You are previewing Solaris™ 7 Reference.
O'Reilly logo
Solaris™ 7 Reference

Book Description


2004H-5

  • Thoroughly cross-referenced and packed with comprehensive examples for administrators and programmers

  • Easy-to-understand explanations of UNIX commands and options in a user-friendly format

  • A complete, plain English reference guide to all of the Section (1) man pages from acctcom to zcat

  • Award-winning author Janice Winsor's Solaris 7 Reference is an essential resource for users, system administrators, and programmers. It provides clear and understandable descriptions of more than 450 UNIX commands.

    Starting with a convenient, task-oriented quick reference that lists commands by function, it goes beyond standard "manual page" descriptions to provide comprehensive examples and more in-depth information than the online documentation. Both experienced programmers and users of all levels will find the extensive examples to be time-saving aids to understanding the full power and flexibility of key commands.

    Solaris 7 Reference contains complete, accurate, and accessible syntax and option information for hundreds of tasks including:

  • Communication

  • File Management

  • System Status

  • Archiving

  • Printing

  • Text Processing

  • Shell Programming

  • Searching

  • Its complete coverage, logical organization, and Janice Winsor's easy-to-understand style of presentation make this the one UNIX command reference everyone working in a Solaris environment needs.

    Table of Contents

    1. Copyright
    2. Preface
    3. Acknowledgments
    4. Introduction
    5. A
      1. acctcom — Search and Print Process Accounting Files
      2. adb — General-Purpose Debugger
      3. addbib — Create or Extend a Bibliographic Database
      4. admin, sccs-admin — Create and Administer SCCS History Files
      5. aedplot — Graphics Filters for Various Plotters
      6. alias, unalias — Create or Remove a Pseudonym
      7. answerbook2 — Online Documentation System
      8. appletviewer — View Java Applets
      9. apropos — Locate Commands by Keyword Lookup
      10. ar — Maintain Portable Archive or Library
      11. arch — Display the Architecture of the Current Host
      12. as — Assembler
      13. asa — Convert FORTRAN Carriage-control Output to Printable Form
      14. at, batch — Execute Commands at a Later Time
      15. atoplot — Graphics Filters for Various Plotters
      16. atq — Display the Jobs Queued to Run at Specified Times
      17. See Also
      18. atrm — Remove Jobs Spooled by at or batch
      19. audioconvert — Convert Audio File Formats
      20. audioplay — Play Audio Files
      21. audiorecord — Record an Audio File
      22. awk — Pattern Scanning and Processing Language
    6. B
      1. banner — Make Posters
      2. basename, dirname — Deliver Portions of Path Names
      3. batch — Execute Commands at a Later Time
      4. bc — Binary Calculator
      5. bdiff — Big diff
      6. bfs — Big File Scanner
      7. bg — Control Process Execution
      8. bgplot — Graphics Filters for Various Plotters
      9. biff — Give Notice of Incoming Mail Messages
      10. break, continue — Shell Built-in Functions to Break Out of Loops
    7. C
      1. cal — Display a Calendar
      2. calendar — Reminder Service
      3. cancel — Cancel Print Request
      4. case, switch, select — Shell Built-in Functions to Choose from a List of Actions
      5. cat — Concatenate and Display Files
      6. cc — C Compiler
      7. cd, chdir, pushd, popd, dirs — Change Working Directory
      8. cdc, sccs-cdc — Change the Delta Commentary of an SCCS Delta
      9. chdir — Change Working Directory
      10. checkeq — Typeset Mathematics Test
      11. checknr — Check nroff and troff Input Files for Errors
      12. chgrp — Change File Group Ownership
      13. chkey — Change User’s Secure RPC Key Pair
      14. chmod — Change the Permissions Mode of a File
