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Small Wind

Book Description

This book provides a cohesive guide to achieving successful small wind installations. It is a comprehensive information resource from one of the world’s most experienced small wind professionals, covering all the key issues for small wind system development, from site and machine selection to international standards compliance.

Engineers who are tasked with planning and developing these small wind systems, from choosing the best site and accurately estimating likely power output to obtaining proper permitting and troubleshooting operational inefficiencies, will find this book an essential reference. Simply utilizing the processes followed in the creation of large-scale wind farms will lead to certain failure; optimization of project development for small wind applications is a necessity. In all phases of the process, there are key concerns to undertake and guidelines to follow that, if properly taken into account, can literally save project planners and managers tens of thousands of dollars and untold months of potential development delays.



  • Establishes technical guidelines for the growing number of engineers called upon to plan small wind projects who do not yet have great amounts of real-world experience, giving them an invaluable head start
  • Identifies and explains the critical issues for small wind installations, including siting, turbine choice, applications & permitting, economics, load management, and grid integration, supporting informed decision making throughout the process
  • Case studies from real projects demonstrate key considerations for success, complete with template spreadsheets and measurements needed to support project planning efforts
  • Includes reports on the most commonly used turbines and designs and synthesizes and clarifies relevant DOE documentation, saving readers endless hours of research

Table of Contents

  1. Cover image
  2. Title page
  3. Table of Contents
  4. Copyright
  5. Preface
  6. Acknowledgments
  7. Dedication
  8. Introduction Harvesting the Wind
    1. Wind Energy Principles
    2. References
  9. Chapter One. Site Evaluation: Examining the Proposed Site to Ensure That It Has Adequate Wind and Space
    1. Abstract
    2. Calculating Wind Speed Distribution from Average Wind Speed
    3. Measuring Wind Speed at Potential Wind Turbine Site
    4. Estimating Annual Energy Production
    5. Selecting the Location for the Wind Turbine
    6. Institutional Siting
    7. Setback
    8. Siting Issues for Construction
    9. References
  10. Chapter Two. Needs Evaluation: Determining Power Needed to Meet the Owner’s Request
    1. Abstract
    2. Grid-Connected Electric Power Generation
    3. Stand-Alone Applications (No Grid)
    4. Measuring Current Energy Use
    5. Estimating Loads for New Construction
    6. References
  11. Chapter Three. Wind Turbine Components and Descriptions: Essential Components to Have a Productive, Reliable, and Safe Wind Machine
    1. Abstract
    2. Horizontal Axis And Vertical Axis Machines
    3. Drag Devices
    4. Lift Devices
    5. Rotor Designs
    6. Rotor Hubs
    7. Energy Conversion Systems
    8. Brakes
    9. Controllers
    10. References
  12. Chapter Four. Towers and Foundations: Support Structures That Make the Project Successful
    1. Abstract
    2. Guyed Towers
    3. Freestanding Towers
    4. Towers for Vertical Axis And Other Turbines
    5. References
  13. Chapter Five. Machine Selection: Matching the Machine to the Site and Power Needs
    1. Abstract
    2. Selection using Performance Information
    3. Matching Annual Energy Consumed to Energy Produced
    4. Sizing a Machine for Off-Grid Applications
    5. Machine Noise, Reliability, and Safety Information
    6. Aesthetics
    7. Costs
    8. References
  14. Chapter Six. Permitting: Meeting the Institutional Issues for Installing a Small Wind Machine
    1. Abstract
    2. Height of Wind Turbine
    3. Setback Distance
    4. Sound
    5. Aesthetics
    6. Fencing for Security
    7. Abandonment
    8. Foundations
    9. Electrical Permits
    10. Utility Interconnection Permit
    11. References
  15. Chapter Seven. Installation: Integrating the Machine, Load, and Site into a Complete Package
    1. Abstract
    2. Site Preparation
    3. Foundations
    4. Electrical Wiring
    5. Assembly of Tower
    6. Assembly of Turbine
    7. Lifting the Assembled Components
    8. Initial Operation of the Unit
    9. Completing the Site
    10. References
  16. Chapter Eight. System Operation with Electrical Interconnections: Working with Electrical Utilities and Transmission Companies
    1. Abstract
    2. Connecting the Wind Turbine
    3. Operating the Wind Turbine Connected to the Grid
    4. References
  17. Chapter Nine. System Operations of Stand-Alone Machines: Making Systems Work without an Electrical Grid
    1. Abstract
    2. Battery Charging
    3. Water Pumping
    4. Wind–Mechanical Pumping
    5. Wind–Electric Pumping
    6. Hybrid Systems
    7. References
  18. Chapter Ten. Economic Considerations: Predicting the Economic Reality of an Installation
    1. Abstract
    2. The True Cost of Wind Machines
    3. Income from Wind Machines
    4. Cash Flow Analysis
    5. References
  19. Chapter Eleven. Operation and Maintenance: A Guide to Long-Term Operation and Maintenance Issues
    1. Abstract
    2. Inspections
    3. Component Repairs
    4. Emergency Situations
    5. References
  20. Chapter Twelve. Distributed Wind Systems: Promoting Growth of Small Wind Systems
    1. Abstract
    2. Midsized Turbines Used in Distributed Wind Systems
    3. Community Wind
    4. Small Wind Machines
    5. References
  21. Chapter Thirteen. The Future of Small Wind: Factors That May or May Not Affect the Growth of Small Wind
    1. Abstract
    2. Acceptance and Education
    3. New or Revised Policies and Incentives
    4. Changing Economics
    5. Improved and Advanced Technology
    6. Standards and Certification for Turbines
    7. Supply Chain Changes
    8. Global Marketing
    9. References
  22. Appendix. Useful Web Sites
    1. National Wind Energy Associations
    2. Interest Areas
    3. Government
    4. Certification And Standards
    5. Others
  23. Index