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Solar Cells, 2nd Edition

Book Description

Enormous leaps forward in the efficiency and the economy of solar cells are being made at a furious pace. New materials and manufacturing processes have opened up new realms of possibility for the application of solar cells. Crystalline silicon cells are increasingly making way for thin film cells, which are spawning experimentation with third-generation high-efficiency multijunction cells, carbon-nanotube based cells, UV light for voltage enhancement, and the use of the infrared spectrum for night-time operation, to name only a few recent advances.

This thoroughly updated new edition of Markvart and Castaner’s Solar Cells, extracted from their industry standard Practical Handbook of Photovoltaics, is the definitive reference covering the science and operation, materials and manufacture of solar cells. It is essential reading for engineers, installers, designers, and policy-makers who need to understand the science behind the solar cells of today, and tomorrow, in order to take solar energy to the next level.



  • A thorough update to the definitive reference to solar cells, created by a cast of international experts from industry and academia to ensure the highest quality information from multiple perspectives
  • Covers the whole spectrum of solar cell information, from basic scientific background, to the latest advances in materials, to manufacturing issues, to testing and calibration.
  • Case studies, practical examples and reports on the latest advances take the new edition of this amazing resource beyond a simple amalgamation of a vast amount of knowledge, into the realm of real world applications

Table of Contents

  1. Cover image
  2. Title page
  3. Table of Contents
  4. Copyright
  5. List of Contributors
  6. Part IA: Solar Cells
    1. Chapter IA-1. Principles of Solar Cell Operation
      1. 1 Introduction
      2. 2 Electrical Characteristics
      3. 3 Optical Properties
      4. 4 Typical Solar Cell Structures
      5. References
    2. Chapter IA-2. Semiconductor Materials and Modelling
      1. 1 Introduction
      2. 2 Semiconductor Band Structure
      3. 3 Carrier Statistics in Semiconductors
      4. 4 The Transport Equations
      5. 5 Carrier Mobility
      6. 6 Carrier Generation by Optical Absorption
      7. 7 Recombination
      8. 8 Radiation Damage
      9. 9 Heavy Doping Effects
      10. 10 Properties of Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon
      11. Acknowledgements
      12. References
    3. Chapter IA-3. Ideal Efficiencies
      1. 1 Introduction
      2. 2 Thermodynamic Efficiencies
      3. 3 Efficiencies in Terms of Energies
      4. 4 Efficiencies Using the Shockley Solar Cell Equation
      5. 5 General Comments on Efficiencies
      6. References
  7. Part IB: Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells
    1. Chapter IB-1. Crystalline Silicon: Manufacture and Properties
      1. 1 Introduction
      2. 2 Characteristics of Silicon Wafers for Use in PV Manufacturing
      3. 3 Feedstock Silicon
      4. 4 Crystal-Preparation Methods
      5. 5 Shaping and Wafering
      6. References
    2. Chapter IB-2. High-Efficiency Silicon Solar Cell Concepts
      1. 1 Introduction
      2. 2 High-Efficiency Laboratory Cells
      3. 3 Screen-Printed Cells
      4. 4 Laser-Processed Cells
      5. 5 HIT Cell
      6. 6 Rear-Contacted Cells
      7. 7 Conclusions
      8. Acknowledgements
      9. References
    3. Chapter IB-3. Thin Silicon Solar Cells
      1. 1 Introduction, Background, and Scope of Review
      2. 2 Light Trapping in Thin Silicon Solar Cells
      3. 3 Voltage Enhancements in Thin Silicon Solar Cells
      4. 4 Silicon Deposition and Crystal Growth for Thin Solar Cells
      5. 5 Thin Silicon Solar Cells Based on Substrate Thinning
      6. 6 Summary of Device Results
      7. References
  8. Part IC: Thin Film Technologies
    1. Chapter IC-1. Thin-Film Silicon Solar Cells
      1. 1 Introduction
      2. 2 Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon (a-Si:H) Layers
      3. 3 Hydrogenated Microcrystalline Silicon (μc-Si:H) Layers
      4. 4 Functioning of Thin-Film Silicon Solar Cells with p–i–n and n–i–p Structures
      5. 5 Tandem and Multijunction Solar Cells
      6. 6 Module Production and Performance
      7. 7 Conclusions
      8. References
    2. Chapter IC-2. CdTe Thin-Film PV Modules
      1. 1 Introduction
