You are previewing Smart Structures Theory.
O'Reilly logo
Smart Structures Theory

Book Description

The twenty-first century could be called the 'Multifunctional Materials Age'. The inspiration for multifunctional materials comes from nature, and therefore these are often referred to as bio-inspired materials. Bio-inspired materials encompass smart materials and structures, multifunctional materials and nano-structured materials. This is a dawn of revolutionary materials that may provide a 'quantum jump' in performance and multi-capability. This book focuses on smart materials, structures and systems, which are also referred to as intelligent, adaptive, active, sensory and metamorphic. The purpose of these materials from the perspective of smart systems is their ability to minimize life-cycle cost and/or expand the performance envelope. The ultimate goal is to develop biologically inspired multifunctional materials with the capability to adapt their structural characteristics (stiffness, damping, viscosity, etc.) as required, monitor their health condition, perform self-diagnosis and self-repair, morph their shape and undergo significant controlled motion over a wide range of operating conditions.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover Page
  2. Half Title
  3. Series Page
  4. Title Page
  5. Copyright Page
  6. Contents
  7. Preface
  8. 1 Historical Developments and Potential Applications: Smart Materials and Structures
    1. 1.1 Smart Structures
      1. 1.1.1 Smart Material Actuators and Sensors
      2. 1.1.2 Smart Actuators
      3. 1.1.3 Sensors
      4. 1.1.4 Actuator-Sensor Synthesis
      5. 1.1.5 Control Methodologies
    2. 1.2 Manufacturing Issues
    3. 1.3 Piezoelectricity
    4. 1.4 Shape Memory Alloys
    5. 1.5 Electrostrictives
    6. 1.6 Magnetostrictives
      1. 1.6.1 Terfenol-D
      2. 1.6.2 Galfenol
    7. 1.7 ER and MR Fluids
    8. 1.8 Capability of Currently Available Smart Materials
    9. 1.9 Smart Structures Programs
      1. 1.9.1 Space Systems
      2. 1.9.2 Fixed-Wing Aircraft
      3. 1.9.3 Jet Engines
      4. 1.9.4 Rotary-Wing Aircraft
      5. 1.9.5 Civil Structures
      6. 1.9.6 Machine Tools
      7. 1.9.7 Automotive Systems
      8. 1.9.8 Marine Systems
      9. 1.9.9 Medical Systems
      10. 1.9.10 Electronics Equipment
      11. 1.9.11 Rail
      12. 1.9.12 Robots
      13. 1.9.13 Energy Harvesting
  9. 2 Piezoelectric Actuators and Sensors
    1. 2.1 Fundamentals of Piezoelectricity
    2. 2.2 Piezoceramics
    3. 2.3 Soft and Hard Piezoelectric Ceramics
    4. 2.4 Basic Piezoceramic Characteristics
    5. 2.5 Electromechanical Constitutive Equations
      1. 2.5.1 Piezoceramic Actuator Equations
      2. 2.5.2 Piezoceramic Sensor Equations
      3. 2.5.3 Alternate Forms of the Constitutive Equations
      4. 2.5.4 Piezoelectric Coupling Coefficients
      5. 2.5.5 Actuator Performance and Load Line Analysis
    6. 2.6 Hysteresis and Nonlinearities in Piezoelectric Materials
    7. 2.7 Piezoceramic Actuators
      1. 2.7.1 Behavior under Static Excitation Fields
      2. 2.7.2 Behavior under Dynamic Excitation Fields
      3. 2.7.3 Depoling Behavior and Dielectric Breakdown
