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Solaris™ Operating Environment System Administrator’s Guide, Fourth Edition

Book Description

Solaris Operating Environment System Administrator’s Guide, Fourth Editionby Janice Winsor

The definitive, quick-answerresource for every Solaris 9 sysadmin.

  • Fully updated! Covers Solaris 9 new Flash Install and Live Upgrade installation features, Secure Shell network commands, and much more

  • Administering users, devices, systems,networks, and printing

  • Maximizing efficiency, productivity, and system availability

  • Fast solutionsfor every Solaris 9 system administration challenge—directfrom Sun!

    SolarisOperating Environment System Administrator’s Guide, Fourth Edition is the definitive quick-start tutorialfor every new Solaris system administrator—and the ideal fast-accessreference for every Solaris administrator, regardless of experience. Fullyupdated to reflect Solaris 9’s newest features and management tools, itcovers day-to-day administration tools and demonstrates how to maximizeefficiency, reliability, and availability in any Solaris environment.

    Coverageincludes all this, and much more—

  • NEW! Secure Shell network commands

  • NEW! Flash Install and Live Upgrade installation features

  • NEW! Allocate/deallocate/list devices commands; cdrw, rmformat, ssh commands; and more

  • Basic administration: superuser status, boot processes, monitoring, and communicating with users

  • Solaris commands: user and environment information, working with files and disks, redirecting output, reading manual pages, and more

  • Solaris shells: Bourne, C, Korn, Bourne-Again, TC, and Z

  • User administration: User accounts, file systems, and roles-including Role Based Access Control (RBAC)

  • Device/system administration: Service Access Facility, configuring additional swap space, creating local e-mail aliases, and more

  • Network services: remote administration, NIS+, IPv6, and more

  • From startup to backup, security to printing, this book delivers clearly written, accessible information you’ll use today—and every day.

