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Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering

Book Description

Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering deals with its principles in an elegant, yet simplified, manner in this text. It presents all the material required for a firm background in the subject, reinforcing theoretical aspects with sound practical applications. The study of soil behaviour is made lucid through precise treatment of the factors that influence it.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Contents
  4. Dedication
  5. Preface
  6. 1. Soil Formation and Composition
    1. Chapter Highlights
    2. 1.1 Introduction
    3. 1.2 Origin of Soils
    4. 1.3 Types of Weathering
    5. 1.4 Soil Formation
    6. 1.5 Major Soil Deposits of India
    7. 1.6 Components of Soils
    8. 1.7 Particle Sizes and Shapes
    9. 1.8 Inter-Particle Forces
    10. 1.9 Soil Minerals
    11. 1.10 Soil–Water System
    12. 1.11 Physico-Chemical Behaviour of Clays
    13. 1.12 Soil Structure
    14. Points to Remember
    15. Questions
  7. 2. Index Properties of Soils
    1. Chapter Highlights
    2. 2.1 Introduction
    3. 2.2 Three-Phase System
    4. 2.3 Particle-Size Analysis
    5. 2.4 Consistency of Soils
    6. Worked Examples
    7. Points to Remember
    8. Questions
    9. Exercise Problems
  8. 3. Identification and Classification of Soils
    1. Chapter Highlights
    2. 3.1 Introduction
    3. 3.2 Field Identification of Soils
    4. 3.3 Engineering Classification of Soils
    5. Worked Examples
    6. Points to Remember
    7. Questions
    8. Exercise Problems
  9. 4. Compaction of Soils
    1. Chapter Highlights
    2. 4.1 Introduction
    3. 4.2 Principles of Compaction
    4. 4.3 Compactive Effort
    5. 4.4 Laboratory Compaction
    6. 4.5 Field Compaction and Equipment
    7. 4.6 Compaction Specification and Control
    8. 4.7 Factors Affecting Compaction
    9. 4.8 Effect of Compaction on Soil Structure
    10. 4.9 Compaction Behaviour of Sand
    11. 4.10 California Bearing Ratio Test
    12. Worked Examples
    13. Points to Remember
    14. Questions
    15. Exercise Problems
  10. 5. Permeability and Capillarity
    1. Chapter Highlights
    2. 5.1 Introduction
    3. 5.2 Water Flow
    4. 5.3 Darcy’s Law
    5. 5.4 Range of Validity of Darcian Flow
    6. 5.5 Laboratory Permeability Tests
    7. 5.6 Field Permeability Tests
    8. 5.7 Permeability of Stratified Soils
    9. 5.8 Values of Permeability
    10. 5.9 Factors Affecting Permeability
    11. 5.10 Surface Tension
    12. 5.11 Capillary Phenomenon in Soils
    13. 5.12 Shrinkage and Swelling of Soils
    14. Worked Examples
    15. Points to Remember
    16. Questions
    17. Exercise Problems
  11. 6. Seepage
    1. Chapter Highlights
    2. 6.1 Introduction
    3. 6.2 Seepage Forces
    4. 6.3 General Flow Equation
    5. 6.4 Significance of Laplace’s Equation
    6. 6.5 Properties and Applications of Flow Nets
    7. 6.6 Construction of Flow Net
    8. 6.7 Anisotropic Soil Conditions
    9. 6.8 Non-Homogeneous Soil Conditions
    10. 6.9 Piping
    11. 6.10 Design of Filters
    12. Worked Examples
    13. Points to Remember
    14. Questions
    15. Exercise Problems
  12. 7. Stress and Stress Distribution in Soil
    1. Chapter Highlights
    2. 7.1 Introduction
    3. 7.2 Stresses at a Point
    4. 7.3 Mohr’s Circle
    5. 7.4 Stress Paths
    6. 7.5 Effective Stress Concept
    7. 7.6 Geostatic Stresses
    8. 7.7 Stresses Due to Surface Loads
    9. Worked Examples
    10. Points to Remember
    11. Questions
    12. Exercise Problems
  13. 8. Consolidation and Consolidation Settlement
    1. Chapter Highlights
    2. 8.1 Introduction
    3. 8.2 Rheological Models of Soils
    4. 8.3 Compressibility of Soils
    5. 8.4 One-Dimensional Consolidation
    6. 8.5 Consolidation test
    7. 8.6 Compressibility Characteristics
    8. 8.7 Types of Clay Deposits
    9. 8.8 Prediction of Pre-Consolidated Pressure
    10. 8.9 Rate of Consolidation
    11. 8.10 Secondary Compression
    12. 8.11 Consolidation Settlement and its Rates
    13. 8.12 Acceleration of Consolidation by Sand Drains
