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Small Antenna Handbook

Book Description

Uniquely explains in detail how small antennas work and ways to improve their performance

This book addresses the recent significant theoretical and practical developments in the electrically small antenna (ESA) area.??Examining antenna designs that work as well as those that have limitations, it offers the latest information on electromagnetically coupled structures and improving bandwidth using spherical helix dipoles, the exact derivation of Q for electrically small antennas for both TE and TM modes,??a new simplified Q formula developed by the authors, and discussions of metamaterials??and computer model accuracy for ESA.

The book begins with detailed electromagnetic derivations of Chu and Thal Q formulations, formulas for Q when ?? or ?? cores are used, and effects of loss on Q. It also includes a treatise on bandwidth and matching, and Foster's reactance theorem, as well as up-to-date coverage of canonical antennas: dipoles, loops, self-resonant ESA, PIFA, and dielectric resonator antennas.

Just as this book offers the concrete facts on relevant developments in the field, it also clears up confusion regarding findings that have not turned out to be useful. Presented here are antenna ideas that are clever but with performance numbers that are poor, as well as eighteen more antenna ideas that are simply not to be believed. The book concludes with recent data on the use of self-resonant elements in superdirective antennas and new delay line data on superconducting antennas.

Each chapter features extensive references and an author list. In addition, helpful appendices cover a world history of ESA, antenna terms important to ESA, a paper on NIM shells enclosing an ESA dipole, and analytical errors associated with perfect lenses and sub-wavelength focusing. Small Antenna Handbook is ideal for practicing engineers in the telecommunications and national defense areas, as well as for upper-level undergraduate and graduate students.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright
  4. Dedication
  5. Preface
    1. References
  6. Chapter 1: Quality Factors of Esa
    1. 1.1 Introduction
    2. 1.2 Chu Antenna Q
    3. 1.3 Collin and Rothschild Q Analysis
    4. 1.4 Thal Antenna Q
    5. 1.5 Radian Sphere with MU and/or Epsilon: TE Modes
    6. 1.6 Radian Sphere with mu and/or Epsilon: TM Modes
    7. 1.7 Effects of Core Losses
    8. 1.8 Q for Spheroidal Enclosures
    9. References
  7. Chapter 2: Bandwidth and Matching
    1. 2.1 Introduction
    2. 2.2 Foster's Reactance Theorem and Smith Chart
    3. 2.3 Fano's Matching Limitations
    4. 2.4 Matching Circuit Loss Magnification
    5. 2.5 Network and Z0 Matching
    6. 2.6 Non-Foster Matching Circuits
    7. 2.7 Matched and High-Z Preamp Monopoles
    8. References
  8. Chapter 3: Electrically Small Antennas: Canonical Types
    1. 3.1 Introduction
    2. 3.2 Dipole Basic Characteristics
    3. 3.3 Partial Sleeve, PIFA, and Patch
    4. 3.4 Loops
    5. 3.5 Dielectric Resonator Antennas
    6. References
  9. Chapter 4: Clever Physics, but Bad Numbers
    1. 4.1 Contrawound Toroidal Helix Antenna
    2. 4.2 Transmission Line Antennas
    3. 4.3 Halo, Hula Hoop, and DDRR Antennas
    4. 4.4 Dielectric-Loaded Antennas
    5. 4.5 Meanderline Antennas
    6. 4.6 Cage Monopole
    7. References
  10. Chapter 5: Pathological Antennas
    1. 5.1 Crossed-Field Antenna
    2. 5.2 Infinite Efficiency Antenna
    3. 5.3 E–h Antenna
    4. 5.4 TE–TM Antenna
    5. 5.5 Crossed Dipoles
    6. 5.6 Snyder Dipole
    7. 5.7 Loop-Coupled Loop
    8. 5.8 Multiarm Dipole
    9. 5.9 Complementary Pair Antenna
    10. 5.10 Integrated Antenna
    11. 5.11 Q = 0 Antenna
    12. 5.12 Antenna in a NIM Shell
    13. 5.13 Fractal Antennas
    14. 5.14 Antenna on A Chip
    15. 5.15 Random Segment Antennas
    16. 5.16 Multiple Multipoles
    17. 5.17 Switched Loop Antennas
    18. 5.18 Electrically Small Focal Spots
    19. 5.19 ESA Summary
    20. References
  11. Chapter 6: Superdirective Antennas
    1. 6.1 History and Motivation
    2. 6.2 Maximum Directivity
    3. 6.3 Constrained Superdirectivity
    4. 6.4 Bandwidth, Efficiency, and Tolerances
    5. 6.5 Miscellaneous Superdirectivity
    6. 6.6 Superdirective Antenna Summary
    7. References
  12. Chapter 7: Superconducting Antennas
    1. 7.1 Introduction
    2. 7.2 Superconductivity Concepts for Antenna Engineers
    3. 7.3 Dipole, Loop, and Patch Antennas
    4. 7.4 Phasers and Delay Lines
    5. 7.5 Superconducting Antenna Summary
    6. References
  13. Appendix A: A World History of Electrically Small Antennas
    1. A.1 Electrically Small Antenna Chronology
    2. A.2 Loops
    3. A.3 Monopoles with Inductive Loading
    4. A.4 Ferrite Loopstick
    5. A.5 Fundamental Limitations
    6. A.6 Dielectric Loading
    7. A.7 PIFA, Transmission Line, and Patch ESA
    8. A.8 Electrically Small Cavity Antennas
    9. A.9 Active Antennas
    10. A.10 Resonant ESA
    11. A.11 Non-Foster Antennas
    12. A.12 Goubau Antenna
    13. A.13 Nut-House ESA
    14. A.14 Fractal Monopoles and Loops
    15. A.15 Double Resonance ESA
    16. A.16 Magnetic Loading of Loops
    17. A.17 Metamaterials and Antennas
    18. References
  14. Appendix B: Definitions of Terms Useful to Esa
  15. Appendix C: Spherical Shell of Eng Metamaterial Surrounding a Dipole Antenna
    1. C.1 Introduction
    2. C.2 Impedance Transformation Along a Spherical Transmission Line
    3. C.3 Wave Solution within a Spherical Shell of ENG Material
    4. C.4 Dipole Antenna Source
    5. C.5 Antenna Radiation Resistance and Reactance
    6. C.6 Voltage-Driven Dipole Antenna
    7. C.7 Numerical Results
    8. C.8 Equivalent Circuit for the ENG Spherical Shell Resonator
    9. C.9 Conclusions
    10. C.10 Addendum
    11. References
  16. Appendix D: Frequency Dispersion Limits Resolution in Veselago Lens
    1. D.1 Introduction
    2. D.2 Analysis: Single Interface
    3. D.3 Solution for the Two-Interface Problem
    4. D.4 Conclusions
    5. References
  17. Author Index
    1. Chapter 1
    2. Chapter 2
    3. Chapter 3
    4. Chapter 4
    5. Chapter 5
    6. Chapter 6
    7. Chapter 7
  18. Subject Index