    PRENTICE HALL

    Professional TechnicalReference

    Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458

    www.phptr.com

    Sun Microsystems Press

    ISBN: 0-13-101401-3

    UPC: 076092022015

    Table of Contents

    1. Copyright
    2. Acknowledgments
    3. Preface
      1. A Quick Tour of the Contents
      2. Important: Read This Before You Begin
      3. Conventions Used in This Book
        1. Commands
        2. Variables
        3. Mouse-Button Terminology
        4. Platform Terminology
        5. Storage-Medium Terminology
        6. Icons
      4. Solaris Management Console Tools
      5. SPARC and IA Information
      6. Solaris System Software Evolution
      7. Freeware
    4. 1. Introducing Solaris System Administration
      1. Defining the System Administrator’s Job
      2. Understanding Superuser Status
        1. Becoming Superuser (su)
        2. Exiting Superuser Status
        3. Logging In as Root
      3. Communicating with Users
        1. Displaying System-Specific Messages at Login (motd)
          1. Creating a Message of the Day
        2. Sending a Message to an Individual User
          1. Typing a Short Message to an Individual User (write)
          2. Sending a Message from a File to an Individual User (write)
        3. Sending a Message to All Users on a System or Network (wall, rwall)
        4. Sending a Message by E-Mail
      4. Starting Up Systems
        1. Choosing an Init State
          1. The /etc/inittab File
          2. Run Control Scripts
            1. The /sbin/rc0 Script
            2. The /sbin/rc1 Script
            3. The /sbin/rc2 Script
            4. The /sbin/rc3 Script
            5. The /sbin/rc5 and /sbin/rc6 Scripts
            6. The /sbin/rcS Script
          3. Finding the Run Level for a System
          4. Using OpenBoot PROM State, Run Level 0
          5. Using Single-User State, Run Level s and S
          6. Using Administrative State, Run Level 1
          7. Using Multiuser State, Run Level 2
          8. Using Remote Resource-Sharing State, Run Level 3
          9. Using Alternative Multiuser State, Run Level 4
          10. Using Power-Down State, Run Level 5
          11. Using Reboot State, Run Level 6
          12. Changing Run Levels
        2. Using Platform-Specific Booting Protocols
          1. The OpenBoot PROM and Interface (SPARC Platforms)
            1. Displaying the PROM Release for a System
            2. OpenBoot Configuration Information
            3. Commands Used to View or Modify Configuration Variables
            4. OpenBoot Firmware Security Levels
        3. The PC BIOS (IA Platforms)
          1. Boot Subsystems
        4. Booting a System
          1. Booting in Multiuser State
          2. Booting in Single-User State
          3. Booting Interactively
          4. Looking at the Boot Messages
          5. Booting After Adding New Hardware
          6. Forcing a Crash Dump and Rebooting the System
          7. Administering Crash Dumps
          8. Booting the System with the Kernel Debugger
          9. Booting a System for Recovery Purposes (SPARC Platform)
          10. Booting a System for Recovery Purposes (IA Platform)
          11. Aborting a Booting Process
        5. Shutting Down a System
        6. Choosing Which Shutdown Command to Use
          1. shutdown
          2. telinit and init
          3. halt
          4. reboot
        7. Shutting Down a Multiuser System
        8. Shutting Down a System: Alternative Ways
          1. Shutting Down a System Without Confirmation
          2. Changing the Shutdown Grace Period
          3. Shutting Down and Rebooting a Multiuser System
          4. Shutting Down a Single-User System
          5. Shutting Down and Rebooting a Single-User System
          6. Shutting Down a System in a Hurry
      5. Monitoring Processes
        1. Commands for Monitoring Processes
        2. Using the ps Command
          1. What the ps Command Reports
          2. Uses for the ps Report
        3. Signalling a Process
        4. Killing Processes
        5. Using the /usr/proc/bin Commands
          1. Displaying and Controlling Information About Processes
        6. The Priority Control Command (priocntl)
          1. Creating and Administering Resource Management Pools
          2. Displaying Basic Information About Process Classes
          3. Displaying the Global Priority of a Process
          4. Designating a Process Priority
          5. Changing the Class of a Process
          6. Setting Fair-Share Parameters
