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Small and Short-Range Radar Systems

Book Description

Radar Expert, Esteemed Author Gregory L. Charvat on CNN and CBS

Author Gregory L. Charvat appeared on CNN on March 17, 2014 to discuss whether Malaysia Airlines Flight 370 might have literally flown below the radar. He appeared again on CNN on March 20, 2014 to explain the basics of radar, and he explored the hope and limitations of the technology involved in the search for Flight 370 on CBS on March 22, 2014.

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Coupling theory with reality, from derivation to implementation of actual radar systems, Small and Short-Range Radar Systems analyzes and then provides design procedures and working design examples of small and short-range radar systems. Discussing applications from automotive to through-wall imaging, autonomous vehicle, and beyond, the practical text supplies high-level descriptions, theoretical derrivations, back-of-envelope calculations, explanations of processing algorithms, and case studies for each type of small radar system covered, including continuous wave (CW), ultrawideband (UWB) impulse, linear frequency modulation (FM), linear rail synthetic aperture radar (SAR), and phased array. This essential reference:

  • Explains how to design your own radar devices
  • Demonstrates how to process data from small radar sensors
  • Provides real-world, measured radar data to test algorithms before investing development time

Complete with downloadable MATLAB® scripts and actual radar measurements, Small and Short-Range Radar Systems empowers you to rapidly develop small radar technology for your application.

Table of Contents

  1. Preliminaries
  2. Dedication
  3. Foreword
  4. About the Series
  5. Preface
  6. Acknowledgments
  7. About the Author
  8. Chapter 9 Contributing Authors
  9. Chapter 1: Radio Direction and Ranging (RADAR)
    1. 1.1 Radio Transmitters and Receivers
      1. 1.1.1 Generating Electromagnetic Fields and Maxwell’s Equations
        1. 1.1.1.1 Far Field and Near Field
        2. 1.1.1.2 Polarization
        3. 1.1.1.3 Constitutive Parameters or the Medium in Which a Wave Propagates
        4. 1.1.1.4 Electric and Magnetic Antennas
        5. 1.1.1.5 Most-used Solution to the Wave Equation for Radar Systems
      2. 1.1.2 Transmission Lines
        1. 1.1.2.1 Scattering Parameters
      3. 1.1.3 Characteristics of Antennas
      4. 1.1.4 Friis Transmission Equation
      5. 1.1.5 Radio Receivers
        1. 1.1.5.1 Tuned Radio Frequency (TRF) Receivers
        2. 1.1.5.2 Heterodyne Receivers and the Frequency Mixer
        3. 1.1.5.3 Single Sideband (SSB) Receivers
        4. 1.1.5.4 Noise Figure
        5. 1.1.5.5 Receiver Sensitivity
      6. 1.1.6 Radio Transmitters
    2. 1.2 Radio Direction and Ranging (Radar)
      1. 1.2.1 Pulsed Radar System
      2. 1.2.2 Phase Coherent Radar System
        1. 1.2.2.1 A Simple Phase Coherent Radar System
        2. 1.2.2.2 Pulsed Phase Coherent Radar Systems
    3. 1.3 Estimating Radar Performance Using the Radar Range Equation
    4. 1.4 Small and Short-Range Radars
    5. Bibliography
    1. Figure 1.1
    2. Figure 1.2
    3. Figure 1.3
    4. Figure 1.4
