPY
            4. Copying from a Device to a File
          2. Using the XCOPY Command
            1. Understanding the Operation of XCOPY
            2. Using XCOPY Effectively
            3. Duplicating Disks with XCOPY
            4. Duplicating a Directory Branch
          3. Copying Entire Disks with DISKCOPY
        5. Moving Files
          1. Moving Directories and Files
          2. Renaming Directories with MOVE
        6. Setting Defaults for COPY, XCOPY, and MOVE
        7. Renaming Files
        8. Comparing Files
          1. Comparing Files with FC
            1. Understanding the Operation of FC
            2. Using FC to Compare a Copied File to Its Original
            3. Comparing Two Text Files
          2. Comparing Disks with DISKCOMP
        9. Deleting Files
          1. Understanding the Delete Operation
          2. Deleting Files from the Command Line
          3. Deleting Unwanted Files
        10. Using Interlnk to Share Another Computer's Resources
          1. Setting Up Interlnk
          2. Loading INTERLNK.EXE
          3. Loading the Server
          4. Establishing the Interlnk Connection
          5. Using Interlnk to Transfer Files
          6. Using a Remote Printer
          7. Installing Interlnk Remotely
          8. Running Programs Remotely
        11. Case Study: Editing Files with Multiple Data Formats
      5. 9. Protecting Your Data
        1. Avoiding Data Loss
        2. Understanding Microsoft Backup
          1. Configuring the Backup Programs
          2. Understanding Microsoft Backup Functions
          3. Backup Types
          4. Issuing the MSBACKUP Command
        3. Using Microsoft Backup
          1. Performing a Full Backup
            1. Performing a Full Backup with MSBACKUP
            2. Comparing the Backup to the Original Files
            3. Performing a Full Backup in Windows 3.x
          2. Performing Intermediate Backups
            1. Performing an Incremental Backup
            2. Performing a Differential Backup
          3. Special-Purpose Backups
            1. Selecting Files Manually
            2. Choosing Files Using Selection Criteria
            3. Editing the Include/Exclude List in MSBACKUP
            4. Editing the Include/Exclude List in Microsoft Backup for Windows 3.x
          4. Using Other Backup Options
          5. Restoring Backup Files
            1. Restoring Files After a Disk Failure
            2. Performing a Selective Restore
        4. Understanding Computer Viruses
          1. Understanding How Viruses Spread
          2. Fighting Viruses with Microsoft Anti-Virus
            1. Understanding Checklists
            2. Listing Viruses
          3. Using the Windows Version of Microsoft Anti-Virus
          4. Guarding Against Infection
        5. Unformatting a Disk
          1. Recovering from an Accidental Format
          2. Recovering from an Accidental Format Without a MIRROR Image File
          3. Rebuilding a Partition Table
        6. Recovering Deleted Files with UNDELETE
          1. Using UNDELETE from the Command Line
          2. Recovering Files with UNDELETE
          3. Using the DOS Directory to Recover a File
        7. Using the Microsoft Undelete Program for Windows 3.x
          1. Configuring Microsoft Undelete
          2. Selecting Files to Recover
          3. Recovering Files
          4. Using Other Options
        8. Project: Developing a Backup Policy
    7. III. Controlling DOS
      1. 10. Working with System Information
        1. Changing the Date and Time
          1. Issuing the DATE Command
          2. Issuing the TIME Command
        2. Displaying the Version Using the VER Command
        3. Setting the Version Using the SETVER Command
        4. Displaying Memory Statistics
          1. Issuing the MEM Command
          2. Understanding the Operation of MEM
        5. Loading a Secondary Command Processor
          1. Issuing the COMMAND Command
          2. Understanding the Operation of COMMAND.COM
          3. Using EXIT to Leave the Current Copy of the Command Processor
          4. Uses for a Secondary Command Processor
      2. 11. Controlling Your Environment
        1. Changing DOS Variables
          1. Issuing the SET Command
          2. Changing Environment Variables with SET
          3. Defining Your Own Environmental Variables with SET
        2. Changing the User Interface
          1. Changing the Command Prompt with PROMPT
            1. Issuing the PROMPT Command
            2. Understanding the Use of Meta-Strings
          2. Altering the Look of the Screen with mode
            1. Selecting the Display Type
            2. Shifting the Screen on a Color Graphics Adapter
            3. Using MODE to Adjust the Number of Columns or Lines Onscreen
        3. Changing Disk Drives
          1. The ASSIGN Command
          2. The JOIN Command
          3. The SUBST Command
            1. Issuing the SUBST Command
            2. Using SUBST to Reference a Path with a Drive Letter
            3. Understanding the General Rules for Using SUBST
          4. Using the COMSPEC Variable
      3. 12. Using Peripherals
        1. Understanding Device Drivers
          1. Understanding Hardware Interrupts
          2. Understanding Direct Memory Access (DMA) Channels
          3. Understanding Memory Input/Output Addresses
        2. Setting Up Device Drivers
        3. Troubleshooting Device Drivers
      4. 13. Controlling Devices
        1. Device Commands
        2. The CLS Command
        3. The GRAPHICS Command
          1. Issuing the GRAPHICS Command
          2. Using GRAPHICS to Print a Screen Image
        4. The PRINT Command
          1. Issuing the PRINT Command
          2. Using PRINT to Print Several Files
          3. General Rules for Using PRINT
        5. The CTTY Command
        6. The MODE Command
          1. Using MODE to Change Parallel Port Settings
