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Sound for Film and Television, 3rd Edition

Book Description

Sound for Film and Television, Third Edition provides a thorough introduction to the fascinating field of recording, editing, mixing, and exhibiting film and television sound. It strikes a fine balance between aesthetic and technical content, combining theory and practice to approach sound as both an art and a science. This new edition has been completely updated to reflect the latest advances in HD technology, new hardware and software systems, new distribution methods, wireless sound capture, and more. Also, analog-related content has been reduced and transferred to the chapters covering historical techniques. Sections on troubleshooting and FAQs have been added to help you avoid common pitfalls in sound production.

Written by one of Hollywood's leading sound experts, Sound for Film and Television provides a solid grounding in all aspects of the sound process. Basic principles are presented with illustrations demonstrating how they affect the day-to-day activities on a film or television set, in the editing room, and in the mix room.

The accompanying audio DVD contains more than 50 tracks that demonstrate practical, real-world examples of key concepts presented in the book.

A companion Web site provides further resources and information:

http://booksite.focalpress.com/companion/Holman/SoundforFilmandTelevision/

Please use the access code located in the beginning of the book to register for access to the Web site.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Halftitle
  3. Title
  4. Copyright
  5. Contents
  6. Preface to the Third Edition
  7. Introduction
  8. 1. Objective Sound
    1. An Old Story
      1. Properties of Physical Sound
        1. Propagation
        2. A Medium Is Required
        3. Speed of Sound
        4. Amplitude
        5. Wavelength and Frequency
        6. Importance of Sine Waves
        7. Sympathetic Vibration and Resonance
        8. Phase
        9. Influences on Sound Propagation
      2. Room Acoustics
        1. Sound Fields in Rooms
        2. Sum of Effects
        3. Standing Waves
        4. Noise
        5. Scaling the Dimensions
  9. 2. Psychoacoustics
    1. Introduction
    2. The Physical Ear
      1. Hearing Conservation
    3. Auditory Sensitivity Versus Frequency
      1. Threshold Value—the Minimum Audible Field
      2. Equal-Loudness Curves
    4. What’s Wrong With the Decibel—Magnitude Scaling
    5. Loudness Versus Time
    6. Spectrum of a Sound
      1. Critical Bands of Hearing
    7. Frequency Masking
    8. Temporal Masking
    9. Pitch
    10. Spatial Perception
      1. Transients and the Precedence Effect
      2. Influence of Sight on Sound Localization
      3. Localization in Three Dimensions: Horizontal, Vertical, and Depth
      4. The Cocktail Party Effect (Binaural Discrimination)
    11. Auditory Pattern and Object Perception
      1. Information Used to Separate Auditory Objects
      2. Gestalt Principles
    12. Speech Perception
      1. Speech for Film and Television
      2. Influence of Sight on Speech Intelligibility
      3. The Edge of Intelligibility
    13. Conclusion
  10. 3. Audio Fundamentals
    1. Audio Defined
    2. Tracks and Channels
    3. Signals: Analog and Digital
    4. Paradigms: Linear Versus Nonlinear
    5. Level
      1. Microphone Level
      2. Line Level
      3. Speaker Level
      4. Level Comparison
    6. Analog Interconnections
      1. Impedance Bridging versus Matching
      2. Connectors
    7. Quality Issues
      1. Dynamic Range: Headroom and Noise
      2. Linear and Nonlinear Distortion
      3. Wow and Flutter
      4. Digital Audio-Specific Problems
  11. 4. Capturing Sound
    1. Introduction
    2. Microphones in General
    3. Production Sound for Fiction Films
    4. Preproduction—Location Scouting
    5. Microphone Technique—Mono
      1. Distance Effect
      2. Microphone Directionality
      3. Microphone Perspective
      4. The Boom—Why, Isn’t That Old Fashioned?
      5. Booms and Fishpoles
      6. Boom and Fishpole Operation
      7. Checklist for Boom/Fishpole Operation
      8. Planted Microphones
      9. Lavaliere Microphones
      10. Using Multiple Microphones
      11. Typical Monaural Recording Situations
    6. Microphone Technique—Stereo
      1. Background
      2. Techniques
    7. Recommendations
    8. Microphone Damage
    9. Worldized and Futzed Recording
    10. Other Telephone Recordings
  12. 5. Microphone Technicalities
    1. Pressure Microphones
      1. Boundary-Layer Microphones
      2. Wind Susceptibility
    2. Pressure-Gradient Microphones
      1. Wind Susceptibility
    3. Combinations of Pressure and Pressure-Gradient Responding Microphones
      1. Super- and Hypercardioids
      2. Subcardioid
      3. Variable-Directivity Microphones
      4. Interference Tube (Shotgun or Rifle Microphone)
    4. Microphone Types by Method of Transduction
      1. Carbon
      2. Ceramic
      3. Electrodynamic (Commonly Called “Dynamic”) Microphone
      4. Electrostatic (Also Known as Condenser or Capacitor) Microphone
    5. Microphone Types by Directivity (Polar Pattern)
    6. Microphone Specifications
      1. Sensitivity
      2. Frequency Response
      3. Choice of Microphone Frequency Response
      4. Polar Pattern and Its Uniformity with Frequency
      5. Equivalent Acoustic Noise Level and Signal-to-Noise Ratio
      6. Maximum Undistorted Sound Pressure Level
