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Social Evolution and Inclusive Fitness Theory

Book Description

Social behavior has long puzzled evolutionary biologists, since the classical theory of natural selection maintains that individuals should not sacrifice their own fitness to affect that of others. Social Evolution and Inclusive Fitness Theory argues that a theory first presented in 1963 by William D. Hamilton—inclusive fitness theory—provides the most fundamental and general explanation for the evolution and maintenance of social behavior in the natural world.

James Marshall guides readers through the vast and confusing literature on the evolution of social behavior, introducing and explaining the competing theories that claim to provide answers to questions such as why animals evolve to behave altruistically. Using simple statistical language and techniques that practicing biologists will be familiar with, he provides a comprehensive yet easily understandable treatment of key concepts and their repeated misinterpretations. Particular attention is paid to how more realistic features of behavior, such as nonadditivity and conditionality, can complicate analysis. Marshall highlights the general problem of identifying the underlying causes of evolutionary change, and proposes fruitful approaches to doing so in the study of social evolution.

Social Evolution and Inclusive Fitness Theory describes how inclusive fitness theory addresses both simple and complex social scenarios, the controversies surrounding the theory, and how experimental work supports the theory as the most powerful explanation for social behavior and its evolution.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover Page
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright Page
  4. Dedication Page
  5. Contents
  6. List of Figures
  7. List of Tables
  8. Preface
  9. Acknowlegments
  10. 1: Social Behavior and Evolutionary Thought
    1. 1.1 Explanations for Apparent Design
    2. 1.2 Natural Selection and Social Behavior
    3. 1.3 Arguments for Group Benefit
    4. 1.4 Enter Hamilton
    5. 1.5 Multilevel Selection Theory
    6. 1.6 The Generality of Inclusive Fitness Theory
  11. 2: Models of Social Behavior
    1. 2.1 Introduction
    2. 2.2 The Donation Game
    3. 2.3 The Nonadditive Donation Game
    4. 2.4 Other Social Interactions
    5. 2.5 Public Goods Games
    6. 2.6 Threshold Public Goods Games
    7. 2.7 Interactions in Structured Populations
    8. 2.8 Summary
  12. 3: The Price Equation
    1. 3.1 A General Description of Selection
    2. 3.2 Genetic Selection
    3. 3.3 Illustrative Applications of the Price Equation
    4. 3.4 Important Caveats
    5. 3.5 Summary
  13. 4: Inclusive Fitness and Hamilton’s Rule
    1. 4.1 Inclusive Fitness Extends Classical Darwinian Fitness
    2. 4.2 Fitness Effects as Regression on Genes
    3. 4.3 Deriving Hamilton’s Rule in the Simplest Case
    4. 4.4 Perceived Limitations of Inclusive Fitness Theory
    5. 4.5 Summary
  14. 5: Nonadditive Interactions and Hamilton’s Rule
    1. 5.1 Replicator Dynamics for Interactions between Relatives
    2. 5.2 Extending Hamilton’s Rule to Deal with Nonadditivity
    3. 5.3 The Price Equation and Levels of Causal Analysis
    4. 5.4 Summary
  15. 6: Conditional Behaviors and Inclusive Fitness
    1. 6.1 Implicit and Explicit Conditionality
    2. 6.2 Modeling Conditional Behavior
    3. 6.3 Claims That Assortment Is More Fundamental Than Relatedness
    4. 6.4 Summary
  16. 7: Variants of Hamilton’s Rule and Evolutionary Explanations
    1. 7.1 Variants of Hamilton’s Rule
    2. 7.2 Geometric Relatedness Underlies Phenotypic Assortment
    3. 7.3 Explanations for Greenbeards
    4. 7.4 Different Viewpoints on Conditional Traits
    5. 7.5 Summary
  17. 8: Heritability, Maximization, and Evolutionary Explanations
    1. 8.1 What Drives Social Evolution?
    2. 8.2 Selection and Heritability
    3. 8.3 Do Individuals Act to Maximize Their Inclusive Fitness?
    4. 8.4 Ultimate Causes and Social Evolution
    5. 8.5 Summary
  18. 9: What Is Fitness?
    1. 9.1 Introduction
    2. 9.2 Haldane’s Dilemma
    3. 9.3 Reproductive Value and Class Structure
    4. 9.4 Fitness, Fecundity, and Payoffs
    5. 9.5 Summary
  19. 10: Evidence, Other Approaches, and Further Topics
    1. 10.1 Introduction
    2. 10.2 Empirical Support for Inclusive Fitness Theory
    3. 10.3 Some Further Topics in Social Evolution Theory
    4. 10.4 Other Theoretical Approaches
    5. 10.5 Conclusion
  20. Glossary
  21. Notes
  22. Bibliography
  23. Index