            1. Issuing the MODE Command
            2. Using MODE to Print a Large File
            3. General Rules for Using MODE to Change Parallel Port Settings
          2. Using MODE to Change Serial Port Settings
            1. Using MODE to Set the Serial Port
            2. General Rules for Using MODE with Serial Ports
          3. Using MODE to Redirect a Parallel Port to a Serial Port
            1. Issuing the MODE Command to Redirect Ports
            2. Using MODE to Redirect Ports
            3. General Rules for Using MODE to Redirect Ports
          4. Using MODE to Change the Typematic Rate
        7. Using Redirection Commands
          1. Issuing the Redirection Operators
          2. General Rules for Using Redirection
        8. The MORE Filter
          1. Issuing the MORE Filter
          2. Using MORE to Pause the Screen
          3. General Rules for Using MORE
        9. The FIND Filter
          1. Issuing the FIND Filter
          2. Using FIND to Find Files on Disk
          3. General Rules for Using FIND
        10. The SORT Filter
          1. Issuing the SORT Filter
          2. Using SORT to Sort Subdirectory Listings
          3. General Rules for Using SORT
      5. 14. Understanding the International Features of DOS
        1. Internationalization
        2. Understanding COUNTRY.SYS
        3. Understanding KEYB.COM
        4. Understanding Code Page Switching
          1. Checking Your Hardware for Code Page Switching
          2. Installing Code Page Switching
            1. Using DISPLAY.SYS
            2. Using PRINTER.SYS
            3. Using NLSFUNC.EXE
          3. Loading the Code Page Tables
          4. Switching the Code Page
          5. Exploring More Uses for MODE and CODEPAGE
          6. Considering Keyboard Remappings
          7. Using Dead Keys
          8. Using Foreign-Language Commands
        5. International Country Codes
    8. IV. Maximizing DOS
      1. 15. Using the DOS Editor
        1. Understanding the DOS Editor
          1. Uses for the DOS Editor
          2. Files Required to Run the DOS Editor
          3. Using the DOS Editor from a Floppy Disk
          4. Starting the DOS Editor
          5. Getting Acquainted with the Initial Editor Screen
        2. Navigating the DOS Editor
          1. Understanding the Menu System
          2. Understanding Dialog Boxes
          3. Using Shortcut Keys
          4. Using a Mouse
        3. Mastering Fundamental Editing Techniques
          1. Moving the Cursor
          2. Scrolling
          3. Inserting Text into a Line
          4. Deleting Text from a Line
          5. Splitting and Joining Lines
          6. Inserting and Deleting an Entire Line
          7. Overtyping
        4. Learning Special Editing Techniques
          1. Using Automatic Indent
          2. Using Tab
          3. Using Place Markers
        5. Block Editing
          1. Selecting Text
          2. Understanding the Clipboard
          3. Working with Text Blocks
        6. Searching and Replacing
          1. Using the Find Command
          2. Using the Change Command
        7. Managing Files
          1. Introducing the File Menu
          2. Saving a File
            1. Using the Save As Command
            2. Using the Save Command
          3. Using the Open Command to Load a File
          4. Loading a File When You First Start the DOS Editor
          5. Using the New Command
          6. Printing a File
          7. Exiting the DOS Editor
        8. Starting the DOS Editor with Optional Switches
        9. Project: Customizing the DOS Editor Screen
          1. Changing Colors and Removing Scrollbars
          2. Saving Customized Settings
          3. Using the Help System
      2. 16. Understanding Batch Files
        1. Introducing Batch Files
        2. Understanding the Contents of Batch Files
        3. Creating a Simple Batch File
        4. Understanding Replaceable Parameters
        5. Using Batch File Commands
          1. Displaying Messages and Inserting Comments
          2. Branching with GOTO
          3. Using the IF Command
            1. Using IF to Test ERRORLEVEL
            2. Using IF to Compare Strings
            3. Using IF to Look for Files
        6. Pausing for Input in a Batch File
          1. Making a Two-Way Choice
          2. Creating a Simple Menu
          3. Creating a Simple Display Menu
        7. Using FOR..IN..DO
          1. Using a FOR..IN..DO Batch File
          2. Using FOR..IN..DO at the DOS Prompt
          3. Using FOR..IN..DO with Other Commands
        8. Moving Parameters with SHIFT
        9. Running Batch Files from Other Batch Files
          1. Shifting Control Permanently to Another Batch File
          2. Calling a Batch File and Returning Using CALL
          3. Using COMMAND.COM to Execute a Batch File
      3. 17. Understanding ANSI.SYS
        1. What Is ANSI.SYS?
        2. Installing ANSI.SYS
        3. Using ANSI.SYS
          1. Issuing ANSI.SYS Codes in Batch Files
          2. Issuing ANSI.SYS Codes in Text Files
          3. Issuing ANSI.SYS Codes with the PROMPT Command
        4. Controlling Your Screen with ANSI.SYS
          1. Cursor Movement
          2. Cursor Positioning
          3. Setting the Screen Mode
          4. Setting the Text Attributes
          5. Screen Control
        5. Customizing Your Keyboard with ANSI.SYS
          1. Reassigning Character Keys
        6. ANSI Control Codes
          1. ANSI Set and Reset Display Mode Control Codes
          2. ANSI Display Color and Attribute Control Codes
          3. ANSI Cursor Control Codes
          4. ANSI Miscellaneous Display Control Codes
          5. ANSI Keyboard Layout Control Codes
      4. 18. Mastering DOSKEY and Macros
        1. Using DOSKEY
          1. Loading DOSKEY
          2. Editing the Command Line
          3. Reusing Commands
        2. Creating and Using Macros
