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Small and Micro Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Systems

Book Description

Small and micro combined heat and power (CHP) systems are a form of cogeneration technology suitable for domestic and community buildings, commercial establishments and industrial facilities, as well as local heat networks. One of the benefits of using cogeneration plant is a vastly improved energy efficiency: in some cases achieving up to 80-90% systems efficiency, whereas small-scale electricity production is typically at well below 40% efficiency, using the same amount of fuel. This higher efficiency affords users greater energy security and increased long-term sustainability of energy resources, while lower overall emissions levels also contribute to an improved environmental performance.

Small and micro combined heat and power (CHP) systems provides a systematic and comprehensive review of the technological and practical developments of small and micro CHP systems.

Part one opens with reviews of small and micro CHP systems and their techno-economic and performance assessment, as well as their integration into distributed energy systems and their increasing utilisation of biomass fuels. Part two focuses on the development of different types of CHP technology, including internal combustion and reciprocating engines, gas turbines and microturbines, Stirling engines, organic Rankine cycle process and fuel cell systems. Heat-activated cooling (i.e. trigeneration) technologies and energy storage systems, of importance to the regional/seasonal viability of this technology round out this section. Finally, part three covers the range of applications of small and micro CHP systems, from residential buildings and district heating, to commercial buildings and industrial applications, as well as reviewing the market deployment of this important technology.

With its distinguished editor and international team of expert contributors, Small and micro combined heat and power (CHP) systems is an essential reference work for anyone involved or interested in the design, development, installation and optimisation of small and micro CHP systems.

  • Reviews small- and micro-CHP systems and their techno-economic and performance assessment
  • Explores integration into distributed energy systems and their increasing utilisation of biomass fuels
  • Focuses on the development of different types of CHP technology, including internal combustion and reciprocating engines