          7. Setting Fixed-Priority Parameters
        7. Setting the Priority of a Process (nice)
        8. Changing the Priority of a Running Process (renice)
        9. Finding or Signalling Processes (pgrep, pkill)
      6. Reviewing Essential Administration Tools
        1. Frequently Used Commands
          1. Getting Around in the File System (pwd, cd)
            1. Finding Where You Are in the File System
            2. Changing Directories
          2. Finding Information About Files
          3. Displaying File Information (ls)
          4. Finding a File (find)
          5. Finding the Type of a File (file)
          6. Finding Information in Files (grep, egrep)
            1. Searching Files for Text Strings
            2. Searching Input for Lines with a Given Pattern
          7. Looking at Files
          8. Viewing a File (more)
          9. Looking at the End of a File (tail)
          10. Looking at the Beginning of a File (head)
          11. Changing File Ownership or Permissions (chown, chmod, chgrp)
            1. Changing File Ownership
            2. Changing File Permissions
          12. Changing File Group Ownership (chgrp)
          13. Setting or Displaying the System Environment
          14. CDE Environment Variables
        2. Tools in the Solaris Management Console
          1. SMC Tools Available in SMC 2.1
          2. Starting SMC
    5. 2. Using Basic OS Commands
      1. Finding User Information
        1. Determining Who Is Logged In to a System (w, who, finger, rusers -l, whodo)
          1. Using the w Command
          2. Using the who Command
          3. Using the finger Command
          4. Using the rusers -l Command
          5. Using the whodo Command
        2. Finding User UID and GID Settings (id)
      2. Creating and Editing Files (cat, touch, cp, mv, vi)
        1. Using the cat Command
        2. Using the touch Command
        3. Copying (cp) or Renaming (mv) an Existing File
        4. Using Text Editor
        5. Using vi
      3. Using Manual Pages
        1. Displaying a Manual Page (man)
        2. Finding Manual Page Sections (man)
        3. Creating Preformatted Manual Pages (catman)
        4. Finding the Section Number for a Manual Page (whatis, man)
      4. Finding Disk Information
        1. Displaying Used Disk Space in a Human-Readable Format (df -h)
        2. Displaying Used Disk Space in Kilobytes and Percentage of Capacity (df -k)
        3. Determining Whether File Systems Are Local or NFS Mounted (df)
        4. Finding All Mounted File Systems of a Specific Type (df -F)
    6. 3. Understanding the Flash Install and Live Upgrade Features
      1. Flash Installation
        1. Designing the Master System Installation
        2. Creating a Flash Archive
        3. Choosing a Flash Archive Installation Method
        4. Installing a Flash Archive with the Solaris WebStart Program
        5. Installing a Flash Archive with the suninstall Program
      2. Solaris Live Upgrade
        1. Solaris Live Upgrade Commands
        2. Creating a Boot Environment
        3. Upgrading a Boot Environment
        4. Activating a Boot Environment
    7. 4. Understanding Shells
      1. Tasks Common to All Shells
        1. Setting a Default Shell
        2. Changing Shells from a Command Line (csh, ksh, sh, bash, tcsh)
        3. Quitting from a Shell (exit)
        4. Setting Aliases, Paths, and Environment Variables
          1. Setting the Path for Bourne and Korn Shells
          2. Setting the Path for the C Shell
          3. Displaying Environment Variable Settings (env)
        5. Clearing a Shell Window (clear)
        6. Setting the Shell Backspace Key (stty erase)
        7. Typing Several Commands on the Same Command Line (;)
        8. Redirecting Output (<>)
        9. Combining Commands (|)
      2. The Bourne Shell
        1. Reviewing the Bourne Shell Initialization File
        2. Defining Bourne Shell Environment Variables
        3. Using Functions to Simulate Aliases for the Bourne Shell
      3. The C Shell
        1. Reviewing C Shell Initialization Files
        2. Defining C Shell Environment Variables
        3. Creating Aliases for the C Shell
        4. Setting the History Size for the C Shell
        5. Using history for the C Shell
        6. Incorporating a New Command for the C Shell (rehash)
        7. Editing C Shell History Commands
      4. The Korn Shell
        1. Reviewing Korn Shell Initialization Files
        2. Using Korn Shell Options