          1. Creating Macros
          2. Running Macros
          3. Deleting Macros
      5. 19. Configuring Your Computer
        1. Getting the Most from Your Computer Resources
        2. Understanding Device Drivers
        3. Optimizing Your Computer's Memory
          1. Using Extended Memory and HIMEM.SYS
          2. Understanding HIMEM.SYS
          3. Loading DOS into High Memory
          4. Using Expanded Memory and EMM386.EXE
          5. Loading Device Drivers and TSRs into Upper Memory
          6. Displaying the Amount of Free and Used Memory
          7. Configuring Memory with MemMaker
            1. Using Express Setup
            2. Using Custom Setup
        4. Providing Memory for Your Applications
        5. Increasing Hard Disk Performance
        6. Fine-Tuning Your Computer with CONFIG.SYS and AUTOEXEC.BAT
          1. Accessing Files through FCBS
          2. Using the FILES Command
          3. Using LASTDRIVE to Change the Number of Disk Drives
          4. Using the SHELL Command
          5. Using the INSTALL Command
          6. Using the REM Command
          7. Using the SWITCHES Command
          8. Telling DOS When to Break
          9. Using the DOS Pretender Commands
          10. Using Other Device Control Commands
      6. 20. Networking DOS
        1. Common Networks for DOS-Based Computers
        2. Learning Preinstallation Items
        3. Installing the Novell NetWare Client Software
        4. Installing the Microsoft Network Client
        5. Using the Network
        6. Project: Network Client Setup Tips
      7. 21. Connecting to the Internet
        1. Internet Connection Options for DOS-Based Computers
        2. Connecting to Your ISP
        3. Using Internet Tools
        4. A Sample FTP Session
        5. Project: Common Problems with DOS Internet Tools
      8. 22. Third-Party Utilities
        1. Enhancing Your Computer with Utility Programs
        2. Understanding Freeware, Shareware, and Demoware
        3. PKWare's PKZIP and PKUNZIP
        4. McAfee VirusScan
        5. 4DOS
    9. V. Appendixes
      1. A. Files Supplied with MS-DOS 6.22
        1. About MS-DOS Files
        2. MS-DOS 6.22 Files
        3. MS-DOS 6.22 Supplemental Disk Files
        4. MS-DOS Utility File Extensions by Version
      2. B. DOS Environment Variables
        1. Understanding the DOS Environment
        2. APPEND
        3. COMSPEC
        4. CONFIG
        5. COPYCMD
        6. DIRCMD
        7. MSDOSDATA
        8. PATH
        9. PROMPT
        10. TEMP and TMP
        11. windir
        12. WINPMT
      3. C. DOS Messages
        1. General DOS Messages
        2. DOS Device Error Messages
      4. D. DOS and DOS Utility Programs' Keyboard Commands
        1. DOS Startup Control Keys
        2. ROM BIOS Control Keys
        3. DOS Control Keys
        4. Command-Line Editing Keys Without DOSKEY
        5. Command-Line Editing Keys with DOSKEY
        6. Edit Keystroke Commands
        7. DOS Shell Keystroke Commands
      5. E. ASCII and Extended ASCII Codes
      6. F. Command Reference
        1. DOS Commands by Function
          1. Batch File Commands
          2. CONFIG.SYS Commands
          3. CONFIG.SYS DEVICE= Drivers
          4. Directory Commands
          5. Disk Commands
          6. File Commands
          7. DOS Applications
          8. Help Commands
          9. International Commands and Device Drivers
          10. Memory and System Performance Commands
          11. Miscellaneous Commands
          12. Windows Applications
        2. Conventions Used in This Command Reference
          1. Icons Used in This Command Reference
          2. Filenames and Pathnames
          3. Legal Filename Characters
          4. DOS Reserved Names
        3. ?, * 1.0 and later—Internal
          1. Using the ? Wildcard Character in a Filename or Extension
          2. Using the * Wildcard Character in a Filename or Extension
          3. Examples
          4. See Also
        4. > and >> 2.0 and later—Internal
          1. See Also
        5. < 2.0 and later—Internal
          1. See Also
        6. | 2.0 and later—Internal
          1. See Also
        7. :label 1.0 and later—Internal
          1. Syntax
          2. Notes
          3. Examples
          4. Messages
          5. See Also
        8. %n 1.0 and later—Internal
          1. Syntax
          2. Notes
          3. Examples
          4. See Also
        9. %envir% 4.0 and later—Internal
          1. Syntax
          2. Notes
          3. Examples
          4. See Also
        10. @ 4.0 and later—Internal
          1. Syntax
          2. Notes
          3. See Also
        11. ; 6.0 and later—Internal
          1. Syntax
          2. Notes
          3. Examples
          4. See Also
        12. ? 6.0 and later—Internal
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Notes
          4. Examples
          5. Messages
          6. See Also
        13. [blockname] 6.0 and later—Internal
          1. Syntax
          2. Notes
          3. Examples
          4. See Also
        14. ANSI.SYS (device driver) 2.0 and later—External
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Notes
          4. Examples
          5. See Also
        15. APPEND 3.3 and later—External
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Notes
          4. Examples
          5. Messages
          6. See Also
        16. ASSIGN 2.0 to 5.0—External
          1. Using SUBST Instead of ASSIGN
          2. See Also
        17. ATTRIB 3.0 and later—External
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Notes
          4. Examples
          5. Messages
          6. See Also
        18. BACKUP 2.0 to 5.0—External
          1. See Also
        19. BREAK 2.0 and later—Internal
        20. BREAK= 2.0 and later—Internal
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Notes
          4. See Also
        21. BUFFERS= 2.0 and later—Internal