    5. Figure 1.5
    6. Figure 1.6
    7. Figure 1.7
    8. Figure 1.8
    9. Figure 1.9
    10. Figure 1.10
    11. Figure 1.11
    12. Figure 1.12
    13. Figure 1.13
    14. Figure 1.14
    15. Figure 1.15
    16. Figure 1.16
    17. Figure 1.17
    18. Figure 1.18
    19. Figure 1.19
    20. Figure 1.20
    21. Figure 1.21
    22. Figure 1.22
    23. Figure 1.23
    24. Figure 1.24
    1. Table 1.1
    2. Table 1.2
  10. Part I: Short-Range Radar Systems and Implementations
    1. Chapter 2: Continuous Wave (CW) Radar
      1. 2.1 CW Radar Architecture
      2. 2.2 Signal Processing for CW Doppler Radar
        1. 2.2.1 Frequency Counter
        2. 2.2.2 Frequency-to-Voltage Converter
        3. 2.2.3 Discrete Fourier Transform
      3. 2.3 The Radar Range Equation for CW Doppler Radar
      4. 2.4 Examples of CW Radar Systems
        1. 2.4.1 The MIT Independent Activities Period (IAP) Radar in Doppler Mode
          1. 2.4.1.1 Expected Performance of the MIT ‘Coffee Can’ Radar in Doppler Mode
          2. 2.4.1.2 Working Example of the MIT ‘Coffee Can’ Radar in Doppler Mode
        2. 2.4.2 An X-band CW Radar System
          1. 2.4.2.1 Expected Performance of the X-band CW Radar System
          2. 2.4.2.2 Working Example of the X-band CW Radar System
      5. 2.5 Harmonic Radar
        1. 2.5.1 CW Harmonic Radar System at 917 MHz
          1. 2.5.1.1 Implementation
          2. 2.5.1.2 Harmonic Radar Tags
          3. 2.5.1.3 Results
      6. 2.6 Summary
      7. Bibliography
      1. Figure 2.1
      2. Figure 2.2
      3. Figure 2.3
      4. Figure 2.4
      5. Figure 2.5
      6. Figure 2.6
      7. Figure 2.7
      8. Figure 2.8
      9. Figure 2.9
      10. Figure 2.10
      11. Figure 2.11
      12. Figure 2.12
      13. Figure 2.13
      14. Figure 2.14
      15. Figure 2.15
      16. Figure 2.16
      17. Figure 2.17
      18. Figure 2.18
      19. Figure 2.19
      20. Figure 2.20
      1. Table 2.1
      2. Table 2.2
      3. Table 2.3
      4. Table 2.4
    2. Chapter 3: Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW) Radar
      1. 3.1 FMCW Architecture and Singal Processing
        1. 3.1.1 FMCW Architecture
        2. 3.1.2 Mathematics of FMCW Radar
        3. 3.1.3 Signal Processing for FMCW Radar and the Inverse Discrete Fourier Transform
          1. 3.1.3.1 Frequency Counter and Frequency-to-Voltage Converters
          2. 3.1.3.2 Inverse Discrete Fourier Transform
          3. 3.1.3.3 Coherent Change Detection (CCD)
      2. 3.2 FMCW Performance
        1. 3.2.1 The Radar Range Equation for FMCW Radar
        2. 3.2.2 Range Resolution
      3. 3.3 Examples of FMCW Radar Systems
        1. 3.3.1 X-Band UWB FMCW Radar System
          1. 3.3.1.1 Expected Performance of the X-Band UWB FMCW Radar System
          2. 3.3.1.2 Working Example of the X-Band UWB FMCW Radar System
        2. 3.3.2 The MIT Coffee Can Radar System in Ranging Mode
          1. 3.3.2.1 Expected Performance of the MIT Coffee Can Radar System in Ranging Mode
          2. 3.3.2.2 Working Example of the MIT Coffee Can Radar System in Ranging Mode
        3. 3.3.3 Range-Gated UWB FMCW Radar System
          1. 3.3.3.1 Analog Range Gate
          2. 3.3.3.2 S-Band Implementation