      4. 2.7.4 Power Consumption
    8. 2.8 Equivalent Circuits to Model Piezoceramic Actuators
      1. 2.8.1 Curie Temperature
      2. 2.8.2 Cement-Based Piezoelectric Composites
      3. 2.8.3 Shape Memory Ceramic Actuators
    9. 2.9 Piezoelectric Sensors
      1. 2.9.1 Basic Sensing Mechanism
      2. 2.9.2 Bimorph as a Sensor
      3. 2.9.3 Signal-Conditioning Electronics
      4. 2.9.4 Sensor Calibration
  10. 3 Shape Memory Alloys (SMAs)
    1. 3.1 Fundamentals of SMA Behavior
      1. 3.1.1 Phase Transformation
      2. 3.1.2 Lattice Structure and Deformation Mechanism
      3. 3.1.3 Low-Temperature Stress-Strain Curve
      4. 3.1.4 Origin of the One-Way SME
      5. 3.1.5 Stress-Induced Martensite and Pseudoelasticity
      6. 3.1.6 Two-Way SME
      7. 3.1.7 All-Round SME
      8. 3.1.8 R-Phase Transformation
      9. 3.1.9 Porous SMA
    2. 3.2 Constrained Behavior of SMA
      1. 3.2.1 Free Recovery
      2. 3.2.2 Constrained Recovery
      3. 3.2.3 Effective Load Lines of an SMA Wire Actuator
    3. 3.3 Constitutive Models
    4. 3.4 Quasi-Static Macroscopic Phenomenological Constitutive Models
      1. 3.4.1 Tanaka Model
      2. 3.4.2 Liang and Rogers Model
      3. 3.4.3 Brinson Model
      4. 3.4.4 Boyd and Lagoudas Model
      5. 3.4.5 Other SMA Models
    5. 3.5 Testing of SMA Wires
      1. 3.5.1 Sample Preparation, Cycling, and Annealing
      2. 3.5.2 Transformation Temperatures under Zero Stress
      3. 3.5.3 Variation of Transformation Temperatures with Stress
      4. 3.5.4 Stress-Strain Behavior at Constant Temperature
      5. 3.5.5 Stress-Temperature Behavior at Constant Strain
      6. 3.5.6 Comparison of Resistive Heating and External Heating
    6. 3.6 Obtaining Critical Points and Model Parameters from Data
    7. 3.7 Comparison of Constitutive Models with Experiments
    8. 3.8 Constrained Recovery Behavior (Stress versus Temperature) at Strain
      1. 3.8.1 Worked Example
      2. 3.8.2 Worked Example
    9. 3.9 Damping Capacity of SMA
    10. 3.10 Differences in Stress-Strain Behavior in Tension and Compression
    11. 3.11 Non-Quasi-Static Behavior
      1. 3.11.1 Stress-Relaxation
      2. 3.11.2 Effect of Strain Rate
      3. 3.11.3 Modeling Non-Quasi-Static Behavior
      4. 3.11.4 Rate Form of Quasi-Static SMA Constitutive Models
      5. 3.11.5 Thermomechanical Energy Equilibrium
      6. 3.11.6 Cyclic Loading
    12. 3.12 Power Requirements for SMA Activation
      1. 3.12.1 Power Input: Resistance Behavior of SMA Wires
      2. 3.12.2 Heat Absorbed by the SMA Wire
      3. 3.12.3 Heat Dissipation
    13. 3.13 Torsional Analysis of SMA Rods and Tubes
      1. 3.13.1 Validation with Test Data
      2. 3.13.2 Constrained Recovery Behavior
    14. 3.14 Composite Structures with Embedded SMA Wires
      1. 3.14.1 Variable Stiffness Composite Beams
      2. 3.14.2 SMA-in-Sleeve Concept
      3. 3.14.3 Beams with Embedded SMA Wires
      4. 3.14.4 Power Requirements for Activation of SMA in Structures
      5. 3.14.5 Fabrication of Variable Stiffness Composite Beams
      6. 3.14.6 Experimental Testing of Variable Stiffness Beams
    15. 3.15 Concluding Remarks
  11. 4 Beam Modeling with Induced-Strain Actuation