      15. chown — Change File Ownership
      16. cksum — Write File Checksums and Sizes
      17. clear — Clear the Terminal Screen
      18. cmp — Compare Two Files
      19. col — Reverse Linefeeds Filter
      20. comb, sccs-comb — Combine SCCS Deltas
      21. comm — Select or Reject Lines Common to Two Files
      22. command — Execute a Simple Command
      23. compress, uncompress, zcat — Compress, Uncompress Files or Display Expanded Files
      24. continue, break — Shell Built-in Functions
      25. cp — Copy Files
      26. cpio — Copy File Archives In and Out
      27. cpp — C Language Preprocessor
      28. crontab — User Chronological Table File
      29. crtplot — Graphics Filters for Various Plotters
      30. crypt — Encode or Decode a File
      31. csh — Shell Command Interpreter with a C-like Syntax
      32. csplit — Split Files, Based on Context
      33. ct — Spawn Login to a Remote Terminal
      34. ctags — Create a Tags File for Use with ex and vi
      35. cu — Call Another UNIX System
      36. cut — Cut Out Selected Fields of Each Line of a File
    8. D
      1. date — Write the Date and Time
      2. dc — Desk Calculator
      3. delta, sccs-delta — Make a Delta to an SCCS File
      4. deroff — Remove nroff/troff, tbl, and eqn Constructs
      5. df — Report Number of Free Disk Blocks and Files
      6. dhcpinfo — Display Value of Parameters Received Through DHCP
      7. diff — Display Line-by-Line Differences Between Pairs of Text Files
      8. diff3 — Three-Way Differential File Comparison
      9. diffmk — Mark Differences Between Versions of a troff Input File
      10. dircmp — Directory Comparison
      11. dirname — Deliver Portions of Path Names
      12. dirs — Change Working Directory
      13. dis — Object Code Disassembler
      14. disable — Disable LP Printers
      15. dispgid — Display a List of All Valid Group Names
      16. dispuid — Display a List of All Valid User Names
      17. dos2unix — Convert Text File from DOS Format to ISO Format
      18. download — Download Host-Resident PostScript Font
      19. dpost — troff Postprocessor for PostScript Printers
      20. du — Summarize Disk Usage
      21. dumbplot — Graphics Filters for Various Plotters
      22. dump — Dump Selected Parts of an Object File for Shell Scripts
      23. dumpcs — Show Codeset Table for the Current Locale
      24. dumpkeys — Dump Keyboard Translation Tables
    9. E
      1. echo — Write Arguments to Standard Output
      2. ed, red — Text Editor
      3. edit — Text Editor (Variant of ex for Casual Users)
      4. egrep — Search a File for a Pattern, Using Full Regular Expressions
      5. eject — Eject Media such as CD-ROM and Diskette from Drive
      6. elfdump — Dump Selected Parts of an Object File
      7. enable, disable — Enable/Disable LP Printers
      8. env — Set Environment for Command Invocation
      9. eqn, neqn, checkeq — Typeset Mathematics Test
      10. eval — Shell Built-in Functions to Execute Other Commands
      11. ex — Display-Based Text Editor
      12. exec, eval, source — Shell Built-in Functions to Execute Other Commands
      13. exit, return, goto — Shell Built-in Functions to Enable the Shell to Advance Beyond Its Sequence of Steps
      14. expand, unexpand — Expand Tab Characters to Space Characters, and Vice Versa
      15. Operands.
      16. export — Shell Built-in Environment Variable Function
      17. exportfs — Translate exportfs Options to share/unshare Commands
      18. expr — Evaluate Arguments as an Expression
      19. exstr — Extract Strings from Source Files
    10. F
      1. factor — Obtain the Prime Factors of a Number
      2. false — Provide Truth Values
      3. fastboot, fasthalt — Reboot/Halt the System Without Checking the Disks
      4. fc — Process Command History List
      5. fdformat — Format Diskette or PCMCIA Memory Card
      6. fg — Control Process Execution
      7. fgrep — Search a File for a Fixed-Character String