          3. 3.3.3.3 Expected Performance of the Range-Gated S-Band FMCW Radar System
          4. 3.3.3.4 Working Example of the Range-Gated S-Band FMCW Radar System
          5. 3.3.3.5 X-Band Implementation of a Range-Gated FMCW Radar System
          6. 3.3.3.6 Expected Performance of the Range-Gated X-Band FMCW Radar System
          7. 3.3.3.7 Working Example of the Range-Gated X-Band FMCW Radar System
      4. 3.4 Summary
      5. Bibliography
      1. Figure 3.1
      2. Figure 3.2
      3. Figure 3.3
      4. Figure 3.4
      5. Figure 3.5
      6. Figure 3.6
      7. Figure 3.7
      8. Figure 3.8
      9. Figure 3.9
      10. Figure 3.10
      11. Figure 3.11
      12. Figure 3.12
      13. Figure 3.13
      14. Figure 3.14
      15. Figure 3.15
      16. Figure 3.16
      17. Figure 3.17
      18. Figure 3.18
      19. Figure 3.19
      20. Figure 3.20
      21. Figure 3.21
      22. Figure 3.22
      23. Figure 3.23
      24. Figure 3.24
      25. Figure 3.25
      26. Figure 3.26
      27. Figure 3.27
      28. Figure 3.28
      29. Figure 3.29
      30. Figure 3.30
      31. Figure 3.31
      32. Figure 3.32
      33. Figure 3.33
      34. Figure 3.34
      35. Figure 3.35
      36. Figure 3.36
      37. Figure 3.37
      38. Figure 3.38
      39. Figure 3.39
      40. Figure 3.40
      41. Figure 3.41
      42. Figure 3.42
      43. Figure 3.43
      44. Figure 3.44
      45. Figure 3.45
      46. Figure 3.46
      47. Figure 3.47
      48. Figure 3.48
      1. Table 3.1
      2. Table 3.2
      3. Table 3.3
      4. Table 3.4
      5. Table 3.5
      6. Table 3.6
      7. Table 3.7
      8. Table 3.8
      9. Table 3.9
      10. Table 3.10
    3. Chapter 4: Synthetic Aperture Radar
      1. 4.1 Measurement Geometry
      2. 4.2 The Range Migration Algorithm (RMA)
        1. 4.2.1 Simulation of a Point Scatterer
        2. 4.2.2 Cross Range Fourier Transform
        3. 4.2.3 Matched Filter
        4. 4.2.4 Stolt Interpolation
        5. 4.2.5 Inverse Fourier Transform to Image Domain
      3. 4.3 Simulation of Multiple Point Targets
      4. 4.4 Estimating Performance
        1. 4.4.1 The Radar Range Equation Applied to SAR
        2. 4.4.2 Resolution of SAR Imagery
      5. 4.5 Additional Processing
        1. 4.5.1 Calibration
        2. 4.5.2 Coherent Background Subtraction and Coherent Change Detection (CCD)
        3. 4.5.3 Motion Compensation
      6. 4.6 Summary
      7. Bibliography
      1. Figure 4.1
      2. Figure 4.2
      3. Figure 4.3
      4. Figure 4.4
      5. Figure 4.5
      6. Figure 4.6
      7. Figure 4.7
      8. Figure 4.8
      9. Figure 4.9
      10. Figure 4.10
      11. Figure 4.11
      12. Figure 4.12
      13. Figure 4.13
      1. Table 4.1
    4. Chapter 5: Practical Examples of Small Synthetic Aperture Radar Imaging Systems
      1. 5.1 UWB FMCW X-Band Rail SAR Imaging System
        1. 5.1.1 Expected Performance
          1. 5.1.1.1 Maximum Range and Minimum Target RCS
          2. 5.1.1.2 Range Resolution Estimate
        2. 5.1.2 Implementation
        3. 5.1.3 Measured Results
          1. 5.1.3.1 Resolution
          2. 5.1.3.2 Sensitivity
          3. 5.1.3.3 Imagery
      2. 5.2 MIT Coffee Can Radar in Imaging Mode
        1. 5.2.1 Expected Performance
