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Solar Engineering of Thermal Processes, 4th Edition

Book Description

The updated fourth edition of the "bible" of solar energy theory and applications

Over several editions, Solar Engineering of Thermal Processes has become a classic solar engineering text and reference. This revised Fourth Edition offers current coverage of solar energy theory, systems design, and applications in different market sectors along with an emphasis on solar system design and analysis using simulations to help readers translate theory into practice.

An important resource for students of solar engineering, solar energy, and alternative energy as well as professionals working in the power and energy industry or related fields, Solar Engineering of Thermal Processes, Fourth Edition features:

  • Increased coverage of leading-edge topics such as photovoltaics and the design of solar cells and heaters

  • A brand-new chapter on applying CombiSys (a readymade TRNSYS simulation program available for free download) to simulate a solar heated house with solar- heated domestic hot water

  • Additional simulation problems available through a companion website

  • An extensive array of homework problems and exercises

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright
  4. Preface
  5. Preface to the Third Edition
  6. Preface to the Second Edition
  7. Preface to the First Edition
  8. Introduction
    1. The Problem
    2. Comments and Suggestions
  9. Part I: Fundamentals
    1. Chapter 1: Solar Radiation
      1. 1.1 The Sun
      2. 1.2 The Solar Constant
      3. 1.3 Spectral Distribution of Extraterrestrial Radiation
      4. 1.4 Variation of Extraterrestrial Radiation
      5. 1.5 Definitions
      6. 1.6 Direction of Beam Radiation
      7. 1.7 Angles for Tracking Surfaces
      8. 1.8 Ratio of Beam Radiation on Tilted Surface to That on Horizontal Surface
      9. 1.9 Shading
      10. 1.10 Extraterrestrial Radiation on a Horizontal Surface
      11. 1.11 Summary
      12. References
    2. Chapter 2: Available Solar Radiation
      1. 2.1 Definitions
      2. 2.2 Pyrheliometers and Pyrheliometric Scales
      3. 2.3 Pyranometers
      4. 2.4 Measurement of Duration of Sunshine
      5. 2.5 Solar Radiation Data
      6. 2.6 Atmospheric Attenuation of Solar Radiation
      7. 2.7 Estimation of Average Solar Radiation
      8. 2.8 Estimation of Clear-Sky Radiation
      9. 2.9 Distribution of Clear and Cloudy Days and Hours
      10. 2.10 Beam and Diffuse Components of Hourly Radiation
      11. 2.11 Beam and Diffuse Components of Daily Radiation
      12. 2.12 Beam and Diffuse Components of Monthly Radiation
      13. 2.13 Estimation of Hourly Radiation from Daily Data
      14. 2.14 Radiation on Sloped Surfaces
      15. 2.15 Radiation on Sloped Surfaces: Isotropic Sky
      16. 2.16 Radiation on Sloped Surfaces: Anisotropic Sky
      17. 2.17 Radiation Augmentation
      18. 2.18 Beam Radiation on Moving Surfaces
      19. 2.19 Average Radiation on Sloped Surfaces: Isotropic Sky
      20. 2.20 Average Radiation on Sloped Surfaces: KT Method
      21. 2.21 Effects of Receiving Surface Orientation on HT
      22. 2.22 Utilizability
      23. 2.23 Generalized Utilizability
      24. 2.24 Daily Utilizability
      25. 2.25 Summary
      26. References
    3. Chapter 3: Selected Heat Transfer Topics
      1. 3.1 The Electromagnetic Spectrum
      2. 3.2 Photon Radiation
      3. 3.3 The Blackbody: Perfect Absorber and Emitter
      4. 3.4 Planck's Law and Wien's Displacement Law
      5. 3.5 Stefan-Boltzmann Equation
      6. 3.6 Radiation Tables
      7. 3.7 Radiation Intensity and Flux
      8. 3.8 Infrared Radiation Exchange Between Gray Surfaces
      9. 3.9 Sky Radiation
      10. 3.10 Radiation Heat Transfer Coefficient
      11. 3.11 Natural Convection Between Flat Parallel Plates and Between Concentric Cylinders
      12. 3.12 Convection Suppression
      13. 3.13 Vee-Corrugated Enclosures
      14. 3.14 Heat Transfer Relations for Internal Flow
      15. 3.15 Wind Convection Coefficients