    1. 4.1 Material Elastic Constants
    2. 4.2 Basic Definitions: Stress, Strains, and Displacements
      1. 4.2.1 Beams
      2. 4.2.2 Transverse Deflection of Uniform Isotropic Beams
    3. 4.3 Simple Blocked-Force Beam Model (Pin Force Model)
      1. 4.3.1 Single Actuator Characteristics
      2. 4.3.2 Dual Actuators: Symmetric Actuation
      3. 4.3.3 Single Actuator: Asymmetric Actuation
      4. 4.3.4 Unequal Electric Voltage (Vtop ≠ Vbottom)
      5. 4.3.5 Dissimilar Actuators: Piezo Thickness (tctop ≠ tcbottom)
      6. 4.3.6 Dissimilar Actuators: Piezo Constants (d31top ≠ d31bottom)
      7. 4.3.7 Worked Example
    4. 4.4 Uniform-Strain Model
      1. 4.4.1 Dual Actuators: Symmetric Actuation
      2. 4.4.2 Single Actuator: Asymmetric Actuation
      3. 4.4.3 Unequal Electric Voltage (Vtop ≠ Vbottom)
      4. 4.4.4 Dissimilar Actuators: Piezo Thickness (tctop ≠ tcbottom)
      5. 4.4.5 Dissimilar Actuators: Piezo Constants (d31top ≠ d31bottom)
      6. 4.4.6 Worked Example
    5. 4.5 Euler-Bernoulli Beam Model
      1. 4.5.1 Dual Actuators: Symmetric Actuation
      2. 4.5.2 Single Actuator: Asymmetric Actuation
      3. 4.5.3 Unequal Electric Voltage (Vtop ≠ Vbottom)
      4. 4.5.4 Dissimilar Actuators: Piezo Thickness (tctop ≠ tcbottom)
      5. 4.5.5 Dissimilar Actuators: Piezo Constants (d31top ≠ d31bottom)
      6. 4.5.6 Worked Example
      7. 4.5.7 Bimorph Actuators
      8. 4.5.8 Induced Beam Response Using Euler-Bernoulli Modeling
      9. 4.5.9 Embedded Actuators
      10. 4.5.10 Worked Example
    6. 4.6 Testing of a Beam with Surface-Mounted Piezoactuators
      1. 4.6.1 Actuator Configuration
      2. 4.6.2 Beam Configuration and Wiring of Piezo
      3. 4.6.3 Procedure
      4. 4.6.4 Measurement of Tip Slope
      5. 4.6.5 Data Processing
    7. 4.7 Extension-Bending-Torsion Beam Model
    8. 4.8 Beam Equilibrium Equations
    9. 4.9 Energy Principles and Approximate Solutions
      1. 4.9.1 Energy Formulation: Uniform-Strain Model
      2. 4.9.2 Energy Formulation: Euler-Bernoulli Model
      3. 4.9.3 Galerkin Method
      4. 4.9.4 Worked Example
      5. 4.9.5 Worked Example
      6. 4.9.6 Rayleigh-Ritz Method
      7. 4.9.7 Worked Example
      8. 4.9.8 Worked Example
      9. 4.9.9 Energy Formulation: Dynamic Beam Governing Equation Derived from Hamilton’s Principle
    10. 4.10 Finite Element Analysis with Induced-Strain Actuation
      1. 4.10.1 Behavior of a Single Element
      2. 4.10.2 Assembly of Global Mass and Stiffness Matrices
      3. 4.10.3 Beam Bending with Induced-Strain Actuation
      4. 4.10.4 Worked Example
    11. 4.11 First-Order Shear Deformation Theory (FSDT) for Beams with Induced-Strain Actuation
      1. 4.11.1 Formulation of the FSDT for a Beam
      2. 4.11.2 Shear Correction Factor
      3. 4.11.3 Transverse Deflection of Uniform Isotropic Beams Including Shear Correction
      4. 4.11.4 Induced Beam Response Using Timoshenko Shear Model
      5. 4.11.5 Energy Formulation: FSDT
    12. 4.12 Layer-Wise Theories
    13. 4.13 Review of Beam Modeling
  12. 5 Plate Modeling with Induced-Strain Actuation
    1. 5.1 Classical Laminated Plate Theory (CLPT) Formulation without Actuation