      8. file — Determine File Type
      9. filesync — Synchronize Ordinary, Directory, or Special Files
      10. find — Find Files
      11. finger — Display Information About Local and Remote Users
      12. fmt — Simple Text Formatter
      13. fmtmsg — Display a Message on Standard Error or System Console
      14. fnattr — Update and Examine Attributes Associated with an FNS Named Object
      15. fnbind — Bind a Reference to an FNS Name
      16. fnlist — Display the Names and References Bound in an FNS Context
      17. fnlookup — DIsplay the Reference Bound to an FNS Name
      18. fnrename — Rename the Binding of an FNS Name
      19. fnsearch — Search for FNS Objects with Specified Attributes
      20. fnunbind — Unbind the Reference from an FNS Name
      21. fold — Filter for Folding Lines
      22. for, foreach, repeat — Shell Built-in Repeat Functions
      23. from — Display the Sender and Date of Newly Arrived Mail Messages
      24. ftp — File Transfer Program
      25. function — Shell Built-in Command to Define a Shell Function
    11. G
      1. gcore — Get Core Images of Running Processes
      2. gencat — Generate a Formatted Message Catalog
      3. genmsg — Generate a Message Source File by Extracting Messages from Source Files
      4. get, sccs-get — Retrieve a Version of an SCCS File
      5. getconf — Get Configuration Values
      6. getfacl — Display Discretionary File Information
      7. getopt — Parse Command Options
      8. getoptcvt — Convert to getopts to Parse Command Options
      9. getopts — Parse Utility Options
      10. gettext — Retrieve Text String from Message Database
      11. gigiplot — Graphics Filters for Various Plotters
      12. glob — Shell Built-in Function to Expand a Word List
      13. goto — Shell Built-in Functions
      14. gprof — Display Call-graph Profile Data
      15. graph — Draw a Graph
      16. grep — Search a File for a Pattern
      17. groups — Print Group Membership of User
      18. grpck — Password/Group File Checkers
    12. H
      1. hash, rehash, unhash, hashstat — Evaluate the Internal Hash Table of the Contents of Directories
      2. hashcheck, hashmake — Report Spelling Errors
      3. hashstat — Evaluate the Internal Hash Table of the Contents of Directories
      4. head — Display First Few Lines of Files
      5. help, sccs-help — Ask for Help Regarding SCCS Error or Warning Messages
      6. history, fc — Process Command History List
      7. hostid — Print the Numeric Identifier of the Current Host
      8. hostname — Set or Print Name of Current Host System
      9. hp7221plot, hpplot — Graphics Filters for Various Plotters
    13. I
      1. iAPX286, i286, i386, i486, i860 — Get Processor Type Truth Value
      2. iconv — Code Set Conversion Utility
      3. if, test — Evaluate Conditions
      4. implot — Graphics Filters for Various Plotters
      5. indxbib — Create an Inverted Index to a Bibliographic Database
      6. install — Install Commands
      7. Intro, intro — Introduction to Commands and Application Programs
      8. ipcrm — Remove a Message Queue, Semaphor Set, or Shared Memory ID
      9. ipcs — Report Interprocess Communication Facilities Status
      10. isainfo — Describe Instruction Set Architectures
      11. isalist — Display the Native Instruction Sets for This Platform
    14. J
      1. jar — Java Archive Tool
      2. javac — Java Compiler
      3. javadoc — Java API Documentation Generator
      4. javah — C Header and Stub File Generator
      5. javald — Create Java Application Wrappers
      6. javap — Java Class File Disassembler
      7. jdb — Java Debugger
      8. jobs, fg, bg, stop, notify — Control Process Execution
      9. join — Relational Database Operator
      10. jre — Java Runtime Interpreter
      11. jsh — Standard and Job Control Shell and Command Interpreter
    15. K
      1. kbd — Keyboard Command
      2. kdestroy — Destroy Kerberos Tickets
