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Sound and Recording, 7th Edition

Book Description

Providing vital reading for audio students and trainee engineers, this guide is ideal for anyone who wants a solid grounding in both theory and industry practices in audio, sound and recording. There are many books on the market covering "how to work it" when it comes to audio equipment—but Sound and Recording isn’t one of them. Instead, you’ll gain an understanding of "how it works" with this approachable guide to audio systems.

New to this edition:

  • Digital audio section revised substantially to include the latest developments in audio networking (e.g. RAVENNA, AES X-192, AVB), high-resolution surround and parametric audio coding, workstation processing technology, mastering for iTunes, and loudness normalization
  • Coverage of immersive audio systems such as Dolby Atmos, Auro 3D and WFS along with recent developments in audio object coding
  • Sections on digital radio microphones, loudspeaker sensitivity issues and development, and highly directional loudspeaker systems
  • Substantial new sections on recent developments in audio network device discovery and control and the Open Control Architecture

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Half Title
  3. Title Page
  4. Copyright Page
  5. Table of Contents
  6. Fact File Directory
  7. Preface to the Second Edition
  8. Preface to the Third Edition
  9. Preface to the Fourth Edition
  10. Preface to the Fifth Edition
  11. Preface to the Sixth Edition
  12. Preface to the Seventh Edition
  13. Chapter 1 What is Sound?
    1. A Vibrating Source
    2. Characteristics of a Sound Wave
    3. How Sound Travels in Air
    4. Simple and Complex Sounds
    5. Frequency Spectra of Repetitive Sounds
    6. Frequency Spectra of Non-Repetitive Sounds
    7. Phase
    8. Sound in Electrical Form
    9. Displaying the Characteristics of a Sound Wave
    10. The Decibel
    11. Sound Power and Sound Pressure
    12. Free and Reverberant Fields
    13. Standing Waves
    14. Recommended Further Reading
  14. Chapter 2 Auditory Perception
    1. The Hearing Mechanism
    2. Frequency Perception
    3. Loudness Perception
    4. Practical Implications of Equal-Loudness Contours
    5. Spatial Perception
    6. Recommended Further Reading
    7. Recommended Listening
  15. Chapter 3 Microphones
    1. The Moving-Coil or Dynamic Microphone
    2. The Ribbon Microphone
    3. The Capacitor or Condenser Microphone
    4. Directional Responses and Polar Diagrams
    5. Specialized Microphone Types
    6. Switchable Polar Patterns
    7. Stereo Microphones
    8. Microphone Performance
    9. Microphone Powering Options
    10. Connectors
    11. Radio Microphones
    12. Recommended Further Reading
    13. Useful Websites
  16. Chapter 4 Loudspeakers
    1. The Moving-Coil Loudspeaker
    2. Other Loudspeaker Types
    3. Mounting and Loading Drive Units
    4. Complete Loudspeaker Systems
    5. Active Loudspeakers
    6. Subwoofers
    7. Loudspeaker Performance
    8. Setting Up Loudspeakers
    9. Thiele-Small Parameters and Enclosure Volume Calculations
    10. Digital Signal Processing in Loudspeakers
    11. Recommended Further Reading
    12. Useful Websites
  17. Chapter 5 Mixers
    1. A Simple Six-Channel Analog Mixer
    2. A Multitrack Mixer
    3. Channel Grouping
    4. An Overview of Typical Mixer Facilities
    5. EQ Explained
    6. Stereo Line Input Modules
    7. Dedicated Monitor Mixer
    8. Technical Specifications
    9. Metering Systems
    10. Automation
    11. Digital Mixers
    12. Mixer and Workstation Integration
    13. Introduction to Mixing Approaches
    14. Basic Operational Techniques
    15. Recommended Further Reading
  18. Chapter 6 Analog Recording
    1. A Short History of Analog Recording
    2. Magnetic Tape
    3. The Magnetic Recording Process
    4. The Tape Recorder
    5. Magnetic Recording Levels
    6. What are Test Tapes for?
    7. Tape Machine Alignment
    8. Mechanical Transport Functions
    9. Recommended Further Reading
    10. Useful Websites
  19. Chapter 7 Noise Reduction
    1. Why is Noise Reduction Required?
    2. Methods of Reducing Noise
