You are previewing Space Antenna Handbook.
O'Reilly logo
Space Antenna Handbook

Book Description

This book addresses a broad range of topics on antennas for space applications. First, it introduces the fundamental methodologies of space antenna design, modelling and analysis as well as the state-of-the-art and anticipated future technological developments. Each of the topics discussed are specialized and contextualized to the space sector. Furthermore, case studies are also provided to demonstrate the design and implementation of antennas in actual applications. Second, the authors present a detailed review of antenna designs for some popular applications such as satellite communications, space-borne synthetic aperture radar (SAR), Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) receivers, science instruments, radio astronomy, small satellites, and deep-space applications. Finally it presents the reader with a comprehensive path from space antenna development basics to specific individual applications.

Key Features:

  • Presents a detailed review of antenna designs for applications such as satellite communications, space-borne SAR, GNSS receivers, science instruments, small satellites, radio astronomy, deep-space applications

  • Addresses the space antenna development from different angles, including electromagnetic, thermal and mechanical design strategies required for space qualification

  • Includes numerous case studies to demonstrate how to design and implement antennas in practical scenarios

  • Offers both an introduction for students in the field and an in-depth reference for antenna engineers who develop space antennas

This book serves as an excellent reference for researchers, professionals and graduate students in the fields of antennas and propagation, electromagnetics, RF/microwave/millimetrewave systems, satellite communications, radars, satellite remote sensing, satellite navigation and spacecraft system engineering, It also aids engineers technical managers and professionals working on antenna and RF designs. Marketing and business people in satellites, wireless, and electronics area who want to acquire a basic understanding of the technology will also find this book of interest.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright
  4. Preface
  5. Acknowledgments
  6. Acronyms
  7. Contributors
  8. Chapter 1: Antenna Basics
    1. 1.1 Introduction
    2. 1.2 Antenna Performance Parameters
    3. 1.3 Basic Antenna Elements
    4. 1.4 Arrays
    5. 1.5 Basic Effects of Antennas in the Space Environment
    6. References
  9. Chapter 2: Space Antenna Modeling
    1. 2.1 Introduction
    2. 2.2 Methods of Antenna Modeling
    3. 2.3 Fast Algorithms for Large Space Antenna Modeling
    4. 2.4 Case Studies: Effects of the Satellite Body on the Radiation Patterns of Antennas
    5. 2.5 Summary
    6. Acknowledgments
    7. References
  10. Chapter 3: System Architectures of Satellite Communication, Radar, Navigation and Remote Sensing
    1. 3.1 Introduction
    2. 3.2 Elements of Satellite System Architecture
    3. 3.3 Satellite Missions
    4. 3.4 Communications Satellites
    5. 3.5 Radar Satellites
    6. 3.6 Navigational Satellites
    7. 3.7 Remote Sensing Satellites
    8. 3.8 Architecture of Satellite Command and Control
    9. 3.9 The Communications Payload Transponder
    10. 3.10 Satellite Functional Requirements
    11. 3.11 The Satellite Link Equation
    12. 3.12 The Microwave Transmitter Block
    13. 3.13 Rx Front-End Block
    14. 3.14 Received Power in the Communications System's RF Link
    15. 3.15 Additional Losses in the Satellite and Antenna
    16. 3.16 Thermal Noise and the Antenna Noise Temperature
    17. 3.17 The SNR Equation and Minimum Detectable Signal
    18. 3.18 Power Flux Density, Saturation Flux Density and Dynamic Range
    19. 3.19 Full-Duplex Operation and Passive Intermodulation
    20. 3.20 Gain and Gain Variation
    21. 3.21 Pointing Error
    22. 3.22 Remaining Elements of Satellite System Architecture
    23. 3.23 Orbits and Orbital Considerations
    24. 3.24 Spacecraft Introduction
    25. 3.25 Spacecraft Budgets (Mass, Power, Thermal)
    26. 3.26 Orbital Mission Life and Launch Vehicle Considerations
    27. 3.27 Environment Management (Thermal, Radiation)
    28. 3.28 Spacecraft Structure (Acoustic/Dynamic)
    29. 3.29 Satellite Positioning (Station Keeping)
    30. 3.30 Satellite Positioning (Attitude Control)
    31. 3.31 Power Subsystem
    32. 3.32 Tracking, Telemetry, Command and Monitoring
    33. References
  11. Chapter 4: Space Environment and Materials
    1. 4.1 Introduction
    2. 4.2 The Space Environment of Antennas
    3. 4.3 Selection of Materials in Relation to Their Electromagnetic Properties
    4. 4.4 Space Materials and Manufacturing Processes
    5. 4.5 Characterization of Mechanical and Thermal Behaviour
    6. 4.6 Acknowledgements
    7. References
  12. Chapter 5: Mechanical and Thermal Design of Space Antennas
    1. 5.1 Introduction: The Mechanical–Thermal–Electrical Triangle
    2. 5.2 Design of Antenna Structures
    3. 5.3 Structural Modelling and Analysis
    4. 5.4 Thermal and Thermoelastic Analysis
    5. 5.5 Thermal Control Strategies
    6. 5.6 Acknowledgements