      1. 5.1.1 Stress-Strain Relations for a Lamina at an Arbitrary Orientation
      2. 5.1.2 Macromechanical Behavior of a Laminate
      3. 5.1.3 Resultant Laminate Forces and Moments
      4. 5.1.4 Displacements-Based Governing Equations
      5. 5.1.5 Boundary Conditions
    2. 5.2 Plate Theory with Induced-Strain Actuation
      1. 5.2.1 Isotropic Plate: Symmetric Actuation (Extension)
      2. 5.2.2 Isotropic Plate: Antisymmetric Actuation (Bending)
      3. 5.2.3 Worked Example
      4. 5.2.4 Single-Layer Specially Orthotropic Plate (Extension)
      5. 5.2.5 Single-Layer Specially Orthotropic Plate (Bending)
      6. 5.2.6 Single-Layer Generally Orthotropic Plate (Extension)
      7. 5.2.7 Single-Layer Generally Orthotropic Plate (Bending)
      8. 5.2.8 Multilayered Symmetric Laminate Plate
      9. 5.2.9 Multilayered Antisymmetric Laminate Plate
      10. 5.2.10 Summary of Couplings in Plate Stiffness Matrices
      11. 5.2.11 Worked Example
    3. 5.3 Classical Laminated Plate Theory (CLPT) Equations in Terms of Displacements
    4. 5.4 Approximate Solutions Using Energy Principles
      1. 5.4.1 Galerkin Method
      2. 5.4.2 Rayleigh-Ritz Method
      3. 5.4.3 Symmetric Laminated Plate Response
      4. 5.4.4 Laminated Plate with Induced-Strain Actuation
      5. 5.4.5 Laminated Plate with Antisymmetric Layup: Extension-Torsion Coupling
      6. 5.4.6 Laminated Plate with Symmetric Layup: Bending-Torsion Coupling
      7. 5.4.7 Worked Example
      8. 5.4.8 Worked Example
      9. 5.4.9 Worked Example
    5. 5.5 Coupling Efficiency
      1. 5.5.1 Extension-Torsion Coupling Efficiency
      2. 5.5.2 Bending-Torsion Coupling Efficiency
      3. 5.5.3 Comparison of Extension-Torsion and Bending-Torsion Coupling
    6. 5.6 Classical Laminated Plate Theory (CLPT) with Induced-Strain Actuation for a Dynamic Case
    7. 5.7 Refined Plate Theories
    8. 5.8 Classical Laminated Plate Theory (CLPT) for Moderately Large Deflections
    9. 5.9 First-Order Shear Deformation Plate Theory (FSDT) with Induced-Strain Actuation
    10. 5.10 Shear Correction Factors
    11. 5.11 Effect of Laminate Kinematic Assumptions on Global Response
      1. 5.11.1 Effect of Two-Dimensional Mesh Density on the Computed Global Response
      2. 5.11.2 Pure-Extension Problem (Equal Voltages to Top and Bottom Actuators)
      3. 5.11.3 Pure-Bending Problem (Actuators Subjected to Equal but Opposite Voltages)
    12. 5.12 Effect of Transverse Kinematic Assumptions on Global Response
      1. 5.12.1 Case I: Pure-Extension Actuation
      2. 5.12.2 Case II: Pure-Bending Actuation
    13. 5.13 Effect of Finite Thickness Adhesive Bond Layer
      1. 5.13.1 Case I: Pure-Extension Actuation
      2. 5.13.2 Case II: Pure-Bending Actuation
    14. 5.14 Strain Energy Distribution
    15. 5.15 Review of Plate Modeling
  13. 6 Magnetostrictives and Electrostrictives
    1. 6.1 Magnetostriction
    2. 6.2 Review of Basic Concepts in Magnetism
      1. 6.2.1 Magnetic Field B and the Biot-Savart Law
      2. 6.2.2 Current Carrying Conductors
      3. 6.2.3 Magnetic Flux Φ and Magnetic Field Intensity H
      4. 6.2.4 Interaction of a Current Carrying Conductor and a Magnetic Field
