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Sound System Engineering 4e, 4th Edition

Book Description

Long considered the only book an audio engineer needs on their shelf, Sound System Engineering provides an accurate, complete and concise tool for all those involved in sound system engineering.

Fully updated on the design, implementation and testing of sound reinforcement systems this great reference is a necessary addition to any audio engineering library.

Packed with revised material, numerous illustrations and useful appendices, this is a concentrated capsule of knowledge and industry standard that runs the complete range of sound system design from the simplest all-analog paging systems to the largest multipurpose digital systems.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Halftitle
  3. Title
  4. Copyright
  5. Dedication
  6. Contents
  7. Preface
  8. Chapter 1 Why Sound System Engineering?
    1. Prerequisites
    2. Basic Electrical Training
    3. Mathematics
    4. Hearing Versus Listening
    5. Craftsmanship
    6. Rigging
    7. Literacy
    8. The Art, Philosophy, and Science of Sound
    9. Fields
  9. Chapter 2 Voices Out of the Past
    1. Significant Figures in the History of Audio and Acoustics
    2. 1893—The Magic Year
    3. Bell Laboratories and Western Electric
    4. Harvey Fletcher (1884–1981)
    5. Harry Nyquist (1889–1976)
    6. The dB, dBm, and the VI
    7. Sound System Equalization
    8. Acoustic Measurements—Richard C. Heyser (1931–1987)
    9. Calculators and Computers
    10. The Meaning of Communication
    11. Historical Notes
  10. Chapter 3 Sound and Our Brain
    1. The Human Brain
    2. The Current Era
    3. Unexpected Validation
  11. Chapter 4 Psychoacoustics
    1. Motivations
    2. Sound Reproduction
    3. Is it Better to be Born Blind or Deaf ?
    4. Recording Sound at the Eardrum
    5. Psychoacoustics via a Metaphysical Foundation
    6. Barks, Bands, Equivalent Rectangular Bandwidths (ERBs), Phons and Sones
  12. Chapter 5 Digital Theory
    1. Shannon’s Theory
    2. Dynamic Range
    3. The Steps from Art to Science
    4. Moravec’s Warning
    5. Digital Nomenclature
    6. What Is a Bit of Data?
    7. Bayesian Theory
    8. Planck System
    9. Bits, Nats, and Bans
    10. A Communication System
    11. Holography
  13. Chapter 6 Mathematics for Audio Systems
    1. Engineering Calculations
    2. Precision, Accuracy, and Resolution
    3. Simple Numbers
    4. How to Add Gains and Losses Algebraically
    5. The Factor-Label System
    6. Basic Physical Terms
    7. Mathematical Operations
    8. Complex Number Operations
    9. Decade Calibration
    10. Converting Linear Scales to Logarithmic Scales
    11. Finding the Renard Series for Fractional Octave Spacing
    12. Radians and Steradians
    13. Calculating Percentages and Ratios
    14. Useful Math Tables
    15. Angles
    16. A Little Trigonometry
    17. The Origin of the Base of the Natural Logarithm, e
    18. The Complex Plane
    19. Euler’s Theorem
    20. Examples
    21. Phasors
    22. Rates of Change
  14. Chapter 7 Using the Decibel
    1. The Decibel
    2. The Neper
    3. Concepts Underlying the Decibel and Its Use in Sound Systems
    4. Measuring Electrical Power
    5. Levels in dB
    6. The Decibel in Acoustics—LP, LW, and LI
    7. Acoustic Intensity Level (LI), Acoustic Power Level (LW), and Acoustic Pressure Level (LP)
    8. Inverse Square Law
    9. Directivity Factor
    10. Ohm’s Law
    11. A Decibel Is a Decibel Is a Decibel
    12. The Equivalent Level (LEQ) in Noise Measurements
    13. Combining Decibels
    14. Combining Voltage
    15. Using the Log Charts
    16. Finding the Logarithm of a Number to Any Base
    17. Semitone Intervals
    18. System Gain Changes
    19. The VU and the VI Instrument
    20. Calculating the Number of Decades in a Frequency Span
    21. Deflection of the Eardrum at Various Sound Levels
    22. The Phon
    23. The Tempered Scale
