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Sound and Recording, 5th Edition

Book Description

This best-selling book introduces you to the principles of sound, perception, audio technology and systems. Whilst offering vital reading for audio students and trainee engineers, this guide is ideal for anyone concerned with audio, sound and recording, beginners and professionals alike.

Comprehensive and easy to understand, this fifth edition is bang up to date, with expanded information on digital audio principles, systems and applications, as well as an extensively updated chapter on MIDI and synthetic audio control.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Halftitle
  3. Title
  4. Copyright
  5. Contents
  6. Fact File Directory
  7. Preface to the Second Edition
  8. Preface to the Third Edition
  9. Preface to the Fourth Edition
  10. Preface to the Fifth Edition
  11. Chapter 1: What is sound?
    1. A vibrating source
    2. Characteristics of a sound wave
    3. How sound travels in air
    4. Simple and complex sounds
    5. Frequency spectra of repetitive sounds
    6. Frequency spectra of non-repetitive sounds
    7. Phase
    8. Sound in electrical form
    9. Displaying the characteristics of a sound wave
    10. The decibel
    11. Sound power and sound pressure
    12. Free and reverberant fields
    13. Standing waves
    14. Recommended further reading
  12. Chapter 2: Auditory perception
    1. The hearing mechanism
    2. Frequency perception
    3. Loudness perception
    4. Practical implications of equal-loudness contours
    5. Spatial perception
    6. Recommended further reading
  13. Chapter 3: Microphones
    1. The moving-coil or dynamic microphone
    2. The ribbon microphone
    3. The capacitor or condenser microphone
    4. Directional responses and polar diagrams
    5. Specialised microphone types
    6. Switchable polar patterns
    7. Stereo microphones
    8. Microphone performance
    9. Microphone powering options
    10. Radio microphones
    11. Recommended further reading
  14. Chapter 4: Loudspeakers
    1. The moving-coil loudspeaker
    2. Other loudspeaker types
    3. Mounting and loading drive units
    4. Complete loudspeaker systems
    5. Active loudspeakers
    6. Subwoofers
    7. Loudspeaker performance
    8. Setting up loudspeakers
    9. Recommended further reading
  15. Chapter 5: Mixers
    1. A simple six-channel mixer
    2. A multitrack mixer
    3. Channel grouping
    4. An overview of typical mixer facilities
    5. Digital mixers
    6. EQ explained
    7. Stereo line input modules
    8. Dedicated monitor mixer
    9. Introduction to mixing approaches
    10. Basic operational techniques
    11. Technical specifications
    12. Metering systems
    13. Automation
    14. Recommended further reading
  16. Chapter 6: Analogue recording
    1. A short history of analogue recording
    2. Magnetic tape
    3. The magnetic recording process
    4. The tape recorder
    5. Track formats
    6. Magnetic recording levels
    7. What are test tapes for?
    8. Tape machine alignment
    9. Mechanical transport functions
    10. The Compact Cassette
    11. Recommended further reading
  17. Chapter 7: Noise reduction
    1. Why is noise reduction required?
    2. Methods of reducing noise
    3. Line-up of noise reduction systems
    4. Operational considerations
    5. Single-ended noise reduction
    6. Recommended further reading
  18. Chapter 8: Digital audio principles
    1. Digital and analogue recording contrasted
    2. Binary for beginners
    3. The digital audio signal chain
    4. Analogue to digital conversion
    5. D/A conversion
    6. Direct Stream Digital (DSD)
    7. Changing the resolution of an audio signal (requantisation)
    8. Introduction to digital signal processing
    9. Audio data reduction
    10. Recommended further reading
  19. Chapter 9: Digital recording and editing systems
    1. Digital tape recording
    2. Disk-based systems
    3. Sound file formats
    4. Consumer digital formats
    5. Solid state recording formats
    6. Audio processing for computer workstations
    7. Disk-based editing system principles
    8. Recommended further reading
  20. Chapter 10: Digital audio applications
    1. Editing software
    2. Plug-in architectures
    3. Advanced audio processing software and development tools
    4. Mastering and restoration
    5. Preparing for and understanding release media
    6. Interconnecting digital audio devices
    7. Recommended further reading
    8. Websites
  21. Chapter 11: Power amplifiers
    1. Domestic power amplifiers
    2. Professional amplifier facilities
    3. Specifications
    4. Coupling
  22. Chapter 12: Lines and interconnection
    1. Transformers
    2. Unbalanced lines
    3. Cable effects with unbalanced lines
    4. Balanced lines
    5. Working with balanced lines
    6. Star-quad cable
    7. Electronic balancing
    8. 100 volt lines
    9. 600 ohms
    10. DI boxes
    11. Splitter boxes
    12. Jackfields (patchbays)
    13. Distribution amplifiers
  23. Chapter 13: Outboard equipment
    1. The graphic equaliser
    2. The compressor/limiter
    3. Echo and reverb devices
    4. Multi-effects processors
    5. Frequency shifter
    6. Digital delay
    7. Miscellaneous devices
    8. Connection of outboard devices
    9. Recommended further reading
  24. Chapter 14: MIDI and synthetic audio control
    1. Background
    2. What is MIDI?
    3. MIDI and digital audio contrasted
    4. Basic principles
    5. Interfacing a computer to a MIDI system
    6. How MIDI control works
    7. MIDI control of sound generators
    8. General MIDI
    9. Scalable polyphonic MIDI (SPMIDI)
    10. RMID and XMF files
    11. SAOL and SASL in MPEG 4 Structured Audio
    12. MIDI and synchronisation
    13. MIDI over USB
    14. MIDI over IEEE 1394
    15. After MIDI?
    16. Recommended further reading
    17. Websites
  25. Chapter 15: Timecode and synchronisation
    1. SMPTE/EBU timecode
    2. Recording timecode
    3. Synchronisers
    4. Recommended further reading
  26. Chapter 16: Two-channel stereo
    1. Principles of loudspeaker stereo
    2. Principles of binaural or headphone stereo
    3. Loudspeaker stereo over headphones and vice versa
    4. Two-channel signal formats
    5. Two-channel microphone techniques
    6. Binaural recording and ‘dummy head’ techniques
    7. Spot microphones and two-channel panning laws
    8. Recommended further reading
  27. Chapter 17: Surround sound
    1. Three-channel (3-0) stereo
    2. Four-channel surround (3-1 stereo)
    3. 5.1 channel surround (3-2 stereo)
    4. Other multichannel configurations
    5. Surround sound systems
    6. Matrixed surround sound systems
    7. Digital surround sound formats
    8. Ambisonics
    9. Surround sound monitoring
    10. Surround sound recording techniques
    11. Multichannel panning techniques
    12. Recommended further reading
  28. Glossary of terms
  29. Appendix 1: Understanding basic equipment specifications
    1. Frequency response – technical
    2. Frequency response – practical examples
    3. Harmonic distortion – technical
    4. Harmonic distortion – practical examples
    5. Dynamic range and signal-to-noise ratio
    6. Wow and flutter
    7. Intermodulation (IM) distortion
    8. Crosstalk
  30. Appendix 2: Record players
    1. Pickup mechanics
    2. RIAA equalisation
    3. Cartridge types
    4. Connecting leads
    5. Arm considerations
    6. Laser pickups
    7. Recommended further reading
  31. General further reading
  32. Index