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Smart Sensor Systems: Emerging Technologies and Applications

Book Description

With contributions from an internationally-renowned group of experts, this book uses a multidisciplinary approach to review recent developments in the field of smart sensor systems, covering important system and design aspects. It examines topics over the whole range of sensor technology from the theory and constraints of basic elements, physics and electronics, up to the level of application-orientated issues.

Developed as a complementary volume to 'Smart Sensor Systems' (Wiley 2008), which introduces the basics of smart sensor systems, this volume focuses on emerging sensing technologies and applications, including:

  • State-of-the-art techniques for designing smart sensors and smart sensor systems, including measurement techniques at system level, such as dynamic error correction, calibration, self-calibration and trimming.

  • Circuit design for sensor systems, such as the design of precision instrumentation amplifiers.

  • Impedance sensors, and the associated measurement techniques and electronics, that measure electrical characteristics to derive physical and biomedical parameters, such as blood viscosity or growth of micro-organisms.

  • Complete sensor systems-on-a-chip, such as CMOS optical imagers and microarrays for DNA detection, and the associated circuit and micro-fabrication techniques.

  • Vibratory gyroscopes and the associated electronics, employing mechanical and electrical signal amplification to enable low-power angular-rate sensing.

  • Implantable smart sensors for neural interfacing in bio-medical applications.

  • Smart combinations of energy harvesters and energy-storage devices for autonomous wireless sensors.

  • Smart Sensor Systems: Emerging Technologies and Applications will greatly benefit final-year undergraduate and postgraduate students in the areas of electrical, mechanical and chemical engineering, and physics. Professional engineers and researchers in the microelectronics industry, including microsystem developers, will also find this a thorough and useful volume.

    Table of Contents

    1. Cover
    2. Title Page
    3. Copyright
    4. About the Editors
      1. Gerard Meijer
      2. Michiel Pertijs
      3. Kofi Makinwa
    5. List of Contributors
    6. Preface
    7. Chapter 1: Smart Sensor Design
      1. 1.1 Introduction
      2. 1.2 Smart Sensors
      3. 1.3 A Smart Temperature Sensor
      4. 1.4 A Smart Wind Sensor
      5. 1.5 A Smart Hall Sensor
      6. 1.6 Conclusions
      7. References
    8. Chapter 2: Calibration and Self-Calibration of Smart Sensors
      1. 2.1 Introduction
      2. 2.2 Calibration of Smart Sensors
      3. 2.3 Self-Calibration
      4. 2.4 Summary and Future Trends
      5. References
    9. Chapter 3: Precision Instrumentation Amplifiers
      1. 3.1 Introduction
      2. 3.2 Applications of Instrumentation Amplifiers
      3. 3.3 Three-OpAmp Instrumentation Amplifiers
      4. 3.4 Current-Feedback Instrumentation Amplifiers
      5. 3.5 Auto-Zero OpAmps and InstAmps
      6. 3.6 Chopper OpAmps and InstAmps
      7. 3.7 Chopper-Stabilized OpAmps and InstAmps
      8. 3.8 Chopper-Stabilized and AZ Chopper OpAmps and InstAmps
      9. 3.9 Summary and Future Directions
      10. References
    10. Chapter 4: Dedicated Impedance-Sensor Systems
      1. 4.1 Introduction
      2. 4.2 Capacitive-Sensor Interfaces Employing Square-Wave Excitation Signals
      3. 4.3 Dedicated Measurement Systems: Detection of Micro-Organisms
      4. 4.4 Dedicated Measurement Systems: Water-Content Measurements
      5. 4.5 Dedicated Measurement Systems: A Characterization System for Blood Impedance
      6. 4.6 Conclusions
      7. References
    11. Chapter 5: Low-Power Vibratory Gyroscope Readout
      1. 5.1 Introduction
      2. 5.2 Power-Efficient Coriolis Sensing
      3. 5.3 Mode Matching
      4. 5.4 Force Feedback
      5. 5.5 Experimental Prototype
      6. 5.6 Summary
      7. References
    12. Chapter 6: Introduction to CMOS-Based DNA Microarrays
      1. 6.1 Introduction
      2. 6.2 Basic Operation Principle and Application of DNA Microarrays
      3. 6.3 Functionalization
      4. 6.4 CMOS Integration
      5. 6.5 Electrochemical Readout Techniques
      6. 6.6 Further Readout Techniques
      7. 6.7 Remarks on Packaging and Assembly
      8. 6.8 Concluding Remarks and Outlook
      9. References
    13. Chapter 7: CMOS Image Sensors
      1. 7.1 Impact of CMOS Scaling on Image Sensors
      2. 7.2 CMOS Pixel Architectures
      3. 7.3 Photon Shot Noise
      4. 7.4 Analog-to-Digital Converters for CMOS Image Sensors
      5. 7.5 Light Sensitivity
      6. 7.6 Dynamic Range
      7. 7.7 Global Shutter
      8. 7.8 Conclusion
      9. Acknowledgment
      10. References
    14. Chapter 8: Exploring Smart Sensors for Neural Interfacing
      1. 8.1 Introduction
      2. 8.2 Technical Considerations for Designing a Dynamic Neural Control System
      3. 8.3 Predicate Therapy Devices Using Smart-Sensors in a Dynamic Control Framework: Lessons Derived from Closed-Loop Cardiac Pacemakers
      4. 8.4 The Application of “Indirect” Smart Sensing Methods: A Case Study of Posture Responsive Spinal Cord Stimulation for Chronic Pain
      5. 8.6 Future Trends and Opportunities for Smart Sensing in the Nervous System
      6. Disclosure
      7. References
    15. Chapter 9: Micropower Generation: Principles and Applications
      1. 9.1 Introduction
      2. 9.2 Energy Storage Systems
      3. 9.3 Thermoelectric Energy Harvesting
      4. 9.4 Vibration and Motion Energy Harvesting
      5. 9.5 Far-Field RF Energy Harvesting
      6. 9.6 Photovoltaic
      7. 9.7 Summary and Future Trends
      8. References
    16. Index
    17. End User License Agreement