      16. 3.16 Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop in Packed Beds and Perforated Plates
      17. 3.17 Effectiveness-NTU Calculations for Heat Exchangers
      18. References
    4. Chapter 4: Radiation Characteristics of Opaque Materials
      1. 4.1 Absorptance and Emittance
      2. 4.2 Kirchhoff's Law
      3. 4.3 Reflectance of Surfaces
      4. 4.4 Relationships Among Absorptance, Emittance, and Reflectance
      5. 4.5 Broadband Emittance and Absorptance
      6. 4.6 Calculation of Emittance and Absorptance
      7. 4.7 Measurement of Surface Radiation Properties
      8. 4.8 Selective Surfaces
      9. 4.9 Mechanisms of Selectivity
      10. 4.10 Optimum Properties
      11. 4.11 Angular Dependence of Solar Absorptance
      12. 4.12 Absorptance of Cavity Receivers
      13. 4.13 Specularly Reflecting Surfaces
      14. References
    5. Chapter 5: Radiation Transmission through Glazing: Absorbed Radiation
      1. 5.1 Reflection of Radiation
      2. 5.2 Absorption by Glazing
      3. 5.3 Optical Properties of Cover Systems
      4. 5.4 Transmittance for Diffuse Radiation
      5. 5.5 Transmittance-Absorptance Product
      6. 5.6 Angular Dependence of (τα)
      7. 5.7 Spectral Dependence of Transmittance
      8. 5.8 Effects of Surface Layers on Transmittance
      9. 5.9 Absorbed Solar Radiation
      10. 5.10 Monthly Average Absorbed Radiation
      11. 5.11 Absorptance of Rooms
      12. 5.12 Absorptance of Photovoltaic Cells
      13. 5.13 Summary
      14. References
    6. Chapter 6: Flat-Plate Collectors
      1. 6.1 Description of Flat-Plate Collectors
      2. 6.2 Basic Flat-Plate Energy Balance Equation
      3. 6.3 Temperature Distributions in Flat-Plate Collectors
      4. 6.4 Collector Overall Heat Loss Coefficient
      5. 6.5 Temperature Distribution Between Tubes and the Collector Efficiency Factor
      6. 6.6 Temperature Distribution in Flow Direction
      7. 6.7 Collector Heat Removal Factor and Flow Factor
      8. 6.8 Critical Radiation Level
      9. 6.9 Mean Fluid and Plate Temperatures
      10. 6.10 Effective Transmittance-Absorptance Product
      11. 6.11 Effects of Dust and Shading
      12. 6.12 Heat Capacity Effects in Flat-Plate Collectors
      13. 6.13 Liquid Heater Plate Geometries
      14. 6.14 Air Heaters
      15. 6.15 Measurements of Collector Performance
      16. 6.16 Collector Characterizations
      17. 6.17 Collector Tests: Efficiency, Incidence Angle Modifier, and Time Constant
      18. 6.18 Test Data
      19. 6.19 Thermal Test Data Conversion
      20. 6.20 Flow Rate Corrections to FR and FRUL
      21. 6.21 Flow Distribution in Collectors
      22. 6.22 In Situ Collector Performance
      23. 6.23 Practical Considerations for Flat-Plate Collectors
      24. 6.24 Putting it all Together
      25. 6.25 Summary
      26. References
    7. Chapter 7: Concentrating Collectors
      1. 7.1 Collector Configurations
      2. 7.2 Concentration Ratio
      3. 7.3 Thermal Performance of Concentrating Collectors
      4. 7.4 Optical Performance of Concentrating Collectors
      5. 7.5 Cylindrical Absorber Arrays
      6. 7.6 Optical Characteristics of Nonimaging Concentrators
      7. 7.7 Orientation and Absorbed Energy for CPC Collectors
      8. 7.8 Performance of CPC Collectors
      9. 7.9 Linear Imaging Concentrators: Geometry
      10. 7.10 Images Formed by Perfect Linear Concentrators
      11. 7.11 Images from Imperfect Linear Concentrators
      12. 7.12 Ray-Trace Methods for Evaluating Concentrators
      13. 7.13 Incidence Angle Modifiers and Energy Balances
      14. 7.14 Paraboloidal Concentrators
      15. 7.15 Central-Receiver Collectors
      16. 7.16 Practical Considerations
      17. References
    8. Chapter 8: Energy Storage
      1. 8.1 Process Loads and Solar Collector Outputs
      2. 8.2 Energy Storage in Solar Process Systems
      3. 8.3 Water Storage
      4. 8.4 Stratification in Storage Tanks
      5. 8.5 Packed-Bed Storage
      6. 8.6 Storage Walls
      7. 8.7 Seasonal Storage
      8. 8.8 Phase Change Energy Storage
      9. 8.9 Chemical Energy Storage
      10. 8.10 Battery Storage
      11. References
    9. Chapter 9: Solar Process Loads
