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Small Unmanned Aircraft

Book Description

Autonomous unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) are critical to current and future military, civil, and commercial operations. Despite their importance, no previous textbook has accessibly introduced UAVs to students in the engineering, computer, and science disciplines--until now. Small Unmanned Aircraft provides a concise but comprehensive description of the key concepts and technologies underlying the dynamics, control, and guidance of fixed-wing unmanned aircraft, and enables all students with an introductory-level background in controls or robotics to enter this exciting and important area.

The authors explore the essential underlying physics and sensors of UAV problems, including low-level autopilot for stability and higher-level autopilot functions of path planning. The textbook leads the student from rigid-body dynamics through aerodynamics, stability augmentation, and state estimation using onboard sensors, to maneuvering through obstacles. To facilitate understanding, the authors have replaced traditional homework assignments with a simulation project using the MATLAB/Simulink environment. Students begin by modeling rigid-body dynamics, then add aerodynamics and sensor models. They develop low-level autopilot code, extended Kalman filters for state estimation, path-following routines, and high-level path-planning algorithms. The final chapter of the book focuses on UAV guidance using machine vision.

Designed for advanced undergraduate or graduate students in engineering or the sciences, this book offers a bridge to the aerodynamics and control of UAV flight.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Half title
  3. Title
  4. Copyright
  5. Dedication
  6. Contents
  7. Preface
  8. 1 Introduction
    1. 1.1 System Architecture
    2. 1.2 Design Models
    3. 1.3 Design Project
  9. 2 Coordinate Frames
    1. 2.1 Rotation Matrices
    2. 2.2 MAV Coordinate Frames
    3. 2.3 Airspeed, Wind Speed, and Ground Speed
    4. 2.4 The Wind Triangle
    5. 2.5 Differentiation of a Vector
    6. 2.6 Chapter Summary
    7. 2.7 Design Project
  10. 3 Kinematics and Dynamics
    1. 3.1 State Variables
    2. 3.2 Kinematics
    3. 3.3 Rigid-body Dynamics
    4. 3.4 Chapter Summary
    5. 3.5 Design Project
  11. 4 Forces and Moments
    1. 4.1 Gravitational Forces
    2. 4.2 Aerodynamic Forces and Moments
    3. 4.3 Propulsion Forces and Moments
    4. 4.4 Atmospheric Disturbances
    5. 4.5 Chapter Summary
    6. 4.6 Design Project
  12. 5 Linear Design Models
    1. 5.1 Summary of Nonlinear Equations of Motion
    2. 5.2 Coordinated Turn
    3. 5.3 Trim Conditions
    4. 5.4 Transfer Function Models
    5. 5.5 Linear State-space Models
    6. 5.6 Reduced-order Modes
    7. 5.7 Chapter Summary
    8. 5.8 Design Project
  13. 6 Autopilot Design Using Successive Loop Closure
    1. 6.1 Successive Loop Closure
    2. 6.2 Saturation Constraints and Performance
    3. 6.3 Lateral-directional Autopilot
    4. 6.4 Longitudinal Autopilot
    5. 6.5 Digital Implementation of PID Loops
    6. 6.6 Chapter Summary
    7. 6.7 Design Project
  14. 7 Sensors for MAVs
    1. 7.1 Accelerometers
    2. 7.2 Rate Gyros
    3. 7.3 Pressure Sensors
    4. 7.4 Digital Compasses
    5. 7.5 Global Positioning System
    6. 7.6 Chapter Summary
    7. 7.7 Design Project
  15. 8 State Estimation
    1. 8.1 Benchmark Maneuver
    2. 8.2 Low-pass Filters
    3. 8.3 State Estimation by Inverting the Sensor Model
    4. 8.4 Dynamic-observer Theory
    5. 8.5 Derivation of the Continuous-discrete Kalman Filter
    6. 8.6 Attitude Estimation
    7. 8.7 GPS Smoothing
    8. 8.8 Chapter Summary
    9. 8.9 Design Project
  16. 9 Design Models for Guidance
    1. 9.1 Autopilot Model
    2. 9.2 Kinematic Model of Controlled Flight
    3. 9.3 Kinematic Guidance Models
    4. 9.4 Dynamic Guidance Model
    5. 9.5 Chapter Summary
    6. 9.6 Design Project
  17. 10 Straight-line and Orbit Following
    1. 10.1 Straight-line Path Following
    2. 10.2 Orbit Following
    3. 10.3 Chapter Summary
    4. 10.4 Design Project
  18. 11 Path Manager
    1. 11.1 Transitions Between Waypoints
    2. 11.2 Dubins Paths
    3. 11.3 Chapter Summary
    4. 11.4 Design Project
  19. 12 Path Planning
    1. 12.1 Point-to-Point Algorithms
    2. 12.2 Coverage Algorithms
    3. 12.3 Chapter Summary
    4. 12.4 Design Project
  20. 13 Vision-guided Navigation
    1. 13.1 Gimbal and Camera Frames and Projective Geometry
    2. 13.2 Gimbal Pointing
    3. 13.3 Geolocation
    4. 13.4 Estimating Target Motion in the Image Plane
    5. 13.5 Time to Collision
    6. 13.6 Precision Landing
    7. 13.7 Chapter Summary
    8. 13.8 Design Project
  21. Appendix A: Nomenclature and Notation
  22. Appendix B: Quaternions
    1. B.1 Quaternion Rotations
    2. B.2 Aircraft Kinematic and Dynamic Equations
    3. B.3 Conversion Between Euler Angles and Quaternions
  23. Appendix C: Animations in Simulink
    1. C.1 Handle Graphics in Matlab
    2. C.2 Animation Example: Inverted Pendulum
    3. C.3 Animation Example: Spacecraft Using Lines
    4. C.4 Animation Example: Spacecraft Using Vertices and Faces
  24. Appendix D: Modeling in Simulink Using S-Functions
    1. D.1 Example: Second-order Differential Equation
  25. Appendix E: Airframe Parameters
    1. E.1 Zagi Flying Wing
    2. E.2 Aerosonde UAV
  26. Appendix F: Trim and Linearization in Simulink
    1. F.1 Using the Simulink trim Command
    2. F.2 Numerical Computation of Trim
    3. F.3 Using the Simulink linmod Command to Generate a State-space Model
    4. F.4 Numerical Computation of State-space Model
  27. Appendix G: Essentials from Probability Theory
  28. Appendix H: Sensor Parameters
    1. H.1 Rate Gyros
    2. H.2 Accelerometers
    3. H.3 Pressure Sensors
    4. H.4 Digital Compass/Magnetometer
    5. H.5 GPS
  29. Bibliography
  30. Index