No simple analogical model is sufficient to completely explain the operation of a computer system. Computer systems are too different from familiar, everyday non-computational systems.
Halasz and Moran, “Analogy Considered Harmful,” 1982
First of all, we made the screen layout resemble a desktop, displaying pictures of objects you’ll have no trouble recognizing. File folders. Clipboards. Even a trash can.
Apple Macintosh advertisement, Newsweek, 1984
Designing new technologies with unfamiliar interactions is a constant challenge in ubicomp user experience design. How can an object that may not be obviously computational communicate its capabilities without requiring enormous amounts of external documentation ...