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Notes
          4. See Also
        22. CALL 3.3 and later—Internal
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Notes
          4. Examples
          5. Messages
          6. See Also
        23. CD or CHDIR 2.0 and later—Internal
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Notes
          4. Examples
          5. Messages
          6. See Also
        24. CHAIN
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
        25. CHCP 3.3 and later—Internal
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Notes
          4. Messages
          5. See Also
        26. CHDIR (see CD)
        27. CHECK
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Remarks
        28. CHKDSK 1.0 and later—External
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Exit Codes
          4. Rules
          5. Notes
          6. Messages
          7. See Also
        29. CHKSTATE.SYS (see MEMMAKER)
          1. See Also
        30. CHOICE 6.0 and later—External
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Exit Codes
          4. Notes
          5. Examples
          6. See Also
        31. CLS 2.0 and later—Internal
          1. Syntax
          2. Notes
          3. See Also
        32. CMOSCLK.SYS
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Notes
        33. CNFIGNAM.EXE
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Notes
        34. COMMAND 2.0 and later—External
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Rules
          4. Notes
          5. See Also
        35. COMP 1.0 to 5.0—External
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Notes
          4. Messages
          5. See Also
        36. CONFIG
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
        37. COPY 1.0 and later—Internal
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Rules
          4. Notes
          5. Messages
          6. See Also
        38. COUNTRY= 3.0 and later—Internal
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Notes
          4. Examples
          5. See Also
        39. COUNTRY.SYS (see COUNTRY=)
          1. See Also
        40. CPBACKUP
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Notes
          4. See Also
        41. CPBDIR
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. See Also
        42. CPSCHED
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. See Also
        43. CRC
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
        44. CREATE
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. See Also
        45. CSCRIPT
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Notes
        46. CTTY 2.0 and later—Internal
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Notes
          4. See Also
        47. CURSOR.EXE
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
        48. CVT.EXE
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Notes
        49. DATAMON
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Notes
        50. DATE 1.0 and later—Internal
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Notes
          4. See Also
        51. DBLSPACE 6.0 and later—External
          1. Syntax
          2. Notes
          3. See Also
        52. DBLSPACE/AUTOMOUNT 6.2—External
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Notes
          4. Examples
          5. See Also
        53. DBLSPACE/CHKDSK 6.0 only—External
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Notes
          4. See Also
        54. DBLSPACE/COMPRESS 6.0 and later—External
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Notes
          4. Examples
          5. See Also
        55. DBLSPACE/CREATE 6.0 and later—External
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Notes
          4. Examples
          5. See Also
        56. DBLSPACE/DEFRAGMENT 6.0 and later—External
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Notes
          4. See Also
        57. DBLSPACE/DELETE 6.0 and later—External
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Notes
          4. See Also
        58. DBLSPACE/DOUBLEGUARD 6.2—External
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Notes
          4. Examples
          5. See Also
        59. DBLSPACE/FORMAT 6.0 and later—External
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Notes
          4. See Also
        60. DBLSPACE/INFO 6.0 and later—External
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. See Also
        61. DBLSPACE/LIST 6.0 and later—External
          1. Syntax
          2. See Also
        62. DBLSPACE/MOUNT 6.0 and later—External
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Notes
          4. Examples
          5. See Also
        63. DBLSPACE /RATIO 6.0 and later—External
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Notes
          4. Examples
          5. See Also
        64. DBLSPACE/SIZE 6.0 and later—External
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Examples
          4. See Also
        65. DBLSPACE/UNCOMPRESS 6.2—External
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Notes
          4. See Also
        66. DBLSPACE/UNMOUNT 6.0 and later—External
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Notes
          4. See Also
        67. DBLSPACE.SYS (device driver) 6.0 and later— External
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Notes
          4. Examples
          5. See Also
        68. DCONVERT
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Notes
          4. See Also
        69. DEBUG 1.0 and later—External
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Notes
          4. Examples
        70. DEFRAG 6.0 and later—External
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Exit Codes
          4. Notes
          5. See Also
        71. DEL or ERASE 1.0 and later—Internal
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Notes