      3. kerberos — Introduction to the Kerberos Security System
      4. keylogin — Decrypt and Store Secret Key with keyserv
      5. keylogout — Delete Stored Secret Key with keyserv
      6. kill — Terminate or Signal Processes
      7. kinit — Kerberos Login Command
      8. klist — List Currently Held Kerberos Tickets
      9. ksh, rksh — Korn Shell, a Standard/Restricted Command and Programming Language
      10. ksrvtgt — Fetch and Store Kerberos Ticket-Granting Ticket, Using a Service Key
    16. L
      1. last — Display Login and Logout Information
      2. lastcomm — Display the Last Commands Executed, in Reverse Order
      3. ld — Link Editor for Object Files
      4. ldapadd — ldap Entry Addition and Modification Tools
      5. ldapdelete — ldap Delete Entry Tool
      6. ldapmodify, ldapadd — ldap Entry Addition and Modification Tools
      7. ldapmodrdn — ldap Modify Entry RDN Tool
      8. ldapsearch — ldap Search Tool
      9. ldd — List Dynamic Dependencies of Executable Files or Shared Objects
      10. ld.so.1 — Runtime Linker for Dynamic Objects
      11. let — Shell Built-in Function to Evaluate One or More Arithmetic Expressions
      12. lex — Generate Programs for Lexical Tasks
      13. limit, ulimit, unlimit — Set or Get Limitations on Available System Resources
      14. line — Read One Line
      15. lint — C Program Verifier
      16. listusers — List User Login Information
      17. ln — Make Hard or Symbolic Links to Files
      18. loadfont — Display or Change X86 Video Card Font Information
      19. loadkeys, dumpkeys — Load and Dump Keyboard Translation Tables
      20. locale — Get Locale-Specific Information
      21. localedef — Define Locale Environment
      22. logger — Add Entries to the System Log
      23. login — Sign On to the System
      24. logname — Return User’s Login Name
      25. logout — Shell Built-in Function to Exit from a Login Session
      26. look — Find Words in the System Dictionary or Lines in Sorted List
      27. lookbib — Find References in a Bibliographic Database
      28. lorder — Find Ordering Relation for an Object or Library Archive
      29. lp — Submit Print Request
      30. lpc — Line Printer Control Program
      31. lpq — Display the Contents of a Print Queue
      32. lpr — Submit BSD Print Requests
      33. lprm — Remove Print Requests from the Print Queue
      34. lpstat — Display Information About the Status of the Print Service
      35. lptest — Generate Line Printer Ripple Pattern
      36. ls — List Contents of Directory
    17. M
      1. m4 — Macro Processor
      2. mach — Display the Processor Type of the Current Host
      3. machid — Get Processor Type Truth Value
      4. mail, rmail — Read Mail or Send Mail to Users
      5. mailcompat — Provide Compatibility for Solaris Mailbox
      6. mailq — Print the Mail Queue
      7. mailstats — Print Statistics Collected by sendmail
      8. mailx, mail, Mail — Interactive Message Processing System
      9. make — Maintain, Update, and Regenerate Related Programs and Files
      10. makekey — Generate Encryption Key
      11. man — Find and Display Reference Manual Pages
      12. mconnect — Connect to SMTP Mail Server Socket
      13. mcs — Manipulate the Comment Section of an Object File
      14. mesg — Permit or Deny Messages
      15. mkdir — Make Directories
      16. mkmsgs — Create Message Files for Use by gettxt
      17. mkstr — Create an Error Message File by Massaging C Source Files
      18. more, page — Browse or Page Through a Text File
      19. msgfmt — Create a Message Object from a Message File
      20. mt — Magnetic Tape Control
      21. mv — Move Files
    18. N
      1. native2ascii — Native-to-ASCII Converter
      2. nawk — New Pattern Scanning and Processing Language
      3. neqn — Typeset Mathematics Test
      4. newaliases — Rebuild the Database for the Mail Aliases File
      5. newform — Change the Format of a Text File
      6. newgrp — Log In to a New Group