      2. 2 Steps for Making Thin-Film CdTe Solar Cells
      3. 3 Making of Integrated Modules
      4. 4 Production of CdTe Thin-Film Modules
      5. 5 The Product and Its Application
      6. 6 The Future
      7. References
    3. Chapter IC-3. Cu(In,Ga)Se2 Thin-Film Solar Cells
      1. 1 Introduction
      2. 2 Material Properties
      3. 3 Cell and Module Technology
      4. 4 Device Physics
      5. 5 Wide-Gap Chalcopyrites
      6. 6 Conclusions
      7. Acknowledgements
      8. References
    4. Chapter IC-4. Progress in Chalcopyrite Compound Semiconductor Research for Photovoltaic Applications and Transfer of Results into Actual Solar Cell Production
      1. 1 Introduction
      2. 2 Research Directions
      3. 3 Industrialisation
      4. 4 Conclusions and Outlook
      5. References
    5. Chapter IC-5. High-Efficiency Back-Contact Silicon Solar Cells for One-Sun and Concentrator Applications
      1. 1 Introduction
      2. 2 Concentrator Applications of IBC Solar Cells
      3. 3 Back-Contact Silicon Solar Cells
      4. 4 Modelling of Back-Contact Solar Cells
      5. 5 Perimeter and Edge Recombination
      6. 6 Manufacturing Process for Back-Contact Solar Cells
      7. 7 Stability of Back-Contact Cells
      8. 8 Toward 30% Efficiency Silicon Cells
      9. 9 How to Improve the Efficiency of Back-Contact Solar Cells
      10. 10 Conclusions
      11. Acknowledgements
      12. References
    6. Chapter IC-6. High Efficiency III–V Multijunction Solar Cells
      1. 1 Introduction
      2. 2 Special Aspects of III–V Multijunction Solar Cells
      3. 3 III–V Solar Cell Concepts
      4. 4 Conclusions
      5. Acknowledgements
      6. References
  9. Part ID: Dye-Sensitized and Organic Solar Cells
    1. Chapter ID-1. Dye-Sensitized Photoelectrochemical Cells
      1. 1 Introduction
      2. 2 Photoelectrochemical Cells
      3. 3 Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells
      4. 4 Future Outlook
      5. References
    2. Chapter ID-2. Organic Solar Cells
      1. 1 Introduction
      2. 2 Organic Electronic Materials
      3. 3 Principles of Device Operation
      4. 4 Optimising Solar Cell Performance
      5. 5 Production Issues
      6. 6 Conclusions
      7. References
  10. Part II: Testing, Industry and Environment
    1. Chapter IIA-1. Characterization and Diagnosis of Silicon Wafers, Ingots, and Solar Cells
      1. 1 Introduction
      2. 2 Factors Affecting Carrier Recombination
      3. 3 Measurement of the Minority-Carrier Lifetime
      4. 4 Relationship between Device Voltage and Carrier Lifetime
      5. 5 Applications to Process Monitoring and Control of Silicon Solar Cells
      6. 6 Conclusions
      7. Acknowledgements
      8. References
    2. Chapter IIA-2. Calibration, Testing, and Monitoring of Space Solar Cells
      1. 1 Introduction
      2. 2 Calibration of Solar Cells
      3. 3 Testing of Space Solar Cells and Arrays
      4. 4 Monitoring of Space Solar Cells and Arrays
      5. Acknowledgements
      6. References
  11. Part IIB: Environment
    1. Chapter IIB-1. Overview of Potential Hazards
      1. 1 Introduction
      2. 2 Overview of Hazards in PV Manufacture
      3. 3 Crystalline Silicon (x-Si) Solar Cells
      4. 4 Amorphous Silicon (a-Si) Solar Cells
      5. 5 Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) Solar Cells
      6. 6 Copper Indium Diselenide (CIS) Solar Cells
      7. 7 Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) High-Efficiency Solar Cells
      8. 8 Operation of PV Modules
      9. 9 Photovoltaic Module Decommissioning
      10. 10 Conclusion
      11. References
      12. Editor's Note
  12. Part IIC: Industry
    1. Chapter IIC-1. The Photovoltaic Market
      1. 1 Asia and the Pacific Region
      2. 2 Emerging Markets
      3. References
    2. Chapter IIC-2. The Photovoltaic Industry
      1. 1 Technology Mix
      2. 2 Solar Cell Production Companies
      3. 3 Polysilicon Supply
      4. 4 Polysilicon Manufacturers
      5. References
  13. Appendix A: Constants, Physical Quantities, and Conversion Factors
  14. Appendix B: List of Principal Symbols
  15. Appendix C: Abbreviations and Acronyms
  16. Appendix D: Useful Web Sites and Journals
    1. Web Sites
    2. Journals
  17. Appendix E: International Standards with Relevance to Photovoltaics
    1. IEC Standards
    2. Draft IEC Standards
    3. ASTM Standards
    4. Other Standards and Guidelines
  18. Appendix F: Books About Solar Cells, Photovoltaic Systems, and Applications
  19. Index