      1. 9.1 Examples of Time-Dependent Loads
      2. 9.2 Hot-Water Loads
      3. 9.3 Space Heating Loads, Degree-Days, and Balance Temperature
      4. 9.4 Building Loss Coefficients
      5. 9.5 Building Energy Storage Capacity
      6. 9.6 Cooling Loads
      7. 9.7 Swimming Pool Heating Loads
      8. References
    10. Chapter 10: System Thermal Calculations
      1. 10.1 Component Models
      2. 10.2 Collector Heat Exchanger Factor
      3. 10.3 Duct and Pipe Loss Factors
      4. 10.4 Controls
      5. 10.5 Collector Arrays: Series Connections
      6. 10.6 Performance of Partially Shaded Collectors
      7. 10.7 Series Arrays with Sections Having Different Orientations
      8. 10.8 Use of Modified Collector Equations
      9. 10.9 System Models
      10. 10.10 Solar Fraction and Solar Savings Fraction
      11. 10.11 Summary
      12. References
    11. Chapter 11: Solar Process Economics
      1. 11.1 Costs of Solar Process Systems
      2. 11.2 Design Variables
      3. 11.3 Economic Figures of Merit
      4. 11.4 Discounting and Inflation
      5. 11.5 Present-Worth Factor
      6. 11.6 Life-Cycle Savings Method
      7. 11.7 Evaluation of Other Economic Indicators
      8. 11.8 The P1, P2 Method
      9. 11.9 Uncertainties in Economic Analyses
      10. 11.10 Economic Analysis Using Solar Savings Fraction
      11. 11.11 Summary
      12. References
  10. Part II: Applications
    1. Chapter 12: Solar Water Heating: Active and Passive
      1. 12.1 Water Heating Systems
      2. 12.2 Freezing, Boiling, and Scaling
      3. 12.3 Auxiliary Energy
      4. 12.4 Forced-Circulation Systems
      5. 12.5 Low-Flow Pumped Systems
      6. 12.6 Natural-Circulation Systems
      7. 12.7 Integral Collector Storage Systems
      8. 12.8 Retrofit Water Heaters
      9. 12.9 Water Heating in Space Heating and Cooling Systems
      10. 12.10 Testing and Rating of Solar Water Heaters
      11. 12.11 Economics of Solar Water Heating
      12. 12.12 Swimming Pool Heating
      13. 12.13 Summary
      14. References
    2. Chapter 13: Building Heating: Active
      1. 13.1 Historical Notes
      2. 13.2 Solar Heating Systems
      3. 13.3 CSU House III Flat-Plate Liquid System
      4. 13.4 CSU House II Air System
      5. 13.5 Heating System Parametric Study
      6. 13.6 Solar Energy–Heat Pump Systems
      7. 13.7 Phase Change Storage Systems
      8. 13.8 Seasonal Energy Storage Systems
      9. 13.9 Solar and Off-Peak Electric Systems
      10. 13.10 Solar System Overheating
      11. 13.11 Solar Heating Economics
      12. 13.12 Architectural Considerations
      13. References
    3. Chapter 14: Building Heating: Passive and Hybrid Methods
      1. 14.1 Concepts of Passive Heating
      2. 14.2 Comfort Criteria and Heating Loads
      3. 14.3 Movable Insulation and Controls
      4. 14.4 Shading: Overhangs and Wingwalls
      5. 14.5 Direct-Gain Systems
      6. 14.6 Collector-Storage Walls and Roofs
      7. 14.7 Sunspaces
      8. 14.8 Active Collection–Passive Storage Hybrid Systems
      9. 14.9 Other Hybrid Systems
      10. 14.10 Passive Applications
      11. 14.11 Heat Distribution in Passive Buildings
      12. 14.12 Costs and Economics of Passive Heating
      13. References
    4. Chapter 15: Solar Cooling
      1. 15.1 Solar Absorption Cooling
      2. 15.2 Theory of Absorption Cooling
      3. 15.3 Combined Solar Heating and Cooling
      4. 15.4 Simulation Study of Solar Air Conditioning
      5. 15.5 Operating Experience with Solar Cooling
      6. 15.6 Applications of Solar Absorption Air Conditioning
      7. 15.7 Solar Desiccant Cooling
      8. 15.8 Ventilation and Recirculation Desiccant Cycles
      9. 15.9 Solar-Mechanical Cooling
      10. 15.10 Solar-Related Air Conditioning
      11. 15.11 Passive Cooling
      12. References
    5. Chapter 16: Solar Industrial Process Heat
      1. 16.1 Integration with Industrial Processes
      2. 16.2 Mechanical Design Considerations
      3. 16.3 Economics of Industrial Process Heat
      4. 16.4 Open-Circuit Air Heating Applications
      5. 16.5 Recirculating Air System Applications
      6. 16.6 Once-Through Industrial Water Heating