      5. 6.2.5 Magnetization M, Permeability μ, and the B– H Curve
      6. 6.2.6 Demagnetization
      7. 6.2.7 Electrical Impedance
      8. 6.2.8 Systems of Units
      9. 6.2.9 Magnetic Circuits
    3. 6.3 Mechanism of Magnetostriction
      1. 6.3.1 Definition of Crystal Axes and Magnetic Anisotropy
      2. 6.3.2 Origin of the Magnetostrictive Effect
      3. 6.3.3 Effect of Magnetic Field Polarity
      4. 6.3.4 Effect of External Stresses
      5. 6.3.5 Effect of Temperature
      6. 6.3.6 Strain Hysteresis
    4. 6.4 Constitutive Relations
      1. 6.4.1 Linear Piezomagnetic Equations
      2. 6.4.2 Refined Magnetostrictive Models
      3. 6.4.3 Preisach Model
      4. 6.4.4 Energy Methods
    5. 6.5 Material Properties
      1. 6.5.1 Magnetomechanical Coupling
      2. 6.5.2 Worked Example
      3. 6.5.3 Delta-E Effect
      4. 6.5.4 Magnetostrictive Composites
    6. 6.6 Magnetostrictive Actuators
      1. 6.6.1 Generation of the Magnetic Field
      2. 6.6.2 Construction of a Typical Actuator
      3. 6.6.3 Measurement of Magnetic Field
      4. 6.6.4 DC Bias Field
      5. 6.6.5 Design of the Magnetic Field Generator for a Magnetostrictive Actuator
      6. 6.6.6 Worked Example: Design of a Magnetic Field Generator for a Magnetostrictive Actuator
      7. 6.6.7 Power Consumption and Eddy Current Losses
      8. 6.6.8 Magnetostrictive Particulate Actuators
    7. 6.7 Magnetostrictive Sensors
      1. 6.7.1 Worked Example
    8. 6.8 Iron-Gallium Alloys
    9. 6.9 Magnetic Shape Memory Alloys
      1. 6.9.1 Basic Mechanism
      2. 6.9.2 Effect of an External Magnetic Field
      3. 6.9.3 Effect of an External Stress
      4. 6.9.4 Behavior under a Combination of Magnetic Field and Compressive Stress
      5. 6.9.5 Dynamic Response
      6. 6.9.6 Comparison with SMAs
      7. 6.9.7 Experimental Behavior
      8. 6.9.8 MSMA Constitutive Modeling
      9. 6.9.9 Linear Actuator
      10. 6.9.10 Design of the Magnetic Field Generator (E-Frame)
      11. 6.9.11 Worked Example: Design of a Magnetic Field Generator (E-Frame)
    10. 6.10 Electrostrictives
      1. 6.10.1 Constitutive Relations
      2. 6.10.2 Behavior under Static Excitation Fields
      3. 6.10.3 Behavior under Dynamic Excitation Fields
      4. 6.10.4 Effect of Temperature
    11. 6.11 Polarization
    12. 6.12 Young’s Modulus
    13. 6.13 Summary and Conclusions
  14. 7 Electrorheological and Magnetorheological Fluids
    1. 7.1 Fundamental Composition and Behavior of ER/MR Fluids
      1. 7.1.1 Compostion of ER/MR Fluids
      2. 7.1.2 Viscosity
      3. 7.1.3 Origin of the Change in Viscosity
      4. 7.1.4 Yield Behavior
      5. 7.1.5 Temperature Dependence
      6. 7.1.6 Dynamic Behavior and Long-Term Effects
      7. 7.1.7 Comparison of ER and MR Fluids
    2. 7.2 Modeling of ER/MR Fluid Behavior and Device Performance
      1. 7.2.1 Equivalent Viscous Damping
      2. 7.2.2 Bingham Plastic Model
      3. 7.2.3 Herschel-Bulkley Model
      4. 7.2.4 Biviscous Model
      5. 7.2.5 Hysteretic Biviscous
      6. 7.2.6 Other Models
    3. 7.3 ER and MR Fluid Dampers
    4. 7.4 Modeling of ER/MR Fluid Dampers
      1. 7.4.1 Rectangular Flow Passage
      2. 7.4.2 Worked Example: Herschel-Bulkley Fluid Model