Table of Contents

  1. Cover image
  2. Title page
  3. Table of Contents
  4. Copyright
  5. Contributor contact details
  6. Woodhead Publishing Series in Energy
  7. Preface
  8. Part I: Introduction to small and micro combined heat and power (CHP) systems
    1. Chapter 1: Overview of small and micro combined heat and power (CHP) systems
      1. Abstract:
      2. 1.1 Introduction to cogeneration - a short history
      3. 1.2 Types of technology and potential applications
      4. 1.3 Energy efficiency improvement
      5. 1.4 Cost benefits and emissions reduction
      6. 1.5 Grid connection
      7. 1.6 Barriers to combined heat and power (CHP)
      8. 1.7 Future trends
    2. Chapter 2: Techno-economic assessment of small and micro combined heat and power (CHP) systems
      1. Abstract:
      2. 2.1 Introduction
      3. 2.2 The economics of combined heat and power (CHP)
      4. 2.3 Techno-economics for onsite generation
      5. 2.4 A specific modelling methodology
      6. 2.5 Case study: micro combined heat and power (CHP)
      7. 2.6 Future trends
      8. 2.7 Sources of further information and advice
    3. Chapter 3: Thermodynamics, performance analysis and computational modelling of small and micro combined heat and power (CHP) systems
      1. Abstract:
      2. 3.1 Introduction
      3. 3.2 Types of combined heat and power (CHP) systems
      4. 3.3 Thermodynamics of cogeneration
      5. 3.4 Performance analysis of cogeneration cycles
      6. 3.5 Theory of heat exchangers
      7. 3.6 Worked example
      8. 3.7 Computational modelling of a combined heat and power (CHP) cycle
      9. 3.8 Analysis of the computational model of the combined heat and power (CHP) system
      10. 3.9 Case study: system performance of a biogasdriven small combined heat and power (CHP) system in a sewage works
      11. 3.10 Sources of further information and advice
    4. Chapter 4: Integration of small and micro combined heat and power (CHP) systems into distributed energy systems
      1. Abstract:
      2. 4.1 Distributed energy resources (DER)
      3. 4.2 The value of distributed generation
      4. 4.3 Conditions for profitable decentralized generation
      5. 4.4 Evaluating the ‘full value’ of being network connected
      6. 4.5 Recommendations to distribution system operators (DSO) and regulators
      7. 4.6 Acknowledgement
    5. Chapter 5: Biomass fuels for small and micro combined heat and power (CHP) systems: resources, conversion and applications
      1. Abstract:
      2. 5.1 Introduction
      3. 5.2 Characterisation of solid biomass fuels
      4. 5.3 Biomass conversion technologies
      5. 5.4 Current development of small and micro scale biomass combined heat and power (CHP) technologies
      6. 5.5 Conclusions
      7. 5.6 Acknowledgements
  9. Part II: Development of small and micro combined heat and power (CHP) systems and technology
    1. Chapter 6: Internal combustion and reciprocating engine systems for small and micro combined heat and power (CHP) applications
      1. Abstract:
      2. 6.1 Introduction
      3. 6.2 Types, properties and design of engine
      4. 6.3 Engine operating characteristics and performance
      5. 6.4 Installation and practical aspects
      6. 6.5 Commercially available units
      7. 6.6 Conclusions
    2. Chapter 7: Microturbine systems for small combined heat and power (CHP) applications
      1. Abstract:
      2. 7.1 Introduction
      3. 7.2 Cycle performance
      4. 7.3 Types and properties of microturbine components
      5. 7.4 Operation
      6. 7.5 Manufacturers and applications
      7. 7.6 Future trends
      8. 7.7 Sources of further information and advice
    3. Chapter 8: Stirling engine systems for small and micro combined heat and power (CHP) applications
      1. Abstract:
      2. 8.1 Introduction
      3. 8.2 Definition of a Stirling engine
      4. 8.3 Why Stirling engines are suited to micro combined heat and power (CHP)
      5. 8.4 The Stirling cycle
      6. 8.5 Types of Stirling engine
      7. 8.6 Development of Stirling engines for micro combined heat and power (CHP) applications
      8. 8.7 Micro combined heat and power (CHP) design and system integration
      9. 8.8 Applications and future trends
      10. 8.9 Sources of further information and advice
    4. Chapter 9: Organic Rankine cycle (ORC) based waste heat/waste fuel recovery systems for small combined heat and power (CHP) applications
      1. Abstract:
      2. 9.1 Introduction
      3. 9.2 Principle of the organic Rankine cycle (ORC) process
      4. 9.3 Typical process heat sources and operating ranges for organic Rankine cycle (ORC) systems
      5. 9.4 Benefits and disadvantages of organic Rankine cycle (ORC) process as compared to waterbased systems
      6. 9.5 Selection of working fluid for organic Rankine cycle (ORC) systems
      7. 9.6 Process system alternatives
      8. 9.7 Background and summary of commercial development and exploitation
      9. 9.8 Efficiency and typical costs for current organic Rankine cycle (ORC) plants
    5. Chapter 10: Fuel cell systems for small and micro combined heat and power (CHP) applications
      1. Abstract:
      2. 10.1 Introduction
      3. 10.2 Fundamentals of operation, types and properties of fuel cells
      4. 10.3 Fuel cell systems
      5. 10.4 Operating conditions and performance
      6. 10.5 Commercial development and future trends