      7. 16.7 Recirculating Industrial Water Heating
      8. 16.8 Shallow-Pond Water Heaters
      9. 16.9 Summary
      10. References
    6. Chapter 17: Solar Thermal Power Systems
      1. 17.1 Thermal Conversion Systems
      2. 17.2 Gila Bend Pumping System
      3. 17.3 Luz Systems
      4. 17.4 Central-Receiver Systems
      5. 17.5 Solar One and Solar Two Power Plants
      6. References
    7. Chapter 18: Solar Ponds: Evaporative Processes
      1. 18.1 Salt-Gradient Solar Ponds
      2. 18.2 Pond Theory
      3. 18.3 Applications of Ponds
      4. 18.4 Solar Distillation
      5. 18.5 Evaporation
      6. 18.6 Direct Solar Drying
      7. 18.7 Summary
      8. References
  11. Part III: Design Methods
    1. Chapter 19: Simulations in Solar Process Design
      1. 19.1 Simulation Programs
      2. 19.2 Utility of Simulations
      3. 19.3 Information from Simulations
      4. 19.4 TRNSYS: Thermal Process Simulation Program
      5. 19.5 Simulations and Experiments
      6. 19.6 Meteorological Data
      7. 19.7 Limitations of Simulations
      8. References
    2. Chapter 20: Design of Active Systems: f-Chart
      1. 20.1 Review of Design Methods
      2. 20.2 The f-Chart Method
      3. 20.3 The f-Chart for Liquid Systems
      4. 20.4 The f-Chart for Air Systems
      5. 20.5 Service Water Heating Systems
      6. 20.6 The f-Chart Results
      7. 20.7 Parallel Solar Energy-Heat Pump Systems
      8. 20.8 Summary
      9. References
    3. Chapter 21: Design of Active Systems by Utilizability Methods
      1. 21.1 Hourly Utilizability
      2. 21.2 Daily Utilizability
      3. 21.3 The φ, f-Chart Method
      4. 21.4 Summary
      5. References
    4. Chapter 22: Design of Passive and Hybrid Heating Systems
      1. 22.1 Approaches to Passive Design
      2. 22.2 Solar-Load Ratio Method
      3. 22.3 Unutilizability Design Method: Direct Gain
      4. 22.4 Unutilizability Design Method: Collector-Storage Walls
      5. 22.5 Hybrid Systems: Active Collection with Passive Storage
      6. 22.6 Other Hybrid Systems
      7. References
    5. Chapter 23: Design of Photovoltaic Systems
      1. 23.1 Photovoltaic Converters
      2. 23.2 PV Generator Characteristics and Models
      3. 23.3 Cell Temperature
      4. 23.4 Load Characteristics and Direct-Coupled Systems
      5. 23.5 Controls and Maximum Power Point Trackers
      6. 23.6 Applications
      7. 23.7 Design Procedures
      8. 23.8 High-Flux PV Generators
      9. 23.9 Summary
      10. References
    6. Chapter 24: Wind Energy
      1. 24.1 Introduction
      2. 24.2 Wind Resource
      3. 24.3 One-Dimensional Wind Turbine Model
      4. 24.4 Estimating Wind Turbine Average Power and Energy Production
      5. 24.5 Summary
      6. References
  12. Appendixes
    1. A: Problems
      1. Finding and Installing CombiSys:
      2. The System
      3. The TRANSED Input and Default Values
      4. Running the Simulation
      5. Examining the Online Plots
      6. Examining the Annual Output
      7. Examining the Detailed Numerical Output
      8. Introduction
      9. Chapter 1
      10. Chapter 1
      11. Chapter 2
      12. Chapter 2
      13. Chapter 3
      14. Chapter 3
      15. Chapter 4
      16. Chapter 4
      17. Chapter 5
      18. Chapter 5
      19. Chapter 6
      20. Chapter 6
      21. Chapter 7
      22. Chapter 7
      23. Chapter 8
      24. Chapter 8
      25. Chapter 9
      26. Chapter 9
      27. Chapter 10
      28. Chapter 10
      29. Chapter 11
      30. Chapter 11
      31. Chapter 12
      32. Chapter 14
      33. Chapter 18
      34. Chapter 19
      35. Chapter 20
      36. Chapter 21
      37. Chapter 22
      38. Chapter 23
      39. Chapter 23
      40. Chapter 24
      41. Chapter 24
      42. Semester Project: Industrial Air Heater Simulation
    2. B: Nomenclature
      1. B.1 Symbols
      2. B.2 Radiation Nomenclature (See Section 1.5)
    3. C: International System of Units
      1. Basic Units
      2. Derived Units
      3. Some Conversions of Units
    4. D: Meteorological Data
      1. References
    5. E: Average Shading Factors for Overhangs
  13. Index