        3. Creating Korn Shell Aliases
        4. Editing Commands with the Korn Shell In-line Editor
        5. Setting the Size of the Korn Shell’s History
        6. Displaying Korn Shell History Commands
        7. Using Korn Shell History Commands
        8. Editing Korn Shell History Commands
      5. The Bourne-Again Shell
        1. Reviewing Bourne-Again Shell Initialization Files
      6. The TC Shell
        1. Reviewing TC Shell Initialization Files
      7. The Z Shell
        1. Reviewing Z Shell Initialization Files
    8. 5. Administering User Accounts and Groups
      1. Tools for Adding and Administering User Accounts
      2. Adding User Accounts
        1. Editing the /etc/passwd File
        2. User ID Number
          1. Large User IDs and Group IDs
        3. Creating a Home Directory
          1. NFS-Mounting the Home Directory
        4. Defining the User’s Environment
          1. Defining Initialization Files
          2. Creating Site Initialization Files
            1. Example of a Site Initialization File
            2. Avoiding Local System References in Site Initialization Files
          3. Setting Up User Initialization Files
          4. Setting Up a User’s Mail Account
          5. Setting Up a User’s Printer
        5. Creating a Password
        6. Disabling User Accounts
      3. Setting Up and Administering Groups
        1. Setting Up Fields in the Group Database
          1. Setting Up a Group Name Field
          2. Setting Up a Group ID Field
          3. Setting Up a User (Member) List Field
        2. Identifying Default UNIX User Groups
        3. Creating New Groups
        4. Modifying Groups
        5. Deleting User Accounts
      4. Using Solaris User Registration
        1. Accessing Solaris Solve/BigAdmin
        2. Error Conditions
        3. Restarting Solaris User Registration
        4. Disabling User Registration
    9. 6. Administering Rights and Roles
      1. Using SMC to Grant Access Rights to Users
      2. Using SMC to Administer Role Accounts
      3. The RBAC Databases
      4. Commands for Managing Role-Based Access Control
    10. 7. Administering File Systems
      1. What’s New in File Systems in the Solaris 9 Release
      2. What’s New in File Systems in the Solaris 8 Release
      3. Types of File Systems
        1. Disk-Based File Systems
        2. Network-Based File Systems
        3. Virtual File Systems
          1. The Cache File System (CacheFS)
          2. The Temporary File System (TMPFS)
          3. The Loopback File System (LOFS)
          4. The Process File System (PROCFS)
          5. The /etc/mnttab File System (MNTFS)
          6. Additional Virtual File Systems
      4. The Default Solaris File System
      5. The Virtual File System Table (/etc/vfstab)
        1. NFS Client Failover
        2. Creation of an Entry in the File System Table
      6. File System Administrative Commands
        1. Syntax of Generic Commands
        2. Manual Pages for Generic and Specific Commands
        3. How File System Commands Determine File System Type
        4. Types of File Systems
      7. Making File Systems Available
        1. Understanding Mounting and Unmounting
          1. Using Mount and Unmount File System Commands
          2. UFS Logging
          3. Finding the Mounted File Systems
          4. Mounting All File Systems in the /etc/vfstab File
          5. Mounting All File Systems of a Specific Type
          6. Mounting a Single File System (mount)
          7. Remounting a UFS File System Without Large Files (mount)
          8. Unmounting All Remote File Systems (umountall -F nfs)
          9. Unmounting Individual File Systems (umount)
        2. Automounting Directories
        3. Sharing Files from a Server
      8. Checking the Data Consistency of a File System (fsck)
        1. Finding Out Whether a File System Needs Checking
        2. Checking File Systems Interactively
      9. Backing Up and Restoring File Systems
        1. Specifying Tape Characteristics
        2. Specifying a Backup Level
        3. Backing Up a File System with Cartridge Tapes (ufsdump)
          1. Performing Incremental Backups
        4. Restoring a Backed-Up File System (ufsrestore)
          1. Determining Which Tapes to Use
          2. Restoring a Full Backup
          3. Restoring Files Interactively
          4. Restoring a Single File from a Backup Tape (ufsrestore)
        5. Creating a Snapshot of a UFS File System
          1. Syntax and Options of the fssnap Command