      7. news — Print News Items
      8. nice — Invoke a Command with an Altered Scheduling Priority
      9. nis+, NIS+, nis — New Version of the Network Information Name Service
      10. niscat — Display NIS+ Tables and Objects
      11. nischgrp — Change the Group Owner of an NIS+ Object
      12. nischmod — Change Access Rights on an NIS+ Object
      13. nischown — Change the Owner of an NIS+ Object
      14. nischttl — Change the Time-to-Live Value of an NIS+ Object
      15. nisdefaults — Display NIS+ Default Values
      16. niserror — Display NIS+ Error Messages
      17. nisgrep — Search NIS+ Tables
      18. nisgrpadm — NIS+ Group Administration Command
      19. nisln — Symbolically Link NIS+ Objects
      20. nisls — List the Contents of an NIS+ Directory
      21. nismatch, nisgrep — Search NIS+ Tables
      22. nismkdir — Create NIS+ Directories
      23. nispasswd — Change NIS+ Password Information
      24. nisrm — Remove NIS+ Objects from the Namespace
      25. nisrmdir — Remove NIS+ Directories
      26. nistbladm — Administer NIS+ Tables
      27. nistest — Return the State of the NIS+ Namespace, Using Conditional Expression
      28. nl — Line Numbering Filter
      29. nm — Print Name List of an Object File
      30. nohup — Run a Command Immune to Hangups
      31. notify — Control Process Execution
      32. nroff — Format Documents for Display or Line Printer
    19. O
      1. od — Octal Dump
      2. on — Execute a Command on a Remote System, Using the Local Environment
      3. onintr — Shell Built-in Functions to Respond to (Hardware) Signals
      4. optisa — Determine Which Variant Instruction Set Is Optimal
    20. P
      1. pack, pcat, unpack — Compress and Expand Files
      2. page — Browse or Page through a Text File
      3. pagesize — Display the Size of a Page of Memory
      4. passwd — Change Login Password and Password Attributes
      5. paste — Merge Corresponding or Subsequent Lines of Files
      6. patch — Apply Changes to Files
      7. pathchk — Check Path Names
      8. pax — Portable Archive Interchange
      9. pcat — Compress and Expand Files
      10. pcmapkeys — Set Keyboard Extended Map and Scan Code Translation for the PC Console in Text Mode
      11. pcred — Proc Tools
      12. pdp11 — Get Processor Type Truth Value
      13. pfiles, pflags — Proc Tools
      14. pg — Files Perusal Filter
      15. pgrep, pkill — Find or Signal Processes
      16. pkginfo — Display Software Package Information
      17. pkgmk — Produce an Installable Package
      18. pkgparam — Display Package Parameter Values
      19. pkgproto — Generate Prototype File Entries for Input to pkgmk Command
      20. pkgtrans — Translate Package Format
      21. pkill — Find or Signal Processes
      22. pldd — Proc Tools
      23. plimit — Get or Set the Resource Limits of Running Processes
      24. plot, aedplot, atoplot, bgplot, crtplot, dumbplot, gigiplot — Graphics Filters for Various Plotters
      25. pmap — Proc Tools
      26. popd — Change Working Directory
      27. postdaisy — PostScript Translator for Diablo 630 Daisy-Wheel Files
      28. postdmd — PostScript Translator for DMD Bitmap Files
      29. postio — Serial Interface for PostScript Printers
      30. postmd — Matrix Display Program for PostScript Printers
      31. postplot — PostScript Translator for plot(4) Graphics Files
      32. postprint — PostScript Translator for Text Files
      33. postreverse — Reverse the Page Order in a PostScript File
      34. posttek — PostScript Translator for Tektronix 4014 Files
      35. pr — Print Files
      36. prex — Control Tracing in a Process or the Kernel
      37. print — Shell Built-in Function to Output Characters to the Screen or Window
      38. printenv — Display Current Environment Variable
      39. printf — Write Formatted Output
      40. priocntl — Display or Set Scheduling Parameters of Specified Process(es)