      7. Dynamic Range
      8. Susceptibility to Wind Noise
      9. Susceptibility to Pop Noise
      10. Susceptibility to Handling Noise
      11. Susceptibility to Magnetic Hum Fields
      12. Impedance
      13. Power Requirements
    7. Microphone Accessories
      1. Pads
      2. High-Pass (Low-Cut) Filters
      3. Shock and Vibration Mounts
      4. Mic Stands
      5. Mic Booms and Fishpoles
      6. Windscreens
      7. Silk Discs
      8. Microphone Cables and Connectors
  13. 6. Handling the Output of Microphones
    1. What is the Output of a Microphone?
      1. Analog Microphones
      2. Where to Put the Pad/Gain Function
    2. Case History
    3. Quiet Sounds
    4. Impedance
    5. Digital Microphones
    6. Digital Microphone Level
    7. The Radio Part of Radio Mics
      1. Selecting Radio Mics
      2. Radio Mics in Use
      3. Frequency Coordination
      4. Minimizing Signal Dropouts and Multipath
      5. Added Gain Staging Complications in Using Radio Mics
      6. Radio Mics Conclusion
  14. 7. Production Sound Mixing
    1. Introduction
    2. Single- Versus Double-system Sound
    3. Combined Single and Double System
    4. Next Decision for Single-system Setups: On-camera Or Separate MIX Facilities?
    5. For Double-system Setups: Separate Mixer and Recorder Or Combined?
    6. Production Sound Consoles: Processes
      1. Accommodating Microphone Dynamic Range
      2. Other Processes
    7. Production Sound Mixers: Signal Routing
    8. Examples
      1. Small Mixers
      2. Small Mixer/Recorders
      3. A Production Sound Mixer and Separate Recorder
      4. Production Sound Mixer/Recorders
    9. Production Sound Equipment On a Budget
    10. Cueing Systems, IFB, and IEM
    11. Equipment Interactions
      1. Radio Frequency Interactions
      2. Audio Frequency Range Interactions: Inputs
      3. Audio Frequency Range Interactions: Outputs
    12. Initial Setup
      1. Toning Heads of “Reels”
      2. Slating
    13. Mixing
    14. Level Setting
    15. Coverage
      1. Dialog Overlaps
      2. Crowd Scenes
    16. Logging
    17. Shooting to Playback
    18. Other Technical Activities in Production
    19. Set Politics
  15. 8. Sync, Sank, Sunk
    1. In Case of Emergency
    2. Introduction
    3. A Little History
    4. Telecine or Scanner Transfer
    5. The European Alternative
    6. Smpte Time Code Sync
      1. Types of Time Code
      2. Time Code Slates
      3. Jam Syncing
      4. Syncing Sound on the Telecine
      5. Latent Image Edge Numbers
      6. Synchronizers
      7. Machine Control
      8. Time Code Midnight
      9. Time Code Recording Method
    7. Time Code For Video
    8. Conclusion
    9. Locked Versus Unlocked Audio
    10. The 2 Pop
    11. Principle of Traceability
  16. 9. Transfers
    1. Introduction
    2. Digital Audio Transfers
    3. Transfers into Digital Audio Workstations
      1. Types of Transfers
      2. File Transfers
      3. Audio File Formats
      4. Common Problems in Digital Audio File Transfers for Film and Television
      5. Streaming Digital Audio Transfers
      6. Problems Affecting Streaming Transfers
      7. Audio Sample Rate
      8. Revert to Analog
      9. Digital Audio Levels
    4. Analog Transfers
    5. Analog-To-Digital and Digital-To-Analog Systems
  17. 10. Sound Design
    1. Where Does Sound Design Come From?
    2. Sound Styles
    3. Example Of Sound Design Evolution
    4. Sound Design Conventions
    5. Observing Sound
  18. 11. Editing
    1. Introduction
    2. Overall Scheme
    3. Computer-based Digital Audio Editing
      1. Digital Editing Mechanics
      2. Types of Cuts
      3. Fade Files
      4. Cue-Sheet Conventions
    4. Feature Film Production
      1. Syncing Dailies
      2. Dialog Editing Specialization
      3. Sound-Effects Editing Specialization
      4. Music-Editing Specialization
      5. Scene Changes
      6. Premix Operations for Sound Editors
    5. Television Sitcom
    6. Documentary and Reality Production
      1. Bit Slinging
      2. Back to Our Story
  19. 12. Mixing
    1. Introduction
      1. Sound Source Devices Used in Rerecording
      2. Mixing Consoles
    2. Processes
      1. Level
      2. Multiple Level Controls in Signal Path
      3. Dynamic Range Control
      4. Processes Primarily Affecting Frequency Response
      5. Processes Primarily Affecting the Time Domain
      6. Combination Devices
    3. Configuration
      1. Early Rerecording Consoles
      2. Adding Mix in Context
      3. Busing
      4. Patching
      5. Panning
      6. Auxiliary and Cue Buses
    4. Automation
    5. Punch-In/Punch-Out (Insert) Recording
  20. 13. From Print Masters to Exploitation
    1. Introduction
    2. Print Master Types
      1. Print Masters for Various Digital Formats
      2. Low-Bitrate Audio
      3. Print Masters for Analog Soundtracks
      4. Other Types of Delivered Masters for Film Uses
      5. Digital Cinema
      6. Masters for Video Release
      7. Television Masters
    3. Sound Negatives
    4. Theater and Dubbing Stage Sound Systems
      1. A-Chain and B-Chain Components
      2. Theater Sound Systems
      3. Theater Acoustics
    5. Sound Systems for Video
      1. Home Theater
      2. Desktop Systems
    6. Toward the Future
  21. Appendix I. Working with Decibels
  22. Appendix II. Filmography
  23. Appendix III. The Eleven Commandments of Film Sound
  24. Appendix IV. Bibliography
  25. Glossary
  26. Index
  27. The Companion Website
  28. Instructions for accompanying DVD