          2. Creating a UFS Snapshot
          3. Deleting a UFS Snapshot
          4. Backing Up a UFS Snapshot
          5. Restoring Data from a UFS Snapshot Backup
      10. Cache File Systems
        1. Understanding CacheFS
          1. Creating a Cache
          2. Specifying a File System to Be Mounted in the Cache
          3. Creating a Mount Point
            1. Specifying a File System (mount)
            2. Specifying a File System (/etc/vfstab File)
            3. Specifying a File System (Automounter Map)
        2. Maintaining Caches
    11. 8. Administering Devices
      1. What’s New in Device Management in the Solaris 9 Release
        1. RCM Scripting
        2. Dynamic Reconfiguration Error Messages
        3. New Device Allocation Commands
      2. Automatically Configuring Devices
        1. Improved Device Configuration (defvsadm)
        2. Display of Device Configuration Information
      3. Allocating Devices
        1. Enabling BSM
        2. Disabling BSM
        3. Listing Device Information
        4. Allocating a Device
        5. Deallocating a Device
      4. Using SCSI and PCI Hot-Plugging
      5. Specifying Device Names
      6. Using Tapes
        1. Tape Device–Naming Conventions
          1. Specifying the Drive Number by the Default Density
          2. Specifying Different Densities for a Tape Drive
          3. Specifying the No-Rewind Option
          4. Understanding Device Abbreviations for Different Tape Controllers and Media
          5. Using SCSI 1/4-Inch Cartridge and 1/2-Inch Front-Loaded Reel Drives
          6. Specifying Helical Scan Drives
          7. Using DLT and AIT Tape Drives
        2. Useful Commands for Streaming Tapes
          1. Rewinding a Magnetic Tape
          2. Showing the Status of a Magnetic Tape Drive
        3. The tar Command
          1. Copying Files to a Tape (tar)
          2. Listing the Files on a Tape (tar)
          3. Appending Files to a Tape (tar)
          4. Retrieving Files and Directories from a Tape (tar)
        4. The cpio Command
          1. Copying All Files in a Directory to a Tape (cpio)
          2. Listing the Files on a Tape (cpio)
          3. Retrieving All Files from a Tape (cpio)
          4. Retrieving a Subset of Files from a Tape (cpio)
        5. The pax Command
          1. Copying All Files in a Directory to a Tape (pax)
          2. Retrieving All Files on a Tape (pax)
      7. Accessing Removable Media Devices
        1. Removable Media Manager
          1. Starting Removable Media Manager
          2. Supported Media Devices
      8. Using DVD-ROM Devices
        1. Hardware and Software Requirements
        2. UDF Compatibility Issues
        3. Connecting a DVD-ROM Device
        4. Accessing Files on a DVD-ROM Device
        5. Displaying UDF File System Parameters
        6. Creating a UDF File System
        7. Determining Whether a File System Is a UDF File System
        8. Checking a UDF File System
        9. Mounting a UDF File System
        10. Unmounting a UDF File System
        11. Labeling a Device with a UDF File System and Volume Name
      9. Using Jaz or Zip Drives
        1. Creating an Alternative fdisk Partition
      10. Writing CD Discs
        1. Creating Data CDs
        2. Creating Audio CDs
      11. Volume Management
        1. Volume Management Files
        2. Volume Management Mount Points
        3. Limitation on UFS Formats with Volume Management for CDs
        4. CD-ROMs and Volume Management
          1. Mounting a Local CD-ROM
          2. Sharing Local Media Drives with NFS
            1. How to Access an NFS-Shared CD-ROM File System
            2. How to Unmount an NFS-Shared CD-ROM File System
            3. How to Find Out If an NFS-Mounted CD-ROM File System Is Still in Use
        5. Diskettes and Volume Management
        6. Limitation on UFS Formats with Volume Management for Diskettes
          1. Command-Line Diskette Formatting (rmformat)
          2. Command-Line Diskette Formatting (fdformat)
          3. Determining If a Diskette Is Still in Use
          4. Ejecting a Diskette
          5. Accessing the CDE Front Panel
          6. CDE File Manager Access
          7. Using Removable Media Manager to Format Diskettes
          8. Using the tar and cpio Commands with Diskettes
        7. Volume Management Troubleshooting
        8. Volume Management and workman
        9. Disabling Volume Management
      12. Using Diskettes Without Volume Management
        1. Diskette Device Names
        2. Diskettes for UFS File Systems