    14. 8.13 Compressibility of Sands
    15. Worked Examples
    16. Points to Remember
    17. Questions
    18. Exercise Problems
  14. 9. Shear Strength of Soils
    1. Chapter Highlights
    2. 9.1 Introduction
    3. 9.2 Stress–Strain Curve
    4. 9.3 Mohr–Coulomb Failure Criterion
    5. 9.4 Peak and Residual Shear Strengths
    6. 9.5 Laboratory Measurement of Shear Strength
    7. 9.6 Field Measurement of Shear Strength
    8. 9.7 Shear Strength of Saturated Cohesive Soils
    9. 9.8 Pore Pressure Coefficients
    10. 9.9 Sensitivity of Cohesive Soils
    11. 9.10 Thixotrophy of Clays
    12. 9.11 Shear Strength of Granular Soils
    13. Worked Examples
    14. Points to Remember
    15. Questions
    16. Exercise Problems
  15. 10. Laboratory Measurement of Soil Properties
    1. Chapter Highlights
    2. 10.1 Introduction
    3. 10.2 Test No. 1: Preparation of Dry Soil Samples for Various Tests
    4. 10.3 Test No. 2: Specific Gravity of Soil Solids\
    5. 10.4 Test No. 3: Water Content Determination by Oven-Drying Method
    6. 10.5 Test No. 4: In-Place Dry Density of Soil by Core-Cutter Method
    7. 10.6 Test No. 5: In-Place Dry Density of Soil by the Sand Replacement Method
    8. 10.7 Test No. 6: Grain-Size Distribution by Sieve Analysis
    9. 10.8 Test No. 7: Grain-Size Distribution by Pipette Method
    10. 10.9 Test No. 8: Grain-Size Distribution by the Hydrometer Method
    11. 10.10 Test No. 9: Liquid Limit of Soil
    12. 10.11 Test No. 10: Plastic Limit of Soil
    13. 10.12 Test No. 11: Shrinkage Factors of Soil
    14. 10.13 Test No. 12: Linear Shrinkage of Soil
    15. 10.14 Test No. 13: Permeability Test
    16. 10.15 Test No. 14: Free Swell Index of Soils
    17. 10.16 Test No. 15: Moisture Content – Dry Density Relationship (Standard Proctor Compaction Test)
    18. 10.17 Test No. 16: Density Index of Non-Cohesive Soils
    19. 10.18 Test No. 17: Consolidation Test
    20. 10.19 Test No. 18: Unconfined Compression Test
    21. 10.20 Test No. 19: Direct Shear Test
    22. 10.21 Test No. 20: Triaxial Shear Test
    23. 10.22 Test No. 21: California Bearing Ratio (CBR) Test
    24. Points to Remember
    25. Questions
  16. 11. Lateral Earth Pressure
    1. Chapter Highlights
    2. 11.1 Introduction
    3. 11.2 Limit Analysis and Limit Equilibrium Methods
    4. 11.3 Earth Pressure at Rest
    5. 11.4 Rankine’s States of Plastic Equilibrium
    6. 11.5 Rankine’s Earth Pressure Theory
    7. 11.6 Coulomb’s Earth Pressure Theory
    8. 11.7 Culmann’s Graphical Method
    9. 11.8 Poncelet’s Graphical Method
    10. 11.9 Arching of Soils
    11. Worked Examples
    12. Points to Remember
    13. Questions
    14. Exercise Problems
  17. 12. Earth-Retaining Structures
    1. Chapter Highlights
    2. 12.1 Introduction
    3. 12.2 Gravity-Type Retaining Walls
    4. 12.3 Sheet Pile Walls
    5. 12.4 Braced Excavations
    6. Worked Examples
    7. Points to Remember
    8. Questions
    9. Exercise Problems
  18. 13. Stability of Slopes
    1. Chapter highlights
    2. 13.1 Introduction
    3. 13.2 Causes of Slope Failures
    4. 13.3 Short- and Long-Term Failures
    5. 13.4 Types of Landslides and Slope Movements
    6. 13.5 Factor of Safety
    7. 13.6 Basic Concepts of Slope Stability Analysis
    8. 13.7 Infinite and Finite Slopes
    9. 13.8 Analysis of Infinite Slopes
    10. 13.9 Analysis of Finite Slopes
    11. 13.10 Selection of Shear Strength Parameters and Stability Analysis
    12. 13.11 Slope Protection Measures
    13. Worked Examples
    14. Points to Remember
    15. Questions
    16. Exercise Problems
  19. 14. Bearing Capacity of Soils
    1. Chapter Highlights
    2. 14.1 Introduction
    3. 14.2 Bearing Capacity
    4. 14.3 Modes of Shear Failure
    5. 14.4 Terzaghi’s Bearing Capacity Theory
    6. 14.5 Foundation Pressures
    7. 14.6 Special Loading and Ground Conditions
    8. 14.7 Other Bearing Capacity Theories
    9. 14.8 Bearing Capacity of Soils from Building Code
    10. 14.9 Permissible Settlements
    11. 14.10 Allowable Bearing Pressure
    12. 14.11 Estimation of Bearing Capacity from Field Tests