    24. Measuring Distortion
    25. The Acoustical Meaning of Harmonic Distortion
    26. Playback Systems in Studios
    27. Decibels and Percentages
    28. Summary
  15. Chapter 8 Interfacing Electrical and Acoustic Systems
    1. Alternating Current Circuits
    2. Impedance
    3. Electric Power
    4. Properties of the LCR Circuit
    5. Filters
    6. Impedance Bridge
    7. Constant Resistance Networks
    8. Impedance Properties of Moving Coil Loudspeakers
    9. Network Theorems
    10. The Technician’s Viewpoint
    11. Impedance Defined
    12. Handling the Acoustic Input and Output of the System
    13. Total Electrical Gain of a System
    14. Interfacing the Electrical Output Power to the Acoustic Environment
    15. Gain Structure Revisited
    16. Conclusion
  16. Chapter 9 Loudspeaker Directivity and Coverage
    1. Essential Definitions
    2. Describing Q More Accurately
    3. Relationship Between C∠ and Q in an Idealized Case
    4. Idealized Loudspeaker Geometry
    5. Class D Audio Amplifiers
    6. Sound as a Weapon
    7. An Older View of Q
    8. Summary
  17. Chapter 10 The Acoustic Environment
    1. The Acoustic Environment
    2. Dispersion and Diffusion
    3. Inverse Square Law
    4. Atmospheric Absorption
    5. Velocity of Sound
    6. Isothermal vs. Adiabatic
    7. Temperature-Dependent Velocity
    8. The Effect of Altitude on the Velocity of Sound in Air
    9. Typical Wavelengths
    10. Doppler Effect
    11. Reflection and Refraction
    12. Effect of a Space Heater on Flutter Echo
    13. Absorption
    14. Definitions in Acoustics
    15. Classifying Sound Fields
    16. The Acoustic Environment Indoors
    17. Conclusion
  18. Chapter 11 Audio and Acoustic Measurements
    1. Acoustic Analysis Sans Instrumentation
    2. Initial Parameters
    3. Acoustic Tests of Sound Systems
    4. Examining AC Outlets
    5. The ETC Plot
    6. Site Surveys and Noise Criteria Curves
    7. An Improper Use of Real Time Analysis
    8. Evaluation of Listener Response
    9. Fractional Bandwidth Filter Analyzers
    10. Measuring Electromagnetic Pollution
    11. Conclusion
  19. Chapter 12 Large Room Acoustics
    1. What Is a Large Room?
    2. Levels Defined: Sound Power Level (LW), Sound Intensity Level (LI), and Sound Pressure Level (LP)
    3. Levels in Enclosed Spaces
    4. Differentiating Between Reverberant Level and Reverberation Time
    5. Evaluation of Signal-to-Noise Ratio, SNR
    6. Analyzing Reflections and Their Paths
    7. Critical Distance
    8. Conclusion
  20. Chapter 13 Small Room Acoustics
    1. Non-Statistical Spaces
    2. Small Room Acoustical Parameters
    3. Small Room Reverberation Times
    4. Small Room Resonances
    5. Modes
    6. What Is an Eigen Mode?
    7. Small Room Geometry
    8. The Initial Signal Delay Gap (ISD)
    9. Reflections
    10. Reflection Free Zone
    11. Diffusion
    12. Conclusion
  21. Chapter 14 Designing for Acoustic Gain
    1. Maximum Physical Distance
    2. Establishing an Acceptable Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR)
    3. Establishing an EAD
    4. Needed Acoustic Gain (NAG)
    5. The Number of Open Microphones
    6. The Feedback Stability Margin
    7. Calculating Potential Acoustic Gain
    8. Obtaining ΔDx Values
    9. Measuring Acoustic Gain
    10. Achieving Potential Acoustic Gain
    11. Limiting Parameters in Sound Reinforcement System Design
    12. How Much Electrical Power Is Required?
    13. Finding the Required Electrical Power (REP)
    14. Summary
  22. Chapter 15 Designing for Speech Intelligibility
    1. Introduction
    2. Articulation Losses of Consonants in Speech
    3. Maxfield’s Equation
    4. Speech Power and Articulation
    5. Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR)
    6. Speech Intelligibility Calculations
    7. Non-Acoustic Articulation Problems
    8. Relationship Between QMIN and D2(MAX)
    9. High Density Overhead Distribution