          4. Messages
          5. See Also
        72. DELOLDOS 5.0 and later—External
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Notes
          4. See Also
        73. DELPURGE.EXE
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
        74. DELWATCH.EXE
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. See Also
        75. DELQ or ERAQ
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
        76. DELTREE 6.0 and later—External
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Exit Codes
          4. Notes
          5. See Also
        77. DEVICE= 2.0 and later—Internal
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Notes
          4. Examples
          5. Messages
          6. See Also
        78. DEVICEHIGH= 5.0 and later—Internal
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Notes
          4. Examples
          5. Messages
          6. See Also
        79. DEVLOAD
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
        80. DIR 1.0 and later—Internal
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Notes
          4. See Also
        81. DISKCOMP 1.0 and later—External
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Exit Codes
          4. Notes
          5. Messages
          6. See Also
        82. DISKCOPY 1.0 and later—External
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Exit Codes
          4. Notes
          5. Messages
          6. See Also
        83. DISKMAP.EXE
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
        84. DISKOPT.EXE
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
        85. DISPLAY.SYS (device driver) 3.3 and later— External
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Notes
          4. Examples
          5. See Also
        86. DOS= 5.0 and later—Internal
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Notes
          4. Examples
          5. Messages
          6. See Also
        87. DOSBOOK
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
        88. DOSDATA
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
        89. DOSDOCK
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
        90. DOSKEY 5.0 and later—External
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Notes
          4. Examples
          5. Messages
          6. See Also
        91. DOSSHELL 4.0 to 6.0—External
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Notes
          4. Examples
          5. Messages
          6. See Also
        92. DPMI
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
        93. DPMS.EXE
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Notes
        94. DRIVER.SYS (device driver) 3.2 and later— External
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Notes
          4. Examples
          5. Messages
          6. See Also
        95. DRIVPARM= 3.2 and later—Internal
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Notes
          4. Examples
          5. See Also
        96. DRMOUSE
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
        97. DRVLOCK
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
        98. DYNALOAD
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Notes
        99. E
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Notes
        100. ECHO 2.0 and later—Internal
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Notes
          4. Examples
          5. See Also
        101. EDIT 5.0 and later—External
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. See Also
        102. EDLIN 1.0 to 5.0—External
          1. See Also
        103. EGA.SYS (device driver) 5.0 and later—External
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Notes
          4. Examples
          5. See Also
        104. EJECT
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Remarks
        105. EMM386 5.0 and later—External
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Notes
          4. See Also
        106. EMM386.EXE (device driver)5.0 and later—External
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Notes
          4. See Also
        107. ERASE (see DEL)
        108. ERAQ (see DELQ)
        109. EXE2BIN 1.1 to 5.0—External
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Notes
        110. EXIT 2.0 and later—Internal
          1. Syntax
          2. Notes
          3. See Also
        111. EXPAND 5.0 and later—External
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Rules
          4. Notes
          5. Examples
          6. Messages
          7. See Also
        112. EXTRACT
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
        113. FASTHELP 6.0 and later—External
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Notes
          4. See Also
        114. FASTOPEN 3.3 and later—External
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Rules
          4. Notes
          5. See Also
        115. FC 3.3 and later—External
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Notes
          4. Examples
          5. See Also
        116. FCBS= 3.1 and later—Internal
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Notes
          4. See Also
        117. FDISK 2.0 and later—External
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Rules
          4. Notes
          5. See Also
        118. FILELINK
        119. FILES= 2.0 and later—Internal
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Notes
          4. Examples
          5. See Also
        120. FILEUP
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Notes
          4. See Also
        121. FIND 2.0 and later—External
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Exit Codes
          4. Rules
          5. Notes
          6. Examples
          7. See Also
        122. FOR 2.0 and later—Internal
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Notes
          4. Examples
          5. See Also
        123. FORMAT 1.0 and later—External