      3. 7.4.3 Worked Example: Bingham Biplastic Fluid Model
      4. 7.4.4 Annular Flow Passage
      5. 7.4.5 Squeeze Mode
    5. 7.5 Summary and Conclusions
  15. 8 Applications of Active Materials in Integrated Systems
    1. 8.1 Summary of Applications
      1. 8.1.1 Space Systems
      2. 8.1.2 Fixed-Wing Aircraft and Rotorcraft
      3. 8.1.3 Civil Structures
      4. 8.1.4 Machine Tools
      5. 8.1.5 Automotive
      6. 8.1.6 Marine Systems
      7. 8.1.7 Medical Systems
      8. 8.1.8 Electronic Equipment
      9. 8.1.9 Rail
      10. 8.1.10 Robots
      11. 8.1.11 Energy Harvesting
    2. 8.2 Solid-State Actuation and Stroke Amplification
      1. 8.2.1 Amplification by Means of Special Geometry or Arrangement of the Active Material
      2. 8.2.2 Amplification by External Leverage Mechanisms
      3. 8.2.3 Torsional Actuators
    3. 8.3 Double-Lever (L-L) Actuator
      1. 8.3.1 Positioning of the Hinges
      2. 8.3.2 Actuation Efficiency: Stiffness of the Actuator, Support, and Linkages
    4. 8.4 Energy Density
      1. 8.4.1 Worked Example
    5. 8.5 Stroke Amplification Using Frequency Rectification: The Piezoelectric Hybrid Hydraulic Actuator
      1. 8.5.1 Inchworm Motors
      2. 8.5.2 Ultrasonic Piezoelectric Motors
      3. 8.5.3 Hybrid Hydraulic Actuation Concept
      4. 8.5.4 Operating Principles
      5. 8.5.5 Active Material Load Line
      6. 8.5.6 Pumping Cycle
      7. 8.5.7 Energy Transfer
      8. 8.5.8 Work Done Per Cycle
      9. 8.5.9 Maximum Output Work
      10. 8.5.10 Prototype Actuator
      11. 8.5.11 Experimental Testing
      12. 8.5.12 Modeling Approaches
      13. 8.5.13 Transmission-Line Approach
    6. 8.6 Smart Helicopter Rotor
      1. 8.6.1 Model-Scale Active Rotors
      2. 8.6.2 Full-Scale Active Rotors
      3. 8.6.3 Adaptive Controllers for Smart Rotors
    7. 8.7 SMA Actuated Tracking Tab for a Helicopter Rotor
      1. 8.7.1 Actuator Design Goals
      2. 8.7.2 Construction and Operating Principle
      3. 8.7.3 Blade Section Assembly
      4. 8.7.4 Modeling of the Device
      5. 8.7.5 Parametric Studies and Actuator Design
      6. 8.7.6 Results of Parametric Studies
      7. 8.7.7 Testing and Performance of the System
    8. 8.8 Tuning of Composite Beams
      1. 8.8.1 Fabrication of Composite Beams with SMA in Embedded Sleeves
      2. 8.8.2 Dynamic Testing of Composite Beams with SMA Wires
      3. 8.8.3 Free Vibration Analysis of Composite Beams with SMA Wires
      4. 8.8.4 Calculation of the Spring Coefficient of SMA Wire under Tension
      5. 8.8.5 Correlation with Test Data
    9. 8.9 Shunted Piezoelectrics
      1. 8.9.1 Principle of Operation
      2. 8.9.2 Types of Shunt Circuits
      3. 8.9.3 Worked Example
      4. 8.9.4 Worked Example
      5. 8.9.5 Worked Example
    10. 8.10 Energy Harvesting
      1. 8.10.1 Vibration-Based Energy Harvesters
      2. 8.10.2 Wind-Based Energy Harvesters
      3. 8.10.3 Modeling of Piezoelectric Energy Harvesters
      4. 8.10.4 Worked Example
      5. 8.10.5 Worked Example
      6. 8.10.6 Worked Example
    11. 8.11 Constrained Layer Damping
      1. 8.11.1 Active Constrained Layer Damping
    12. 8.12 Interior Noise Control
  16. Index