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Smart Structures Theory by Jayant Sirohi, Inderjit Chopra

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2

Piezoelectric Actuators and Sensors

2.1 Fundamentals of Piezoelectricity

The term “piezoelectricity” translates roughly to “pressure electricity” and refers to an effect observed in many naturally occurring crystals; that is, the generation of electricity under mechanical pressure. The effect was first predicted and then experimentally measured by the brothers Pierre and Jacques Curie in 1880. The research was prompted by investigations into a closely related effect, the pyroelectric effect, which is the generation of electricity as a result of a change in temperature. The effect observed by the Curie brothers is also known as the direct piezoelectric effect. A strict definition of the direct effect is “electric polarization produced by mechanical ...

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