          1. Formatting a UFS Diskette (rmformat)
          2. Formatting a UFS Diskette (fdformat)
          3. Removing a Diskette from the Drive
          4. Copying UFS Files to a Single Formatted Diskette
          5. Listing the Files on a Diskette (tar)
          6. Appending Files to a Formatted Diskette (tar)
          7. Retrieving Files from a Diskette (tar)
          8. Retrieving bar Files from Diskettes (cpio)
        3. Multiple Diskettes for Archiving Files (cpio)
          1. Making a UFS File System on a Diskette (newfs /dev/rdiskette)
        4. Diskettes for PCFS (DOS) File Systems
          1. Formatting a Diskette with a PCFS (DOS) File System
          2. Mounting a PCFS Diskette
          3. Unmounting a PCFS Diskette
      13. Administering Disks
        1. Disk-Naming Conventions
          1. Using Disks with Bus Controllers
          2. Using Disks with Direct Controllers
        2. Setting Up Disk Slices
          1. SPARC Disk Slices
          2. IA Disk Slices
          3. Determining Which Slices to Use
        3. Disks and SMC
        4. Disk Use Check (du)
        5. Disk Information Check (prtvtoc)
        6. Bad-Disk Repair
          1. Try Archiving the Files
          2. Try Copying Data from the Disk
          3. Try Repairing Any Bad Blocks
          4. Try Reformatting the Disk
          5. Replacing the Bad Disk
          6. Adding Defect List, Format, Partition, and Label Disk (format)
          7. Remaking the File Systems (newfs)
          8. Mounting the File System on a Temporary Mount Point (mount)
          9. Restoring Files to the File System (ufsrestore)
          10. Unmounting the File System from Its Temporary Mount Point (umount)
          11. Checking the File System for Inconsistencies (fsck)
          12. Performing a Level 0 Backup of the Restored File System (ufsdump)
          13. Mounting the File System at Its Permanent Mount Point (mount)
      14. Understanding the Service Access Facility
        1. SMC Tools for SAF
        2. Port Monitors and Service Access
        3. SAF Control of Port Monitors and Services
        4. Setting Up Printer Port Monitors
      15. Setting Up a Bidirectional Modem
      16. Using a Modem
    12. 9. Administering Systems
      1. Displaying System-Specific Information
        1. Determining the Host ID Number (sysdef -h, hostid)
        2. Determining the Hardware Type (uname -m)
        3. Determining the Processor Type (uname -p)
        4. Determining the OS Release (uname -r)
        5. Displaying System Configuration Information (prtconf)
        6. Determining How Long a System Has Been Up (uptime)
        7. Determining the System Date and Time (date)
        8. Setting the System Date and Time (date)
        9. Changing the System Time Zone (/etc/TIMEZONE)
      2. Configuring Additional Swap Space (mkfile, swap)
      3. Creating a Local Mail Alias (/etc/mail/aliases)
    13. 10. Administering Network Services
      1. Configuring Systems for a Network
        1. Configuring a Host for Local Files Mode
      2. Checking on Remote System Status
        1. Determining How Long a Remote System Has Been Up (rup)
        2. Determining Whether a Remote System Is Up (ping, rup, rpcinfo -p)
      3. Logging In to a Remote System (rlogin)
        1. Authentication for Remote Logins (rlogin)
          1. Remote System Authentication
            1. The /etc/hosts.equiv File
            2. The .rhosts File
          2. Network Authentication
          3. What Happens After You Log In Remotely
      4. Logging Out from a Remote System
      5. Transferring Files Between Systems (rcp, ftp)
        1. Using the rcp Command
        2. Using the File Transfer Program (ftp)
      6. Administering NIS+ Databases
        1. Using NIS+ Tables
        2. NIS+ Security
      7. Using SMC Computers and Networks Tool
      8. Introducing the IPv6 Internet Protocol
        1. Expanded Routing and Addressing Capabilities
        2. Simplified Header Format
        3. Improved Support for Options
        4. Quality-of-Service Capabilities
        5. Authentication and Privacy Capabilities
      9. Showing Network Status (netstat)
        1. Displaying Status of Active TCP and UDP Ports
        2. Displaying the Status of Network Interfaces
        3. Displaying Kernel Routing Tables
      10. Displaying Network Interface Parameters (ifconfig)
        1. Displaying Information About All Interfaces on a System
        2. Displaying Information About Specific Interfaces