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Exit Codes
          4. Rules
          5. Notes
          6. Messages
          7. See Also
        124. GOTO 2.0 and later—Internal
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Notes
          4. See Also
        125. GRAFTABL 3.0 to 5.0—External
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Exit Codes
          4. Notes
          5. See Also
        126. GRAPHICS 2.0 and later—External
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. See Also
        127. HCONVERT
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Remarks
        128. HELP 5.0 and later—External
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Notes
          4. See Also
        129. HIINSTALL or INSTALLHIGH
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
        130. HILOAD (see LOADHIGH)
        131. HIMEM.SYS (device driver) 4.0 and later—External
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Notes
          4. Examples
          5. Messages
          6. See Also
        132. IBMAVD
          1. Syntax
        133. IBMAVSP
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
        134. IEXTRACT
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
        135. IF 2.0 and later—Internal
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Notes
          4. Examples
          5. See Also
        136. INCLUDE= 6.0 and later—Internal
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Notes
          4. Examples
          5. See Also
        137. INSTALL= 4.0 and later—Internal
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Notes
          4. Examples
          5. Messages
          6. See Also
        138. INSTALLHIGH (see HIINSTALL)
        139. INTERLNK 6.0 and later—External
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Notes
          4. Examples
          5. Messages
          6. See Also
        140. INTERLNK.EXE (device driver) 6.0 and later— External
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Notes
          4. Examples
          5. Messages
          6. See Also
        141. INTERSVR 6.0 and later—External
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Notes
          4. Examples
          5. Messages
          6. See Also
        142. JOIN 3.1 to 5.0—External
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Rules
          4. Notes
          5. Messages
          6. See Also
        143. KBDBUF.SYS (device driver) External
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Notes
          4. Examples
          5. Messages
          6. See Also
        144. KEYB 3.3 and later—External
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Exit Codes
          4. Notes
          5. Messages
          6. See Also
        145. KEYBOARD.SYS (see KEYB)
          1. See Also
        146. LABEL 3.0 and later—Internal
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Rules
          4. Notes
          5. Messages
          6. See Also
        147. LASTDRIVE= 3.0 and later—Internal
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Notes
          4. Examples
          5. Messages
          6. See Also
        148. LH (see LOADHIGH)
        149. LOADER
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
        150. LOADFIX 5.0 and later—External
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Notes
        151. LOADHIGH or LH 5.0 and later—Internal
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Notes
          4. Rules
          5. Examples
          6. See Also
        152. MD or MKDIR 2.0 and later—Internal
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Notes
          4. Messages
          5. See Also
        153. MEM 4.0 and later—External
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Rules
          4. Notes
          5. See Also
        154. MEMMAKER 6.0 and later—External
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. See Also
        155. MEMMAX
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
        156. MENUCOLOR= 6.0 and later—Internal
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Notes
          4. Examples
          5. See Also
        157. MENUDEFAULT= 6.0 and later—Internal
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Notes
          4. Examples
          5. See Also
        158. MENUITEM= 6.0 and later—Internal
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Notes
          4. Examples
          5. See Also
        159. MIRROR 5.0—External
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Rules
          4. Notes
          5. Messages
          6. See Also
        160. MKDIR (see MD)
        161. MODE 1.1 and later—External
          1. Display Device Status Information
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Notes
          4. Messages
          5. See Also
        162. MODE COM# 1.1 and later—External
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Notes
          4. See Also
        163. MODE CON 4.0 and later—External
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Notes
          4. Examples
          5. Messages
          6. See Also
        164. MODE device CP 3.3 and later—External
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Notes
          4. Examples
          5. See Also
        165. MODE display 2.0 and later—External
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Notes
          4. Examples
          5. Messages
          6. See Also
        166. MODE LPT# 3.2 and later—External
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Rules
          4. Notes
          5. See Also
        167. MONOUMB.386 6.0 and later—Windows
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Notes
          4. See Also
        168. MORE 2.0 and later—External
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Rules
          4. Notes
          5. See Also
        169. MOVE 6.0 and later—External
