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Smart Sensor Systems

Book Description

Information processing systems need sensors to acquire the physical, mechanical and chemical information to be able to function. For extended use of sensors in industrial production tools and consumer components, such as smart cars and smart homes, the reliability of the sensors should be improved and the cost dramatically reduced. The improvement of reliability, together with a reduction of cost, can only be achieved with smart sensor systems.

These systems combine the functions of sensors and interfaces, including sensors, signal conditioning A-D (analog to digital) conversion, and bus interfacing. Also, applications at a higher hierarchical level are included, such as self-testing, auto-calibration, data evaluation and identification. Developments into the integration of sensors with electronic circuitry to produce smart sensors and smart sensor systems are increasing as research in this field continues to expand.

Written by an internationally-recognized team of experts, this book reviews recent developments in the field of smart sensor systems, providing complete coverage of all important system aspects. It takes a multidisciplinary approach to the understanding, design and use of smart sensor systems, their building blocks and methods of signal processing. This book also contains:

  • a review of powerful measurement techniques, and basic principles and typical problems of sensor elements, smart analog interfaces and A-D converters;

  • a discussion about how to use microcontrollers and DSPs (digital signal processors) for sensor applications;

  • detailed up-to-date reviews of the features of optical, integrated hall magnetic, capacitive, thermal sensors, and temperature sensors and physical chemosensors;

  • numerous case studies and problems set at the end of each chapter to test and develop your knowledge on the theory. Solutions for all can be found on the accompanying website.

Smart Sensor Systems will greatly benefit final year undergraduate and postgraduate students and professors in the areas of electrical, mechanical and chemical engineering, and physics. Professional engineers and researchers in the microelectronics industry, including microsystem developers, will also find this a thorough and useful volume.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover Page
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright
  4. Contents
  5. Preface
  6. About the Authors
  7. Chapter 1: Smart Sensor Systems: Why? Where? How?
    1. 1.1 Third Industrial Revolution
    2. 1.2 Definitions for Several Kinds of Sensors
    3. 1.3 Automated Production Machines
    4. 1.4 Automated Consumer Products
    5. 1.5 Conclusion
    6. References
  8. Chapter 2: Interface Electronics and Measurement Techniques for Smart Sensor Systems
    1. 2.1 Introduction
    2. 2.2 Object-oriented Design of Sensor Systems
    3. 2.3 Sensing Elements and Their Parasitic Effects
    4. 2.4 Analog-to-digital Conversion
    5. 2.5 High Accuracy Over a Wide Dynamic Range
    6. 2.6 A Universal Transducer Interface
    7. 2.7 Summary and Future Trends
    8. Problems
    9. References
  9. Chapter 3: Silicon Sensors: An Introduction
    1. 3.1 Introduction
    2. 3.2 Measurement and Control Systems
    3. 3.3 Transducers
    4. 3.4 Transducer Technologies
    5. 3.5 Examples of Silicon Sensors
    6. 3.6 Summary and Future Trends
    7. References
  10. Chapter 4: Optical Sensors Based on Photon Detection
    1. 4.1 Introduction
    2. 4.2 Photon Absorption in Silicon
    3. 4.3 The Interface: Photon Transmission Into Silicon
    4. 4.4 Photon Detection in Silicon Photoconductors
    5. 4.5 Photon Detection in Silicon pn Junctions
    6. 4.6 Detection Limit
    7. 4.7 Photon Detectors with Gain
    8. 4.8 Application Examples
    9. 4.9 Summary and Future Trends
    10. Problems
    11. References
  11. Chapter 5: Physical Chemosensors
    1. 5.1 Introduction
    2. 5.2 Physical Chemosensing
    3. 5.3 Energy Domains
    4. 5.4 Examples and Applications
    5. 5.5 Examples of in situ Applications
    6. 5.6 Microfluidics Devices
    7. 5.7 Conclusions
    8. Problems
    9. References
  12. Chapter 6: Thermal Sensors
    1. 6.1 The Functional Principle of Thermal Sensors
    2. 6.2 Heat Transfer Mechanisms
    3. 6.3 Thermal Structures
    4. 6.4 Temperature-Difference Sensing Elements
    5. 6.5 Sensors Based on Thermal Measurements
    6. 6.6 Summary and Future Trends
    7. Problems
    8. References
  13. Chapter 7: Smart Temperature Sensors and Temperature-Sensor Systems
    1. 7.1 Introduction1
    2. 7.2 Application-related Requirements and Problems of Temperature Sensors
    3. 7.3 Resistive Temperature-sensing Elements
    4. 7.4 Temperature-sensor Features of Transistors
    5. 7.5 Smart Temperature Sensors and Systems
    6. 7.6 Case Studies of Smart-sensor Applications
    7. 7.7 Summary and Future Trends
    8. Problems
    9. References
  14. Chapter 8: Capacitive Sensors
    1. 8.1 Introduction
    2. 8.2 Basics of Capacitive Sensors
    3. 8.3 Examples of Capacitive Sensors
    4. 8.4 The Design of Electrode Configurations
    5. 8.5 Reduction of Field-bending Effects: Segmentation
    6. 8.6 Selectivity for Electrical Signals and Electrical Parameters
    7. 8.7 Summary and Future Trends
    8. Problems
    9. References
  15. Chapter 9: Integrated Hall Magnetic Sensors
    1. 9.1 Introduction
    2. 9.2 Hall Effect and Hall Elements
    3. 9.3 Integrated Hall Sensor Systems
    4. 9.4 Examples of Integrated Hall Magnetic Sensors
    5. Problems
    6. References
  16. Chapter 10: Universal Asynchronous Sensor Interfaces
    1. 10.1 Introduction
    2. 10.2 Universal Sensor Interfaces
    3. 10.3 Asynchronous Converters
    4. 10.4 Dealing with Problems of Low-cost Design of Universal Interface ICs
    5. 10.5 Front-end Circuits
    6. 10.6 Case Studies
    7. 10.7 Summary and Future Trends
    8. Problems
    9. References
  17. Chapter 11: Data Acquisition for Frequency- and Time-domain Sensors
    1. 11.1 Introduction
    2. 11.2 DAQ Boards: State of the Art
    3. 11.3 DAQ Board Design for Quasi-digital Sensors
    4. 11.4 Universal Frequency-to-digital Converters (UFDC)
    5. 11.5 Applications and Examples
    6. 11.6 Summary and Future Trends
    7. Problems
    8. References
  18. Chapter 12: Microcontrollers and Digital Signal Processors for Smart Sensor Systems
    1. 12.1 Introduction
    2. 12.2 MCU and DSP Architectures, Organization, Structures, and Peripherals
    3. 12.3 Choosing a Low-Power MCU or DSP
    4. 12.4 Timer Modules
    5. 12.5 Analog Comparators, ADCs, and DACs as Modules of Microcontrollers
    6. 12.6 Embedded Networks and LCD Interfacing
    7. 12.7 Development Tools and Support
    8. 12.8 Conclusions
    9. Reference Sites
  19. Appendix A: Material Data
  20. Appendix B: Conversion for non-SI Units
  21. Index
  22. Solutions to Problems
    1. Chapter 2
    2. Chapter 4
    3. Chapter 6
    4. Chapter 7
    5. Chapter 8
    6. Chapter 9
    7. Chapter 10
    8. Chapter 11
    9. References