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Software Receiver Design

Book Description

Have you ever wanted to know how modern digital communications systems work? Find out with this step-by-step guide to building a complete digital radio that includes every element of a typical, real-world communication system. Chapter by chapter, you will create a MATLAB realization of the various pieces of the system, exploring the key ideas along the way, as well as analyzing and assessing the performance of each component. Then, in the final chapters, you will discover how all the parts fit together and interact as you build the complete receiver. In addition to coverage of crucial issues, such as timing, carrier recovery and equalization, the text contains over 400 practical exercises, providing invaluable preparation for industry, where wireless communications and software radio are becoming increasingly important. A variety of extra resources are also provided online, including lecture slides and a solutions manual for instructors.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright Page
  4. To the Instructor
  5. Contents
  6. Step 1: The Big Picture
    1. 1 A Digital Radio
      1. 1.1 What Is a Digital Radio?
      2. 1.2 An Illustrative Design
      3. 1.3 Walk This Way
  7. Step 2: The Basic Components
    1. 2 A Telecommunication System
      1. 2.1 Electromagnetic Transmission of Analog Waveforms
      2. 2.2 Bandwidth
      3. 2.3 Upconversion at the Transmitter
      4. 2.4 Frequency Division Multiplexing
      5. 2.5 Filters that Remove Frequencies
      6. 2.6 Analog Downconversion
      7. 2.7 Analog Core of a Digital Communication System
      8. 2.8 Sampling at the Receiver
      9. 2.9 Digital Communications Around an Analog Core
      10. 2.10 Pulse Shaping
      11. 2.11 Synchronization: Good Times Bad Times
      12. 2.12 Equalization
      13. 2.13 Decisions and Error Measures
      14. 2.14 Coding and Decoding
      15. 2.15 A Telecommunication System
      16. 2.16 Stairway to Radio
    2. 3 The Six Elements
      1. 3.1 Finding the Spectrum of a Signal
      2. 3.2 The First Element: Oscillators
      3. 3.3 The Second Element: Linear Filters
      4. 3.4 The Third Element: Samplers
      5. 3.5 The Fourth Element: Static Nonlinearities
      6. 3.6 The Fifth Element: Mixers
      7. 3.7 The Sixth Element: Adaptation
      8. 3.8 Summary
  8. Step 3: The Idealized System
    1. 4 Modeling Corruption
      1. 4.1 When Bad Things Happen to Good Signals
      2. 4.2 Linear Systems: Linear Filters
      3. 4.3 The Delta “Function”
      4. 4.4 Convolution in Time: It’s What Linear Systems Do
      5. 4.5 Convolution ⇔ Multiplication
      6. 4.6 Improving SNR
    2. 5 Analog (De)modulation
      1. 5.1 Amplitude Modulation with Large Carrier
      2. 5.2 Amplitude Modulation with Suppressed Carrier
      3. 5.3 Quadrature Modulation
      4. 5.4 Injection to Intermediate Frequency
    3. 6 Sampling with Automatic Gain Control
      1. 6.1 Sampling and Aliasing
      2. 6.2 Downconversion via Sampling
      3. 6.3 Exploring Sampling in MATLAB
      4. 6.4 Interpolation and Reconstruction
      5. 6.5 Iteration and Optimization
      6. 6.6 An Example of Optimization: Polynomial Minimization
      7. 6.7 Automatic Gain Control
      8. 6.8 Using an AGC to Combat Fading
      9. 6.9 Summary
    4. 7 Digital Filtering and the DFT
      1. 7.1 Discrete Time and Discrete Frequency
      2. 7.2 Practical Filtering
    5. 8 Bits to Symbols to Signals
      1. 8.1 Bits to Symbols
      2. 8.2 Symbols to Signals
      3. 8.3 Correlation