      41. proc, pflags, pcred, pmap, pldd, psig, pstack, pfiles, pwdx, pstop, prun, pwait, ptree, ptime — Proc Tools
      42. prof — Display Profile Data
      43. prs, sccs-prs — Display Selected Portions of an SSCS History
      44. prt, sccs-prt — Display Delta Table Information from an SCCS File
      45. prun — Proc Tools
      46. ps — Report Process Status
      47. psig, pstack, pstop, ptime, ptree — Proc Tools
      48. pushd — Change Working Directory
      49. pvs — Display the Internal Information of Dynamic Objects
      50. pwait — Proc Tools
      51. pwd — Return Working Directory Name
      52. pwxd — Proc Tools
    21. R
      1. ranlib — Convert Archives to Random Libraries
      2. rcp — Remote File Copy
      3. rdist — Remote File Distribution Program
      4. Bugs
      5. read — Read a Line from Standard Input
      6. readonly — Shell Built-in Function to Protect the Value of the Given Variable from Reassignment
      7. red — Text Editor
      8. refer — Expand and Insert References from a Bibliographic Database
      9. regcmp — Compile Regular Expressions
      10. rehash — Evaluate the Internal Hash Table of the Contents of Directories
      11. remote_shell, remsh — Remote Shell
      12. renice — Alter Priority of Running Processes
      13. repeat — Shell Built-in Function to Repeat Actions
      14. reset — Establish or Restore Terminal Characteristics
      15. return — Shell Built-in Function to Advance Beyond a Sequence of Steps
      16. rksh — Korn Shell, a Standard/Restricted Command and Programming Language
      17. rlogin — Remote Login
      18. rm, rmdir — Remove Directory Entries
      19. rmail — Read Mail or Send Mail to Users
      20. rmdel — Remove a Delta from an SCCS File
      21. rmdir — Remove Directory Entries
      22. rmic — Java RMI Stub Compiler
      23. rmiregistry — Register Remote Java Objects
      24. roffbib — Format and Print a Bibliographic Database
      25. rpcgen — RPC Protocol Compiler
      26. rsh, remsh, remote_shell — Remote Shell
      27. rup — Show Host Status of Remote Systems (RPC Version)
      28. ruptime — Show Host Status of Local Systems
      29. rusage — Print Resource Usage for a Command
      30. rusers — Display Who Is Logged In on Remote Systems
      31. rwho — Display Who Is Logged In on Local Systems
    22. S
      1. sact — Show Editing Activity Status of an SCCS File
      2. sag — System Activity Graph
      3. sar — System Activity Reporter
      4. sccs — Front End for the Source Code Control System (SCCS)
      5. sccs-admin, admin — Create and Administer SCCS History Files
      6. sccs-cdc, cdc — Change the Commentary of an SCCS Delta
      7. sccs-comb, comb — Combine SCCS Deltas
      8. sccs-delta, delta — Make a Delta to an SCCS File
      9. sccsdiff — Compare Two Versions of an SCCS File
      10. sccs-get, get — Retrieve a Version of an SCCS File
      11. sccs-help, help — Ask for Help Regarding SCCS Error or Warning Messages
      12. sccs-prs, prs — Display Selected Portions of an SCCS History
      13. sccs-prt, prt — Display Delta Table Information from an SCCS File
      14. sccs-rmdel, rmdel — Remove a Delta from an SCCS File
      15. sccs-sact, sact — Show Editing Activity Status of an SCCS File
      16. sccs-sccsdiff, sccsdiff — Compare Two Versions of an SCCS File
      17. sccs-unget, unget — Undo a Previous Get of an SCCS File
      18. sccs-val, val — Validate an SCCS File
      19. script — Make Record of a Terminal Session
      20. sdiff — Print, Side-by-Side, Differences Between Two Files
      21. sed — Stream Editor
      22. select — Shell Built-in Functions to Choose from a List of Actions
      23. serialver — Show Serial Version
      24. set, unset, setenv, unsetenv, export — Shell Environment Variable Built-in Functions
      25. setfacl — Modify the Access Control List (ACL) for a File or Files
      26. settime — Change File Access and Modification Times
      27. sh, jsh — Standard and Job Control Shell and Command Interpreter