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Exit Codes
          4. Notes
          5. Examples
          6. See Also
        170. MSAV 6.0 and later—External
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Exit Codes
          4. Notes
          5. See Also
        171. MSBACKUP 6.0 and later—External
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Rules
          4. Notes
          5. See Also
        172. MSCDEX 6.0 and later—External
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Notes
          4. Examples
          5. See Also
        173. MSD 6.0 and later—External
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Notes
          4. See Also
        174. MSHERC 5.0—External
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Notes
        175. MWAV 6.0 and later—Windows
          1. See Also
        176. MWAVTSR 6.0 and later—Windows
          1. See Also
        177. MWBACKUP 6.0 and later—Windows
          1. See Also
        178. MWUNDEL 6.0 and later—Windows
          1. See Also
        179. NLSFUNC 3.3 and later—External
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Notes
          4. See Also
        180. NUMLOCK= 6.0 and later—Internal
          1. Syntax
          2. Notes
          3. Examples
        181. NWCACHE
          1. Syntax for Loading NWCACHE
          2. Parameters for Loading NWCACHE
          3. Syntax for NWCACHE After It Is Loaded
          4. Parameters for NWCACHE After It Is Loaded
        182. NWCDEX
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Notes
          4. See Also
        183. PASSWD
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Notes
        184. PASSWORD
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Notes
        185. PATH 2.0 and later—Internal
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Notes
          4. Messages
          5. See Also
        186. PAUSE 1.0 and later—Internal
          1. Syntax
          2. Notes
          3. Examples
          4. Messages
          5. See Also
        187. PCM
          1. Syntax
          2. Notes
        188. PCMATA.SYS
        189. PCMCS
        190. PCMDINST
          1. Syntax
        191. PCMFDISK
          1. Syntax
          2. Notes
        192. PCMRMAN (Standalone Utility)
          1. Syntax
          2. Notes
        193. PCMRMAN (Command-Line Utility)
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Notes
        194. PCMSCD
          1. Syntax
          2. Notes
        195. PCMSETUP
          1. Syntax
        196. POWER 6.0 and later—External
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Notes
          4. Examples
          5. Messages
          6. See Also
        197. POWER.EXE (device driver) 6.0 and later— External
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Notes
          4. Examples
          5. Messages
          6. See Also
        198. PRINT 2.0 and later—External
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Rules
          4. Notes
          5. Messages
          6. See Also
        199. PRINTER.SYS (device driver) 3.3 to 5.0— External
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Notes
          4. Examples
          5. See Also
        200. PROMPT 2.0 and later—Internal
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Notes
          4. Examples
          5. See Also
        201. QBASIC 5.0 and later—External
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Notes
        202. QCONFIG
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
        203. RAMBOOST
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
        204. RAMBOOST.EXE
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Notes
        205. RAMDRIVE.SYS (device driver) 3.2 and later— External
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Notes
          4. Examples
          5. Messages
          6. See Also
        206. RAMSETUP
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Notes
          4. See Also
        207. RD or RMDIR 2.0 and later—Internal
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Notes
          4. Messages
          5. See Also
        208. RECOVER 2.0–5.0—External
          1. See Also
        209. REM 1.0 and later—Internal
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Notes
          4. Examples
          5. See Also
        210. REMOVDRV
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Notes
        211. REN or RENAME 1.0 and later—Internal
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Notes
          4. Messages
          5. See Also
        212. RENDIR
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
        213. REPLACE 3.2 and later—External
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Exit Codes
          4. Rules
          5. Notes
          6. Messages
          7. See Also
        214. REPORT
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. See Also
        215. RESIZE
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
        216. RESTORE 2.0 and later—External
          1. Syntax
          2. PARAMETERS AND SWITCHES
          3. Exit Codes
          4. Rules
          5. Notes
          6. Messages
        217. RMDIR (see RD)
        218. SCANDISK 6.22—External
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Exit Codes
          4. Notes
          5. Examples
          6. Messages
          7. See Also
        219. SCANREG
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Notes
        220. SCHEDULE
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. See Also
        221. SCREATE.SYS
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. See Also
        222. SCRIPT
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Notes
        223. SDEFRAG
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
        224. SDIR
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. See Also
        225. SET 2.0 and later—Internal