          1. 5.2.1.1 Maximum Range and Minimum Target RCS
          2. 5.2.1.2 Range Resolution Estimate
        2. 5.2.2 Implementation
        3. 5.2.3 Measured Results
      3. 5.3 Range-Gated FMCW Rail SAR Imaging Systems
        1. 5.3.1 X-Band
          1. 5.3.1.1 Implementation
          2. 5.3.1.2 Expected Performance
          3. 5.3.1.3 Measured Results
        2. 5.3.2 S-Band
          1. 5.3.2.1 Implementation
          2. 5.3.2.2 Expected Performance
          3. 5.3.2.3 Measurements
      4. 5.4 Summary
      5. Bibliography
      1. Figure 5.1
      2. Figure 5.2
      3. Figure 5.3
      4. Figure 5.4
      5. Figure 5.5
      6. Figure 5.6
      7. Figure 5.7
      8. Figure 5.8
      9. Figure 5.9
      10. Figure 5.10
      11. Figure 5.11
      12. Figure 5.12
      13. Figure 5.13
      14. Figure 5.14
      15. Figure 5.15
      16. Figure 5.16
      17. Figure 5.17
      18. Figure 5.18
      19. Figure 5.19
      20. Figure 5.20
      21. Figure 5.21
      22. Figure 5.22
      23. Figure 5.23
      24. Figure 5.24
      1. Table 5.1
      2. Table 5.2
      3. Table 5.3
      4. Table 5.4
    5. Chapter 6: Phased Array Radar
      1. 6.1 Near Field Phased Array Radar
      2. 6.2 Near Field Beamforming Using SAR Imaging Algorithms
      3. 6.3 Performance of Small Phased Array Radar Systems
        1. 6.3.1 The Radar Range Equation for Phased Array Radar Systems
        2. 6.3.2 Resolution of Near Field Phased Array Imagery
      4. 6.4 Processing
        1. 6.4.1 Calibration
        2. 6.4.2 Coherent Background Subtraction and Coherent Change Detection (CCD)
      5. 6.5 An S-Band Switched Array Radar Imaging System
        1. 6.5.1 System Implementation
        2. 6.5.2 Performance Estimate
        3. 6.5.3 Free Space Results
          1. 6.5.3.1 Simulated Sidelobes
          2. 6.5.3.2 Measured Sidelobes
          3. 6.5.3.3 Resolution
          4. 6.5.3.4 Low RCS imagery
          5. 6.5.3.5 Demonstrations
      6. 6.6 MIT IAP Phased Array Radar Course
      7. 6.7 Summary
      8. Bibliography
      1. Figure 6.1
      2. Figure 6.2
      3. Figure 6.3
      4. Figure 6.4
      5. Figure 6.5
      6. Figure 6.6
      7. Figure 6.7
      8. Figure 6.8
      9. Figure 6.9
      10. Figure 6.10
      11. Figure 6.11
      12. Figure 6.12
      13. Figure 6.13
      14. Figure 6.14
      15. Figure 6.15
      16. Figure 6.16
      17. Figure 6.17
      18. Figure 6.18
      19. Figure 6.19
      20. Figure 6.20
      21. Figure 6.21
      22. Figure 6.22
      23. Figure 6.23
      24. Figure 6.24
      25. Figure 6.25
      26. Figure 6.26
      1. Table 6.1
      2. Table 6.2
      3. Table 6.3
      4. Table 6.4
    6. Chapter 7: Ultrawideband (UWB) Impulse Radar
      1. 7.1 Architectures for UWB Impulse Radar
        1. 7.1.1 Basic UWB Impulse Radar System
        2. 7.1.2 UWB Impulse Radar Using Frequency Conversion
      2. 7.2 Signal Processing for UWB Impulse Radar
        1. 7.2.1 Computing Range to Target
        2. 7.2.2 Calibration
        3. 7.2.3 Synthetic Aperture Radar
        4. 7.2.4 Coherent Change Detection (CCD)
      3. 7.3 Expected Performance of UWB Impulse Radar Systems
        1. 7.3.1 The Radar Range Equation for UWB Impulse Radar
        2. 7.3.2 Range Resolution for UWB Impulse Radar