    13. Worked Examples
    14. Points to Remember
    15. Questions
    16. Exercise Problems
  20. 15. Shallow Foundations
    1. Chapter Highlights
    2. 15.1 Introduction
    3. 15.2 Design Criteria
    4. 15.3 Types of Shallow Foundations
    5. 15.4 Selection of the Type of Foundation
    6. 15.5 Location and Depth of the Foundation
    7. 15.6 Causes of Settlement
    8. 15.7 Settlement of Shallow Foundations
    9. 15.8 Design Steps for a Shallow Foundation
    10. 15.9 Proportionating Footing Size
    11. 15.10 Design of Combined Footings
    12. 15.11 Mat Foundation
    13. Worked Examples
    14. Points to Remember
    15. Questions
    16. Exercise Problems
  21. 16. Pile Foundations
    1. Chapter Highlights
    2. 16.1 Introduction
    3. 16.2 Classification of Piles
    4. 16.3 Pile-Driving Equipment
    5. 16.4 Bearing Capacity of Single Pile
    6. 16.5 Under-Reamed Piles
    7. 16.6 Pile Groups
    8. 16.7 Uplift Resistance of Piles
    9. 16.8 Lateral Resistance of Piles
    10. 16.9 Inclined Loading of Vertical Piles
    11. 16.10 Pile Cap
    12. Worked Examples
    13. Points to Remember
    14. Questions
    15. Exercise Problems
  22. 17. Drilled Piers and Caisson Foundations
    1. Chapter Highlights
    2. 17.1 Introduction
    3. 17.2 Drilled Piers
    4. 17.3 Caissons
    5. 17.4 Well Foundations
    6. Points to Remember
    7. Questions
    8. Exercise Problems
  23. 18. Ground Investigation
    1. Chapter Highlights
    2. 18.1 Introduction
    3. 18.2 Planning the Ground Investigation Programme
    4. 18.3 Types of Soil and Rock Samples
    5. 18.4 Indirect Methods of Sub-Surface Exploration
    6. 18.5 Semi-Direct Methods of Sub-Surface Exploration
    7. 18.6 Direct Methods of Sub-Surface Exploration
    8. 18.7 Routine Field Tests
    9. 18.8 Recording of Field Data
    10. 18.9 Location, Spacing, and Depth of Borings
    11. Points to Remember
    12. Questions
    13. Exercise Problems
  24. 19. Soil Improvement
    1. Chapter Highlights
    2. 19.1 Introduction
    3. 19.2 Improvement Techniques
    4. 19.3 Surface Compaction
    5. 19.4 Drainage Methods
    6. 19.5 Vibration Methods
    7. 19.6 Pre-Compression and Consolidation
    8. 19.7 Grouting and Injection
    9. 19.8 Chemical Stabilization
    10. 19.9 Soil Reinforcement
    11. 19.10 Geotextiles and Geomembranes
    12. 19.11 Other Methods
    13. Points to Remember
    14. Questions
    15. Exercise Problems
  25. 20. Embankment Dams
    1. Chapter Highlights
    2. 20.1 Introduction
    3. 20.2 Types of Embankment Dams
    4. 20.3 Components of Embankment Dams
    5. 20.4 Design Criteria for Earth Dams
    6. 20.5 Selection of Dam Section
    7. Worked Examples
    8. Points to Remember
    9. Questions
    10. Exercise Problems
  26. 21. Dynamic Loading of Soil
    1. Chapter Highlights
    2. 21.1 Introduction
    3. 21.2 Earthquakes
    4. 21.3 Other Dynamic Loads
    5. 21.4 Theory of Vibrations
    6. 21.5 Types of Machines and Machine Foundations
    7. 21.6 Dynamic Bearing Capacity of Shallow Foundations
    8. 21.7 Design Requirements
    9. 21.8 Methods of Analysis for Block Foundation
    10. 21.9 Liquefaction of Soils
    11. Points to Remember
    12. Questions
  27. 22. Environmental Geotechnology
    1. Chapter Highlights
    2. 22.1 Introduction
    3. 22.2 Environmental Cycles
    4. 22.3 Natural Cycles
    5. 22.4 Environmental Imbalance
    6. 22.5 Birth of Environmental Geotechnology
    7. 22.6 Contaminated Soils
    8. 22.7 Applications
    9. 22.8 Load–Environment Design Criteria
    10. Points to Remember
    11. Questions
  28. 23. Introductory Rock Mechanics
    1. Chapter Highlights
    2. 23.1 Introduction
    3. 23.2 Index Properties of Rocks
    4. 23.3 Classification of Rocks
    5. 23.4 In Situ State of Stress
    6. 23.5 Mechanical Properties of Rocks
    7. Points to Remember
    8. Questions
    9. Exercise Problems
  29. Notes
    1. Chapter 1
    2. Chapter 6
    3. Chapter 7
    4. Chapter 9
    5. Chapter 10
    6. Chapter 13
    7. Chapter 14
    8. Chapter 20
    9. Chapter 21
    10. Chapter 23
  30. List of Symbols
  31. Bibliography
  32. Copyright