      28. shell_builtins — Shell Command Interpreter Built-in Functions
      29. shift — Shell Built-in Function to Traverse Either a Shell’s Argument List or a List of Field-Separated Words
      30. shutdown — Close Down the System at a Given Time
      31. size — Print Section Sizes of Object Files in Bytes
      32. sleep — Suspend Execution for an Interval
      33. smart2cfg — Compaq Smart-2 EISA/PCI and Smart-2SL PCI Array Controller ioctl Command
      34. soelim — Resolve and Eliminate .so Requests from nroff or troff Input
      35. solregis — Solaris User Registration
      36. sort — Sort, Merge, or Sequence Check Text Files
      37. sortbib — Sort a Bibliographic Database
      38. sotruss — Trace Shared Library Procedure Calls
      39. source — Shell Built-in Function to Execute Other Commands
      40. sparc — Get Processor Type Truth Value
      41. spell, hashmake, spellin, hashcheck — Report Spelling Errors
      42. spline — Interpolate Smooth Curve
      43. split — Split a File into Pieces
      44. srchtxt — Display Contents of, or Search for, a Text String in Message Databases
      45. stop — Control Process Execution
      46. strchg, strconf — Change or Query Stream Configuration
      47. strings — Find Printable Strings in an Object or Binary File
      48. strip — Strip Symbol Table, Debugging, and Line Number Information from an Object File
      49. stty — Set the Options for a Terminal
      50. sum — Print Checksum and Block Count for a File
      51. sun — Get Processor Type Truth Value
      52. suspend — Shell Built-in Function to Halt the Current Shell
      53. switch — Shell Built-in Function to Choose from a List of Actions
      54. symorder — Rearrange a List of Symbols
      55. sysV-make — Maintain, Update, and Regenerate Groups of Programs
    23. T
      1. t300, t300s, t4014, t450 — Graphics Filters for Various Plotters
      2. tabs — Set Tabs on a Terminal
      3. tail — Look at the Last Part of a File
      4. talk — Talk to Another User
      5. tar — Create Tape Archives and Add or Extract Files
      6. tbl — Format Tables for nroff or troff
      7. tcopy — Copy a Magnetic Tape
      8. tee — Replicate the Standard Output
      9. tek — Graphics Filters for Various Plotters
      10. telnet — User Interface to a Remote System, Using the TELNET Protocol
      11. test — Evaluate Conditions
      12. tftp — Trivial File Transfer Program
      13. time — Time a Simple Command
      14. times — Shell Built-in Function to Report Time Use of the Current Shell
      15. timex — Time a Command; Report Process Data and System Activity
      16. tip — Connect to Remote System
      17. tnfdump — Convert Binary Trace Normal Form (TNF) File to ASCII
      18. tnfxtract — Extract Kernel Probes Output into a Trace File
      19. touch — Change File Access and Modification Times
      20. tplot, t300, t300s, t4014, t450, tek, ver — Graphics Filters for Terminal Output of Various Plotters
      21. tput — Initialize a Terminal or Query terminfo Database
      22. tr — Translate Characters
      23. trap, onintr — Shell Built-in Functions to Respond to Hardware Signals
      24. troff — Typeset or Format Documents
      25. true, false — Provide Truth Values
      26. truss — Trace System Calls and Signals
      27. tset, reset — Establish or Restore Terminal Characteristics
      28. tsort — Topological Sort
      29. tty — Return User’s Terminal Name
      30. type — Write a Description of Command Type
      31. typeset, whence — Shell Built-in Command to Get/Set Attributes and Values for Shell Variables and Functions
    24. U
      1. u3b, u3b2, u3b5, u3b15, u370 — Get Processor Type Truth Value
      2. ucblinks — Add /dev Entries for SunOS 4.x Compatibility
      3. ul — Underline Text on Terminal Display
      4. ulimit, unlimit — Set or Get Shell Limitations on System Resources
      5. umask — Get or Set the File Mode Creation Mask