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Notes
          4. Examples
          5. Messages
          6. See Also
        226. SETUP (Stacker)
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
        227. SETVER 5.0 and later—External
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Exit Codes
          4. Notes
          5. Examples
          6. Messages
          7. See Also
        228. SETVER.EXE (device driver) 5.0 and later—External
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Notes
          4. Examples
          5. Messages
          6. See Also
        229. SHARE 3.0 and later—External
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Rules
          4. Notes
          5. See Also
        230. SHELL= 2.0 and later—Internal
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Notes
          4. Examples
          5. Messages
          6. See Also
        231. SHIFT 2.0 and later—Internal
          1. Syntax
          2. Notes
          3. See Also
        232. SIZER (see MEMMAKER)
          1. See Also
        233. SMARTDRV 6.0 and later—External
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Notes
          4. Examples
          5. See Also
        234. SMARTDRV.EXE (device driver) 6.0 and later—External
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Notes
          4. Examples
          5. See Also
        235. SMARTMON 6.0 and later—Windows
          1. See Also
        236. SORT 2.0 and later—External
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Notes
          4. Examples
          5. See Also
        237. SSETUP
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
        238. STAC
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
        239. STACHIGH.SYS
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
        240. STACKER
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
        241. STACKS= 3.2 and later—Internal
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Notes
          4. Examples
          5. Messages
        242. SUBMENU= 6.0 and later—Internal
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Notes
          4. Examples
          5. See Also
        243. SUBST 3.1 and later—External
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Notes
          4. Messages
          5. See Also
        244. SWITCH
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
        245. SWITCHES= 5.0 and later—Internal
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Notes
          4. Examples
          5. Messages
          6. See Also
        246. SYS 1.0 and later—External
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Notes
          4. Messages
          5. See Also
        247. SYSINFO
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
        248. TASKMGR
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Notes
        249. TIME 1.0 and later—Internal
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Notes
          4. See Also
        250. TIMEOUT
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. See Also
        251. TOUCH
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
        252. TREE 2.0 and later—External
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. See Also
        253. TUNER
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
        254. TYPE 1.0 and later—Internal
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Notes
          4. Examples
          5. See Also
        255. UMBCGA.SYS
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Notes
        256. UMBEMS.SYS
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
        257. UMBHERC.SYS
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Notes
        258. UMBMONO.SYS
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Notes
        259. UNCOMP
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
        260. UNDELETE 5.0 and later—External
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Rules
          4. Notes
          5. Examples
          6. See Also
        261. UNFORMAT 5.0 and later—External
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Rules
          4. Notes
          5. See Also
        262. UNINSTALL
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
        263. UNPACK2
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Notes
        264. UNSTACK
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
        265. VER 2.0 and later—Internal
          1. Syntax
          2. Notes
          3. Examples
          4. See Also
        266. VERIFY 2.0 and later—Internal
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Notes
          4. Examples
          5. Messages
        267. VFINTD.386 6.0 and later—Windows
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Notes
          4. Examples
        268. VIEW
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
        269. VOL 2.0 and later—Internal
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Notes
          4. Examples
          5. Messages
          6. See Also
        270. VSAFE 6.0 and later—External
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Rules
          4. Notes
          5. Examples
          6. See Also
        271. WINA20.386 5.0 and later—Windows
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Notes
          4. Examples
          5. Messages
          6. See Also
        272. XCOPY 3.2 and later—External
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Exit Codes
          4. Rules
          5. Notes
          6. Messages
          7. See Also
        273. XCOPY32
        274. XDEL
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
        275. XDF
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. Notes
        276. XDFCOPY
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
        277. XDIR
          1. Syntax
          2. Parameters and Switches
          3. See Also
      7. G. Glossary
        1. Glossary