    10. %ALCONS Variables
    11. A Little History—Intelligibility Workshop 1986
    12. Summary
  23. Chapter 16 What is Waving and Why
    1. General Properties of Air
    2. Plane Waves
    3. Non-Planar Wave Motion in a Tube
    4. Plane Wave Tubes having Arbitrary Terminations
    5. Impedance Tube
    6. More General Waves
    7. Acoustic Intensity
    8. Boundaries
    9. Acoustic Dipole
  24. Chapter 17 Microphones
    1. The Microphone as the System Input
    2. Microphone Sensitivity
    3. Thermal Noise
    4. Microphone Selection
    5. Nature of Response and Directional Characteristics
    6. Boundary Microphones
    7. Wireless Microphones
    8. Microphone Connectors, Cables, and Phantom Power
    9. Measurement Microphones
    10. Microphone Calibrator
  25. Chapter 18 Loudspeakers and Loudspeaker Arrays
    1. Loudspeaker Types
    2. Radiated Power
    3. Axial Sound Pressure Level
    4. Efficiency
    5. Loudspeaker Electrical Impedance
    6. Loudspeaker Directivity Factor
    7. Loudspeaker Sensitivity
    8. Direct Radiator Example Calculations
    9. Horns and Compression Drivers
    10. Practical Considerations Involving Horns
    11. Horn Compression Drivers
    12. Crossover Networks
    13. Loudspeaker Arrays
    14. Bessel Array
    15. Line Arrays
    16. Vented Enclosure Bass Loudspeakers
    17. Large Signal Behavior of Loudspeakers
  26. Chapter 19 Power Ratings for Amplifiers and Loudspeakers
    1. Loudspeaker Power Ratings
    2. Active Loudspeaker Systems
    3. Non-Linear Operation
    4. The Amplifier as a Voltage Source
    5. The Equivalent Amplifier Size–EAS
    6. Power from a Voltage Source
    7. Burst Testing
    8. Power Rating Possibilities
    9. Putting It All Together
    10. Multi-way Loudspeakers
    11. System Gain Structure
    12. Combining MIV and EAS
  27. Chapter 20 Computer-Aided System Design
    1. Spherical Loudspeaker Data
    2. Near Field vs. Far Field
    3. The Measurement Process
    4. Loudspeaker Arrays
    5. Direct Field Modeling
    6. Room Model Detail
    7. Room Acoustics—An Overview
    8. Absorption
    9. Realistic Room Models
    10. Universal Room Modeling Tips
    11. Conclusions
  28. Chapter 21 Signal Delay and Signal Synchronization
    1. Signal Delay
    2. Useful Signal Delay Equations
    3. Synchronization and Alignment of Arrays
    4. Finding Acoustic Origins of Unlike Devices
    5. Conclusion
  29. Chapter 22 Signal Processing
    1. Spectra
    2. Analog to Digital Conversion
    3. System Theory
    4. Digital Systems and the Z Transform
    5. Dynamics Processing
  30. Chapter 23 Digital Audio Formats and Transports
    1. The Analog Waveform
    2. Quantization
    3. Digital Signal Processing—DSP
    4. Two Data Camps
    5. How Does Ethernet Work?
    6. Ethernet Protocols
    7. An Open Standard
    8. AES3 vs. AoE
    9. Hybrid and Proprietary Systems
    10. Analog vs. Digital Audio
  31. Chapter 24 Sound System Equalization
    1. System Criteria
    2. Early Research on Equalization
    3. The Transient Nature of Acoustic Feedback
    4. Introduction of Real-Time Analyzers
    5. Band-Rejection, Bandpass, and Band-Boost Filters
    6. TEF Analysis in Equalization
    7. How to Approach Equalization
    8. What Can an Equalizer Equalize?
    9. A Real-Time Regenerative-Response Method of Equalizing a Sound System
    10. Equalizing for Playback
    11. An Improper Use of Real Time Analysis in Monitoring Music and Speech
    12. Diaphragmatic Absorbers
    13. Don’t Equalize for Hearing Loss
    14. Proximity Modes
    15. Checking Microphone Polarity
    16. Loudspeaker Polarity
    17. Summary
  32. Chapter 25 Putting It All Together
    1. Acoustical Analysis
    2. Alternative Solutions for a Given Space
    3. Device Interconnections
    4. Analog Interconnection Circuitry Types
    5. Signal Cables—Analog Audio, Digital Audio, and Video
    6. AES3
    7. Computer Control and Communication of Digital Audio
  33. Appendix
  34. Index