**Definition F.1** *Let* 2^{N} *denote the set of all possible coalitions for the players N*. *If S* = {*i*} *is a coalition containing the single member i, we simply denote S by i*.

*Any function υ* : 2^{N} → *satisfying*

*is a characteristic function (of an n-person cooperative game)*.

**Definition F.2** *Let x _{i} be a real number for each i* = 1, 2, . . .,

*x*≥_{i}*υ*(*i*) (**individual rationality**);- (
**group rationality**).

*Each x _{i} represents the share of the value of υ* (

**Definition F.3** *Let S* ⊂ *N be a coalition and let* . *The excess of coalition S* ⊂

*It is the amount by which ...*

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