      7. 10.6 Sources of further information and advice
    6. Chapter 11: Heat-activated cooling technologies for small and micro combined heat and power (CHP) applications
      1. Abstract:
      2. 11.1 Introduction
      3. 11.2 Introduction to small-scale trigeneration
      4. 11.3 Types of cooling systems and their applications
      5. 11.4 Open sorption cycles: desiccant dehumidification
      6. 11.5 Closed sorption cycles: absorption and adsorption heat pumps
      7. 11.6 Steam ejector cycle
      8. 11.7 Component-specific efficiency and effectiveness metrics
      9. 11.8 System-wide performance and efficiency metrics
      10. 11.9 Advantages and limitations of heat-activated cooling
      11. 11.10 Future trends
      12. 11.11 Sources of further information and advice
      13. 11.14 Appendix 1: Nomenclature and abbreviations
      14. 11.15 Appendix 2: Notes on terminology
    7. Chapter 12: Energy storage for small and micro combined heat and power (CHP) systems
      1. Abstract:
      2. 12.1 Introduction
      3. 12.2 Types of energy storage (ES) systems
      4. 12.3 Applications of electrical energy storage
      5. 12.4 Applications for combined heat and power (CHP) systems
      6. 12.5 Grid services applications and relationship to combined heat and power (CHP)
      7. 12.6 Electrical vehicles
      8. 12.7 Large-scale and small-scale storage - conceptual planning
      9. 12.8 The development and application of thermal storage
      10. 12.9 Future trends
      11. 12.10 Sources of further information and advice
  10. Part III: Application of small and micro combined heat and power (CHP) systems
    1. Chapter 13: Micro combined heat and power (CHP) systems for residential and small commercial buildings
      1. Abstract:
      2. 13.1 Introduction
      3. 13.2 Basic issues and energy requirements
      4. 13.3 Types of system for residential and small commercial buildings
      5. 13.4 Domestic applications for micro combined heat and power (CHP)
      6. 13.5 Small commercial buildings and other potential applications
      7. 13.6 Advantages and limitations
      8. 13.7 Future trends
      9. 13.8 Sources of further information and advice
    2. Chapter 14: District and community heating aspects of combined heat and power (CHP) systems
      1. Abstract:
      2. 14.1 Introduction
      3. 14.2 How to get started
      4. 14.3 Heat sources
      5. 14.4 Pipework installation issues and design considerations
      6. 14.5 Control system and consumer installations
      7. 14.6 Case study: Lerwick, Shetland
      8. 14.7 Case study: Aars, Denmark
      9. 14.8 Future trends
      10. 14.9 Sources for further information and advice
    3. Chapter 15: Small combined heat and power (CHP) systems for commercial buildings and institutions
      1. Abstract:
      2. 15.1 Introduction
      3. 15.2 Basic issues and energy requirements
      4. 15.3 Small combined heat and power (CHP) use in commercial buildings and institutions
      5. 15.4 Small-scale combined heat and power (CHP) technology
      6. 15.5 Application of small-scale combined heat and power (CHP) technology in buildings
      7. 15.6 Performance analysis and optimisation
      8. 15.7 Merits and limitations of small-scale combined heat and power (CHP)
      9. 15.8 Future trends
      10. 15.9 Sources of further information and advice
    4. Chapter 16: Small and micro combined heat and power (CHP) systems for the food and beverage processing industries
      1. Abstract:
      2. 16.1 Introduction
      3. 16.2 Food processing and energy requirements - examples for specific food and drink industries
      4. 16.3 Heat and power integration of food total sites
      5. 16.4 Types of small and micro combined heat and power (CHP) suitable for the food industry
      6. 16.5 Established combined heat and power (CHP) technologies for the food industry
      7. 16.6 High-efficiency technologies in theoretical and demonstration stages
      8. 16.7 Integration of renewables and waste with food industry energy demands
      9. 16.8 Potential applications
      10. 16.9 Future trends
      11. 16.10 Sources of further information and advice
    5. Chapter 17: Biomass-based small and micro combined heat and power (CHP) systems: application and status in the United Kingdom
      1. Abstract:
      2. 17.1 UK energy policy and targets
      3. 17.2 Renewables and combined heat and power (CHP) in the UK
      4. 17.3 Technical challenges for small-scale biomass combined heat and power (CHP) systems
      5. 17.4 Capital costs for small-scale biomass combined heat and power (CHP) systems
      6. 17.5 Conclusions
    6. Chapter 18: Thermal-engine-based small and micro combined heat and power (CHP) systems for domestic applications: modelling micro-CHP deployment
      1. Abstract:
      2. 18.1 Introduction
      3. 18.2 Prime movers deployed in micro and small combined heat and power (CHP) systems
      4. 18.3 Product development in the micro and small combined heat and power (CHP) market
      5. 18.4 Overview of the method for estimation of economical and environmental benefits from deployment of micro combined heat and power (MCHP) technology in buildings
      6. 18.5 Heat demand modelling
      7. 18.6 Electrical demand
      8. 18.7 Performance mapping
      9. 18.8 Economic and environmental analysis
  11. Epilogue
  12. Index