      4. 8.4 Receive Filtering: From Signals to Symbols
      5. 8.5 Frame Synchronization: From Symbols to Bits
    6. 9 Stuff Happens
      1. 9.1 An Ideal Digital Communication System
      2. 9.2 Simulating the Ideal System
      3. 9.3 Flat Fading: A Simple Impairment and a Simple Fix
      4. 9.4 Other Impairments: More “What Ifs”
      5. 9.5 A B[sup(3)]IG Deal
  9. Step 4: The Adaptive Components
    1. 10 Carrier Recovery
      1. 10.1 Phase and Frequency Estimation via an FFT
      2. 10.2 Squared Difference Loop
      3. 10.3 The Phase-Locked Loop
      4. 10.4 The Costas Loop
      5. 10.5 Decision-Directed Phase Tracking
      6. 10.6 Frequency Tracking
    2. 11 Pulse Shaping and Receive Filtering
      1. 11.1 Spectrum of the Pulse: Spectrum of the Signal
      2. 11.2 Intersymbol Interference
      3. 11.3 Eye Diagrams
      4. 11.4 Nyquist Pulses
      5. 11.5 Matched Filtering
      6. 11.6 Matched Transmit and Receive Filters
    3. 12 Timing Recovery
      1. 12.1 The Problem of Timing Recovery
      2. 12.2 An Example
      3. 12.3 Decision-Directed Timing Recovery
      4. 12.4 Timing Recovery via Output Power Maximization
      5. 12.5 Two Examples
    4. 13 Linear Equalization
      1. 13.1 Multipath Interference
      2. 13.2 Trained Least-Squares Linear Equalization
      3. 13.3 An Adaptive Approach to Trained Equalization
      4. 13.4 Decision-Directed Linear Equalization
      5. 13.5 Dispersion-Minimizing Linear Equalization
      6. 13.6 Examples and Observations
    5. 14 Coding
      1. 14.1 What Is Information?
      2. 14.2 Redundancy
      3. 14.3 Entropy
      4. 14.4 Channel Capacity
      5. 14.5 Source Coding
      6. 14.6 Channel Coding
      7. 14.7 Encoding a Compact Disc
  10. Step 5: Putting It All Together
    1. 15 Make It So
      1. 15.1 How the Received Signal Is Constructed
      2. 15.2 A Design Methodology for the M[sup(6)] Receiver
      3. 15.3 No Soap Radio: The M[sup(6)] Receiver Design Challenge
    2. 16 A Digital Quadrature Amplitude Modulation Radio
      1. 16.1 The Song Remains the Same
      2. 16.2 Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM)
      3. 16.3 Demodulating QAM
      4. 16.4 Carrier Recovery for QAM
      5. 16.5 Designing QAM Constellations
      6. 16.6 Timing Recovery for QAM
      7. 16.7 Baseband Derotation
      8. 16.8 Equalization for QAM
      9. 16.9 Alternative Receiver Architectures for QAM
      10. 16.10 The Q[sup(3)]AM Prototype Receiver
      11. 16.11 Q[sup(3)]AM Prototype Receiver User’s Manual
  11. Appendices
    1. A Transforms, Identities, and Formulas
      1. A.1 Trigonometric Identities
      2. A.2 Fourier Transforms and Properties
      3. A.3 Energy and Power
      4. A.4 Z-Transforms and Properties
      5. A.5 Integral and Derivative Formulas
      6. A.6 Matrix Algebra
    2. B Simulating Noise
    3. C Envelope of a Bandpass Signal
    4. D Relating the Fourier Transform to the DFT
      1. D.1 The Fourier Transform and Its Inverse
      2. D.2 The DFT and the Fourier Transform
    5. E Power Spectral Density
    6. F The Z-Transform
      1. F.1 Z-Transforms
      2. F.2 Sketching the Frequency Response from the Z-Transform
      3. F.3 Measuring Intersymbol Interference
      4. F.4 Analysis of Loop Structures
    7. G Averages and Averaging
      1. G.1 Averages and Filters
      2. G.2 Derivatives and Filters
      3. G.3 Differentiation Is a Technique, Approximation Is an Art
    8. H The B[sup(3)]IG Transmitter
      1. H.1 Constructing the Received Signal
      2. H.2 Matlab Code for the Notorious B[sup(3)]IG
      3. H.3 Notes on Debugging and Signal Measurement
  12. Index