      4. 7.4 UWB Impulse Radar Systems
        1. 7.4.1 X-Band UWB Impulse Radar System
          1. 7.4.1.1 Implementation
          2. 7.4.1.2 Expected Performance
          3. 7.4.1.3 Ranging Example
        2. 7.4.2 X-Band Impulse SAR Imaging System
          1. 7.4.2.1 Implementation
          2. 7.4.2.2 Expected Performance
          3. 7.4.2.3 Impulse SAR Data Acquisition and Processing
          4. 7.4.2.4 Imaging Example
      5. 7.5 Summary
      6. Bibliography
      1. Figure 7.1
      2. Figure 7.2
      3. Figure 7.3
      4. Figure 7.4
      5. Figure 7.5
      6. Figure 7.6
      7. Figure 7.7
      8. Figure 7.8
      9. Figure 7.9
      10. Figure 7.10
      11. Figure 7.11
      12. Figure 7.12
      13. Figure 7.13
      14. Figure 7.14
      15. Figure 7.15
      16. Figure 7.16
      17. Figure 7.17
      1. Table 7.1
      2. Table 7.2
      3. Table 7.3
    7. Part II: Applications
      1. Chapter 8: Police Doppler Radar and Motion Sensors
        1. 8.1 The Gunnplexer
        2. 8.2 Police Doppler Radar
          1. 8.2.1 K-Band Police Doppler Radar
            1. 8.2.1.1 Estimated Performance
            2. 8.2.1.2 Experimental Results
          2. 8.2.2 Digital Signal Processing for an Old X-Band Police Doppler Radar Gun
            1. 8.2.2.1 Expected Performance
            2. 8.2.2.2 Working Example
        3. 8.3 Doppler Motion Sensors
        4. 8.4 Summary
        5. Bibliography
        1. Figure 8.1
        2. Figure 8.2
        3. Figure 8.3
        4. Figure 8.4
        5. Figure 8.5
        6. Figure 8.6
        7. Figure 8.7
        8. Figure 8.8
        9. Figure 8.9
        10. Figure 8.10
        11. Figure 8.11
        12. Figure 8.12
        13. Figure 8.13
        14. Figure 8.14
        1. Table 8.1
        2. Table 8.2
      2. Chapter 9: Automotive Radar
        1. 9.1 Challenges in Automotive Domain
          1. 9.1.1 The Automotive Domain Surrounding Sensing
          2. 9.1.2 Performance Limitations of Today's Automotive SRRs
          3. 9.1.3 Challenges with Vehicle Integration
          4. 9.1.4 SRR Packaging Challenges
          5. 9.1.5 Automotive 77 Ghz vs. 24 Ghz Radar Bands
          6. 9.1.6 Cost and Long Term Reliability
          7. 9.1.7 Regulatory Issues
          8. 9.1.8 Blockage
        2. 9.2 Elements of Automotive Radar
          1. 9.2.1 Antenna
          2. 9.2.2 Analog Front End
          3. 9.2.3 Radar Processor
        3. 9.3 Waveforms for Automotive Radar
          1. 9.3.1 Doppler Shift
          2. 9.3.2 Linear Frequency Modulation
          3. 9.3.3 Frequency Shift Keying
          4. 9.3.4 Hybrid Waveform of FSK and LFM
          5. 9.3.5 Pulse Compression LFM Waveform
        4. 9.4 Range and Range Rate Estimation
          1. 9.4.1 Target Detection
          2. 9.4.2 Matched Filter and Ambiguity Function
          3. 9.4.3 Estimation Accuracy
        5. 9.5 Direction Finding
          1. 9.5.1 Linear Array Antenna
          2. 9.5.2 Digital Beamforming
          3. 9.5.3 Monopulse
          4. 9.5.4 Simultaneous Processing for Range, Doppler, and Angle
        6. 9.6 Fusion of Multiple Sensors
          1. 9.6.1 Automotive Sensor Technology
            1. 9.6.1.1 Ultrasonic
            2. 9.6.1.2 Lidar
