The continuously decreasing power consumption of silicon-based electronics has enabled a broad range of battery-powered handheld, wearable and even implantable devices. Spanning six orders of magnitude, the typical power consumptions of a variety of electronic devices are listed in Table 9.1, together with their corresponding energy autonomy.
Table 9.1 Power consumption and energy autonomy of battery-operated electronic devices
|Device Type||Power Consumption||Energy Autonomy|
|Smartphone||1 W||8 hours|
|MP3 player||50 mW||15 hours|
|Hearing Aid||1 mW||5 days|
|Wireless Sensor Node*||Lifetime|
|Cardiac Pacemaker||7 years|
|Quartz watch||5 years|
* when powered by energy harvester and energy storage device.Reproduced by permission of Elsevier
All these devices need a compact, low-cost and lightweight energy source, which enables the desired portability and energy autonomy. Nowadays, batteries represent the dominant energy source for the devices listed in Table 9.1 and alike. ...