      11. Displaying Packet Contents
        1. Checking All Packets from Your System
        2. Capturing snoop Results to a File
      12. Secure Shell Commands
        1. Benefits of SSH
        2. SSH Configuration
          1. Configuring Secure Shell Clients
          2. Configuring Secure Shell Servers
          3. X11 Forwarding
        3. Public Key Authentication with the Secure Shell
          1. Changing the Passphrase of a Private Key
          2. Using the Public Key in Each Keypair
          3. Private Keys and Passphrases
            1. The ssh-agent
            2. ssh-add
          4. The Secure Shell Commands
            1. ssh
            2. scp
            3. sftp
          5. Common Administrative Uses for the Secure Shell
            1. Transferring Files Between Systems Securely
            2. Secure Root Login Without Allowing Passwords
          6. Secure Shell on Pre-Solaris 9 Releases
          7. For More Information
    14. 11. Administering Printing
      1. What’s New in Printing in the Solaris 9 Release
        1. Changes to the LP Scheduler (lpsched)
        2. USB Printer Support
        3. Printer Information Management with LDAP
      2. What’s New in Printing in the Solaris 8 Release
        1. Solaris Print Manager
        2. Print-Naming Enhancement to the Nameservice Switch File
        3. Methods for Enabling or Disabling Global Banner Page Printing
      3. Solaris Print Package Redesign
        1. Redesign of Print Packages
        2. Print Protocol Adapter
        3. SunSoft Print Client
        4. Enhanced Network Printer Support
      4. Print Administration Tools in the Solaris Environment
      5. Choosing a Method to Manage Printers
      6. Introducing the LP Print Service
        1. Administering Files and Scheduling Print Requests
        2. Scheduling Network Print Requests
        3. Filtering Print Files
        4. Starting the Printer Interface Program
        5. Tracking the Status of Print Jobs
        6. Tracking Forms
        7. Tracking Print Wheels
        8. Receiving Printing Problem Alerts
      7. Understanding the Structure of the LP Print Service
        1. User Commands
        2. LP Configuration Files
        3. Printer Definitions
        4. Daemons and LP Internal Files
        5. LP Administrative Commands
        6. Log Files
          1. Print Queue Logs
          2. History Logs
        7. Spooling Directories
      8. Using the SunSoft Print Client
        1. Printer Configuration Resources
        2. Print-Naming Enhancement
        3. Print Request Submission
        4. Summary of the SunSoft Print Client Process
      9. Setting Up Printing Services
        1. Introducing Solaris Print Manager
        2. Starting Solaris Print Manager
        3. Adding Access to a Printer with the Print Manager
        4. Adding a New Attached Printer with Print Manager
        5. Adding a New Network Printer with Print Manager
        6. Converting Printer Configuration in NIS+ (xfn) to NIS+ Format
        7. Setting Up a Print Server (Solaris Operating Environment)
        8. Controlling the Printing of Banner Pages
          1. Making Banner Pages Optional
        9. Turning Off Banner Pages
        10. Setting Up a PostScript Print Client with LP Commands
      10. Using Printing Commands
        1. Printing to the Default Printer
        2. Printing to a Printer by Name
        3. Requesting Notification When a File Has Been Printed
        4. Printing Multiple Copies
        5. Determining Printer Status
          1. The Status of Your Print Requests
          2. Availability of Printers
          3. Display of All Status Information
          4. Display of Status for Printers
          5. Display of Printer Characteristics
          6. Summary Table of lpstat Options
        6. Cancelling a Print Request
          1. Cancelling a Print Request by ID Number
          2. Cancelling by Printer Name a File That Is Currently Printing
    15. 12. Recognizing File Access Problems
      1. Recognizing Problems with Search Paths
        1. Displaying the Current Search Path
        2. Setting the Path for Bourne and Korn Shells
        3. Sourcing Bourne and Korn Shell Dot Files
        4. Setting the Path for the C Shell
        5. Sourcing C Shell Dot Files
        6. Verifying the Search Path
        7. Executing a Command
      2. Recognizing Problems with Permissions and Ownership
        1. Changing File Ownership
        2. Changing File Permissions
        3. Changing File Group Ownership
    16. Glossary