            3. 9.6.1.3 Camera
          2. 9.6.2 Fusion Algorithm
            1. 9.6.2.1 Architecture Aspect
            2. 9.6.2.2 Error Model of the Sensor
            3. 9.6.2.3 Data Association
            4. 9.6.2.4 Optimization
            5. 9.6.2.5 Dynamic Models
            6. 9.6.2.6 Algorithm Summary
          3. 9.6.3 Online Automatic Registration
        7. 9.7 Case Studies of ADAS Fusion System
          1. 9.7.1 Adaptive Cruise Control
          2. 9.7.2 Forward Collision Warning and Braking
        8. 9.8 Radars and the Urban Grand Challenge
        9. 9.9 Summary
        10. Bibliography
        1. Figure 9.1
        2. Figure 9.2
        3. Figure 9.3
        4. Figure 9.4
        5. Figure 9.5
        6. Figure 9.6
        7. Figure 9.7
        8. Figure 9.8
        9. Figure 9.9
        10. Figure 9.10
        11. Figure 9.11
        12. Figure 9.12
        13. Figure 9.13
        14. Figure 9.14
        15. Figure 9.15
        16. Figure 9.16
        17. Figure 9.17
        18. Figure 9.18
        19. Figure 9.19
        20. Figure 9.20
        21. Figure 9.21
        22. Figure 9.22
        23. Figure 9.23
        24. Figure 9.24
        25. Figure 9.25
        26. Figure 9.26
        27. Figure 9.27
        28. Figure 9.28
        29. Figure 9.29
        30. Figure 9.30
        31. Figure 9.31
        32. Figure 9.32
        33. Figure 9.33
        34. Figure 9.34
        35. Figure 9.35
        36. Figure 9.36
        37. Figure 9.37
        38. Figure 9.38
        39. Figure 9.39
        40. Figure 9.40
        41. Figure 9.41
        42. Figure 9.42
        43. Figure 9.43
        44. Figure 9.44
        45. Figure 9.45
        46. Figure 9.46
        1. Table 9.1
        2. Table 9.2
        3. Table 9.3
        4. Table 9.4
      3. Chapter 10: Through-Wall Radar
        1. 10.1 Radar Range Equation for Through-Wall Radar
        2. 10.2 Through-Wall Models
          1. 10.2.1 1D Model for Simulating Range Profiles
          2. 10.2.2 2D Model for Simulating Rail SAR Imagery
          3. 10.2.3 2D Model for Switched or Multiple Input Multiple Output Arrays
        3. 10.3 Examples of Through-Wall Imaging Systems
          1. 10.3.1 S-Band Range Gated FMCW Rail SAR
            1. 10.3.1.1 Implementation
            2. 10.3.1.2 Expected Performance
            3. 10.3.1.3 Results
          2. 10.3.2 S-Band Switched Array
            1. 10.3.2.1 Implementation
            2. 10.3.2.2 Expected Performance
            3. 10.3.2.3 Results
          3. 10.3.3 Real-Time Through-Wall Radar Imaging System
            1. 10.3.3.1 Implementation
            2. 10.3.3.2 Expected Performance
            3. 10.3.3.3 Results
        4. 10.4 Summary
        5. Bibliography
          1. Figure 10.1
          2. Figure 10.2
          3. Figure 10.3
          4. Figure 10.4
          5. Figure 10.5
          6. Figure 10.6
          7. Figure 10.7
          8. Figure 10.8
          9. Figure 10.9
          10. Figure 10.10
          11. Figure 10.11
          12. Figure 10.12
          13. Figure 10.13
          14. Figure 10.14
          15. Figure 10.15
          1. Table 10.1
          2. Table 10.2
          3. Table 10.3
          4. Table 10.4
          5. Table 10.5
          6. Table 10.6