      6. unalias — Remove Command Pseudonyms
      7. uname — Print Name of Current System
      8. uncompress — Uncompress or Display Expanded Files
      9. unexpand — Convert Space Characters to Tabs
      10. unget — Undo a Previous Get of an SCCS File
      11. unhash — Evaluate the Internal Hash Table of the Contents of Directories
      12. unifdef — Resolve and Remove ifdef’d Lines from C Program Source
      13. uniq — Report or Filter Out Repeated Lines in a File
      14. units — Convert Quantities Expressed in Standard Scales to Other Units
      15. unix2dos — Convert Text File from ISO Format to DOS Format
      16. unlimit — Set or Get Shell System Resource Limitations
      17. unpack — Compress and Expand Files
      18. unset, unsetenv — Shell Built-in Functions to Determine Environment Variable Characteristics
      19. until — Shell Built-in Functions to Execute Actions Until Conditions Are Evaluated True
      20. unzip — List, Test, and Extract Compressed Files from a Zip Archive
      21. uptime — Show How Long a System Has Been Up
      22. users — Display a Compact List of Logged-In Users
      23. uucp, uulog, uuname — UNIX-to-UNIX System Copy
      24. uuencode, uudecode — Encode or Decode a Binary File
      25. uuglist — Print the List of Available Service Grades
      26. uulog, uuname — UNIX-to-UNIX System Copy
      27. uupick — Public UNIX-to-UNIX System File Copy
      28. uustat — uucp Status Inquiry and Job Control
      29. uuto, uupick — Public UNIX-to-UNIX System File Copy
      30. uux — UNIX-to-UNIX System Command Execution
    25. V
      1. vacation — Reply to Mail Automatically
      2. val — Validate an SCCS File
      3. vax — Get Processor Type Truth Value
      4. vc — Version Control
      5. vedit — Screen-Oriented Visual Display Editor Based on ex
      6. ver — Graphics Filters for Various Plotters
      7. vgrind — Format Program Listings
      8. vi, view, vedit — Screen-Oriented Visual Display Editor Based on ex
      9. view — Screen-Oriented Visual Display Editor Based on ex
      10. vipw — Edit the Password File
      11. volcancel — Cancel Request for Removable Media Not Currently in Drive
      12. volcheck — Check for Media in a Drive
      13. volmissing — Notify User That Volume Requested Is Not in the CD-ROM or Diskette Drive
      14. volrmmount — Call rmmount to Mount or Unmount Media
      15. vplot — Graphics Filters for Various Plotters
    26. W
      1. w — Display Information About Currently Logged-in Users
      2. wait — Await Process Completion
      3. wc — Display a Count of Lines, Words, and Characters in a File
      4. what — Extract SCCS Version Information from a File
      5. whatis — Display a One-Line Summary About a Command
      6. whence — Shell Built-in Function to Get/Set Shell Variable and Function Attributes and Values
      7. whereis — Locate the Binary, Source, and Manual Page Files for a Command
      8. which — Locate a Command; Display Its Path Name or Alias
      9. while — Shell Built-in Function to Execute Conditional Actions
      10. who — Report Who Is on the System
      11. whoami — Display the Effective Current User Name
      12. whocalls — Report on the Calls to a Specific Procedure
      13. whois — Internet User Name Directory Service
      14. write — Write to Another User
    27. X
      1. xargs — Construct Argument Lists and Invoke Command
      2. xgettext — Extract gettext Call Strings from C Programs
      3. xstr — Extract Strings from C Programs
    28. Y
      1. yacc — Yet Another Compiler-Compiler
      2. ypcat — Print Values in an NIS Database
      3. ypmatch — Print the Value of Keys from an NIS Map
      4. yppasswd — Change Your Network Password in the NIS Database
      5. ypwhich — Return Name of NIS Server of Map Master
    29. Z
      1. zcat — Compress, Uncompress Files or Display Expanded Files
      2. zipinfo — List Detailed Information About a Zip Archive