    3. Line-Up of Noise Reduction Systems
    4. Single-Ended Noise Reduction
    5. Recommended Further Reading
  20. Chapter 8 Digital Audio Principles
    1. Digital and Analog Recording Contrasted
    2. Binary for Beginners
    3. The Digital Audio Signal Chain
    4. Analog-to-Digital Conversion
    5. D/A Conversion
    6. Direct Stream Digital (DSD)
    7. Changing the Resolution of an Audio Signal (Requantization)
    8. Introduction to Digital Signal Processing
    9. Pitch Shifting and Time Stretching
    10. Audio Data Reduction
    11. Recommended Further Reading
  21. Chapter 9 Digital Recording, Editing and Mastering Systems
    1. Digital Tape Recording
    2. Mass Storage-Based Systems
    3. Audio Processing for Computer Workstations
    4. Mass Storage-Based Editing System Principles
    5. Editing Software
    6. Mastering and Restoration
    7. Preparing for and Understanding Release Media
    8. Recommended Further Reading
  22. Chapter 10 Digital Audio Formats and Interchange
    1. Audio File Formats for Digital Workstations
    2. Interconnecting Digital Audio Devices
    3. Recommended Further Reading
    4. Useful Websites
  23. Chapter 11 Power Amplifiers
    1. Domestic Power Amplifiers
    2. Professional Amplifier Facilities
    3. Specifications
    4. Coupling
    5. Useful Websites
  24. Chapter 12 Lines and Interconnection
    1. Transformers
    2. Unbalanced Lines
    3. Cable Effects with Unbalanced Lines
    4. Balanced Lines
    5. Working With Balanced Lines
    6. Star-Quad Cable
    7. Electronic Balancing
    8. 100 Volt Lines
    9. 600 Ohms
    10. DI Boxes
    11. Splitter Boxes
    12. Jackfields (Patchbays)
    13. Distribution Amplifiers
  25. Chapter 13 Plug-Ins and Outboard Equipment
    1. Plug-Ins
    2. Connection of Outboard Devices
    3. Recommended Further Reading
    4. Useful Websites
  26. Chapter 14 MIDI and Remote Control
    1. Background
    2. What is MIDI?
    3. MIDI and Digital Audio Contrasted
    4. Basic Principles
    5. Interfacing a Computer to a MIDI System
    6. How MIDI Control Works
    7. MIDI Control of Sound Generators
    8. General MIDI
    9. Scalable Polyphonic MIDI (SPMIDI)
    10. RMID and XMF Files
    11. MIDI over USB
    12. MIDI over IEEE 1394
    13. MIDI over Ethernet
    14. Open Sound Control
    15. Sequencing Software
    16. Audio Remote Control Using Computer Networks
    17. Recommended Further Reading
    18. Useful Websites
  27. Chapter 15 Synchronization
    1. SMPTE/EBU Timecode
    2. Recording Timecode
    3. Machine Synchronizers
    4. Digital Audio Synchronization
    5. Timecode and Video Synchronization for Audio Workstations
    6. MIDI and Synchronization
    7. Synchronizing Audio/MIDI/Video Computer Applications
    8. Recommended Further Reading
  28. Chapter 16 Two-Channel Stereo
    1. Principles of Loudspeaker Stereo
    2. Principles of Binaural or Headphone Stereo
    3. Loudspeaker Stereo Over Headphones and Vice Versa
    4. Two-Channel Signal Formats
    5. Two-Channel Microphone Techniques
    6. Binaural Recording and ‘Dummy Head’ Techniques
    7. Spot Microphones and Two-Channel Panning Laws
    8. Recommended Further Reading
  29. Chapter 17 Surround Sound
    1. Three-Channel (3-0) Stereo
    2. Four-Channel Surround (3-1 Stereo)
    3. 5.1-Channel Surround (3-2 Stereo)
    4. Other Multichannel Configurations
    5. Surround Sound Systems
    6. Matrixed Surround Sound Systems
    7. Digital Surround Sound Formats
    8. Ambisonics
    9. Further Developments
    10. Surround Sound Monitoring
    11. Surround Sound Recording Techniques
    12. Multichannel Panning Techniques
    13. Recommended Further Reading
    14. Useful Websites
  30. Chapter 18 Sound Quality
    1. What is Sound Quality?
    2. Methods of Sound Quality Evaluation
    3. Aspects of Audio System Performance Affecting Sound Quality
    4. Recommended Further Reading
  31. Appendix Record Players
    1. Pickup Mechanics
    2. RIAA Equalization
    3. Cartridge Types
    4. Connecting Leads
    5. Arm Considerations
    6. Laser Pickups
    7. Recommended Further Reading
  32. Glossary of Terms
  33. General Further Reading
  34. Index