    7. References
  13. Chapter 6: Testing of Antennas for Space
    1. 6.1 Introduction
    2. 6.2 Testing as a Development and Verification Tool
    3. 6.3 Antenna Testing Facilities
    4. 6.4 Case Study: SMOS
    5. References
  14. Chapter 7: Historical Overview of the Development of Space Antennas
    1. 7.1 Introduction
    2. 7.2 The Early Days
    3. 7.3 Larger Reflectors with Complex Feeding Systems
    4. 7.4 Array Antennas
    5. 7.5 Conclusions
    6. Acknowledgements
    7. References
  15. Chapter 8: Deployable Mesh Reflector Antennas for Space Applications: RF Characterizations
    1. 8.1 Introduction
    2. 8.2 History of Deployable Mesh Reflectors
    3. 8.3 Design Considerations Specific to Mesh Reflectors
    4. 8.4 The SMAP Mission – A Representative Case Study
    5. 8.5 Conclusion
    6. Acknowledgments
    7. References
  16. Chapter 9: Microstrip Array Technologies for Space Applications
    1. 9.1 Introduction
    2. 9.2 Basics of Array Antennas
    3. 9.3 Passive Arrays
    4. 9.4 Active Arrays
    5. 9.5 Summary
    6. Acknowledgements
    7. References
  17. Chapter 10: Printed Reflectarray Antennas for Space Applications
    1. 10.1 Introduction
    2. 10.2 Principle of Operation and Reflectarray Element Performance
    3. 10.3 Analysis and Design Techniques
    4. 10.4 Reflectarray Antennas for Telecommunication and Broadcasting Satellites
    5. 10.5 Recent and Future Developments for Space Applications
    6. Acknowledgments
    7. References
  18. Chapter 11: Emerging Antenna Technologies for Space Applications
    1. 11.1 Introduction
    2. 11.2 On-Chip/In-Package Antennas for Emerging Millimeter-Wave Systems
    3. 11.3 Integrated Planar Waveguide Technologies
    4. 11.4 Microwave/mmW MEMS-Based Circuit Technologies for Antenna Applications
    5. 11.5 Emerging THz Antenna Systems and Integrated Structures
    6. 11.6 Case Study: Low-Cost/Complexity Antenna Technologies for Land-Mobile Satellite Communications
    7. 11.7 Conclusions
    8. References
  19. Chapter 12: Antennas for Satellite Communications
    1. 12.1 Introduction and Design Requirements
    2. 12.2 UHF Satellite Communications Antennas
    3. 12.3 L/S-band Mobile Satellite Communications Antennas
    4. 12.4 C-, Ku- and Ka-band FSS/BSS Antennas
    5. 12.5 Multibeam Broadband Satellite Communications Antennas
    6. 12.6 Antennas for Non-geostationary Constellations
    7. Acknowledgments
    8. References
  20. Chapter 13: SAR Antennas
    1. 13.1 Introduction to Spaceborne SAR Systems
    2. 13.2 Challenges of Antenna Design for SAR
    3. 13.3 A Review of the Development of Antennas for Spaceborne SAR
    4. 13.4 Case Studies of Antennas for Spaceborne SAR
    5. 13.5 Ongoing Developments in SAR Antennas
    6. Acknowledgments
    7. References
  21. Chapter 14: Antennas for Global Navigation Satellite System Receivers
    1. 14.1 Introduction
    2. 14.2 RF Requirements of GNSS Receiving Antenna
    3. 14.3 Design Challenges and Solutions for GNSS Antennas
    4. 14.4 Common and Novel GNSS Antennas
    5. 14.5 Spaceborne GNSS Antennas
    6. 14.6 Case Study:1 Dual-Band Microstrip Patch Antenna for Spacecraft Precise Orbit Determination Applications
    7. 14.7 Summary
    8. References
  22. Chapter 15: Antennas for Small Satellites
    1. 15.1 Introduction to Small Satellites
    2. 15.2 The Challenges of Designing Antennas for Small Satellites
    3. 15.3 Review of Antenna Development for Small Satellites
    4. 15.4 Case Studies
    5. 15.5 Conclusions
    6. References
  23. Chapter 16: Space Antennas for Radio Astronomy
    1. 16.1 Introduction
    2. 16.2 Overview of Radio Astronomy and the Role of Space Antennas
    3. 16.3 Space Antennas for Cosmic Microwave Background Studies
    4. 16.4 Space Radio Observatories for Submillimeter/Far-Infrared Astronomy
    5. 16.5 Low-Frequency Radio Astronomy
    6. 16.6 Space VLBI
    7. 16.7 Summary
    8. Acknowledgments
    9. References
  24. Chapter 17: Antennas for Deep Space Applications
    1. 17.1 Introduction
    2. 17.2 Telecommunications Antennas
    3. 17.3 Case Study I – Mars Science Laboratory
    4. 17.4 Case Study II – Juno
    5. Acknowledgments
    6. References
  25. Chapter 18: Space Antenna Challenges for Future Missions, Key Techniques and Technologies
    1. 18.1 Overview of Chapter Contents
    2. 18.2 General Introduction
    3. 18.3 General Evolution of Space Antenna Needs and Requirements
    4. 18.4 Develop Large-Aperture Antennas
    5. 18.5 Increase Telecommunication Satellite Throughput
    6. 18.6 Enable Sharing the Same Aperture for Multiband and Multipurpose Antennas
    7. 18.7 Increase the Competitiveness of Well-Established Antenna Products
    8. 18.8 Enable Single-Beam In-Flight Coverage/Polarization Reconfiguration
    9. 18.9 Enable Active Antennas at Affordable Cost
    10. 18.10 Develop Innovative Antennas for Future Earth Observation and Science Instruments
    11. 18.11 Evolve Towards Mass Production of Satellite and User Terminal Antennas
    12. 18.12 Technology Push for Enabling New Missions
    13. 18.13 Develop New Approaches for Satellite/Antenna Modelling and Testing
    14. 18.14 Conclusions
    15. 18.15 Acronyms
    16. Acknowledgements
    17. References
  26. Index