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Small and Medium Enterprises

Book Description

Small and medium enterprises outnumber major corporations by a large margin, and will continue to play an essential role in the innovation and competition of economies around the world. Small and Medium Enterprises: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications provides a comprehensive collection of research on current technological developments and organizational perspectives on the scale of small and medium enterprises. This is a reference source suitable for professionals, practitioners, and academics interested in the growth and influence of small and medium businesses on the economy.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright Page
  4. Editorial Advisory Board and List of Reviewers
    1. Editor-in-Chief
    2. Associate Editors
    3. Editorial Advisory Board
  5. Preface
  6. Section 1: Fundamental Concepts and Theories
    1. Chapter 1: Framework Entrepreneurship Process
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. PSYCHOSOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP PROFILE
      4. ENTREPRENEURSHIP VALUE CHAIN
      5. ENTREPRENEURSHIP FRAMEWORK
      6. THE BUSINESS CONCEPT
      7. THE IDEA
      8. THE MODEL
      9. THE MARKET
      10. THE BUSINESS PLAN
      11. THE STRATEGY
      12. THE STRUCTURE
      13. THE INVESTMENTS
      14. THE ENTERPRISE
      15. THE FORMALITIES
      16. THE PROCESS
      17. THE RESULTS
      18. CONCLUSION
    2. Chapter 2: Theoretical Foundations for Information Systems Success in Small- and Medium-Sized Enterprises
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. SMEs AND IT/IS
      4. IT GOVERNANCE FOR SMEs
      5. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
      6. DELONE AND MCCLEAN IS SUCCESS MODEL (D&M)
      7. EMPIRICAL VALIDATION OF THE FRAMEWORK
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. LIST OF ACRONYMS
    3. Chapter 3: SMEs, Institutions, and Performance
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND
      3. TOWARDS A MORE DYNAMIC UNDERSTANDING OF INSTITUTIONS
      4. AN ANALYTICAL FRAMEWORK
      5. METHODOLOGY
      6. STATISTICAL RESULTS
      7. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION
      8. APPENDIX 1: DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS
      9. APPENDIX 2: STUDY VARIABLES
    4. Chapter 4: Creativity in Action
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE RESEARCH CONTEXT
      4. ORGANISATIONAL LEARNING, CREATIVITY AND COMMUNITIES OF PRACTICE
      5. ETHNOGRAPHIC DATA
      6. AN ETHNOMETHODOLOGICAL GAZE
      7. CONCLUDING REFLECTIONS AND SUGGESTIONS
    5. Chapter 5: Consumer-Centric Marketing Strategies
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. MAIN FOCUS OF THE CHAPTER
      5. THE KEY ROLE OF eCRM
      6. THE CASE STUDY OF CALABRIAN CLIENTS-PRODUCERS RELATIONSHIPS THROUGH FACEBOOK
      7. MANAGERIAL IMPLICATION
      8. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      9. CONCLUSION
    6. Chapter 6: SMEs and E-Business
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. E-BUSINESS ADOPTION BY SMEs
      5. FACTORS AFFECTING E-BUSINESS ADOPTION AND ASSIMILATION
      6. STRATEGIC ISSUES IN E-BUSINESS ADOPTION BY SMEs
      7. POLICY IMPLICATIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
    7. Chapter 7: E-Procurement Process
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LITERATURE REVIEW
      4. AUCTIONS VS. NEGOTIATIONS
      5. MULTI AGENT ARCHITECTURE
      6. NEGOTIATION PROCESS
      7. BEST SUPPLIER AUCTION (BSA)
      8. MODIFIED VICKREY AUCTION (MVA)
      9. ONE SHOT AUCTIONS
      10. SIMULATION ENVIRONMENT
      11. SIMULATION RESULTS
      12. CONCLUSIONS AND FURTHER RESEARCHES
    8. Chapter 8: SME as a Service
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. DESIGNING AN ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE (EA) FOR CHANGEABILITY
      5. THE “ENTERPRISE AS A SERVICE” CONCEPT
      6. CONCLUSION
    9. Chapter 9: Open Innovation in SMEs
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. STRATEGIES
      5. CHALLENGES
      6. DEVELOPMENT OF THE BUSINESS MODEL
      7. RECOMMENDATIONS AND FUTURE DISCOURSES
      8. CONCLUSION
    10. Chapter 10: Research and Practices on Open Innovation
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. RESEARCHES AND PRACTICES: THE REVIEW
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
    11. Chapter 11: An Agent-Based Operational Virtual Enterprise Framework enabled by RFID
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION TO VIRTUAL ENTERPRISE
      3. BACKGROUND RESEARCH
      4. TECHNICAL ENABLERS OF AN OPERATIONAL VIRTUAL ENTERPRISE
      5. AGENT BASED SYSTEMS
      6. A CONCEPTUAL OPERATIONAL VIRTUAL ENTERPRISE FRAMEWORK
      7. ICT VIEW OF OPERATIONAL VE
      8. PROCESS VIEW OF OPERATIONAL VE
      9. CONCLUSION
    12. Chapter 12: An Exploratory Investigation of the Barriers to the Adoption of Open Source ERP by Belgian SMEs
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LITERATURE REVIEW
      4. OS-ERP ADOPTION IN BELGIUM
      5. OS-ERP MARKET IN BELGIUM
      6. DISCUSSION
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH
      8. CONCLUSION
  7. Section 2: Development and Design Methodologies
    1. Chapter 13: Theoretical Model for a Local Economy Open Innovation Program
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. THE USERS ASSOCIATION FOR ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES (UA) AS A CONCEPT
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
    2. Chapter 14: A Research Model for Open Innovation
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. CONCLUSION
    3. Chapter 15: Open Innovation Strategies in SMEs
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. BUSINESS MODEL
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
    4. Chapter 16: Championing SME eCollaboration
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INDUSTRY BACKGROUND
      3. THE VALUE OF E-COLLABORATION
      4. THE E-COLLABORATION CHAMPION
      5. CURRENT CHALLENGES OF E-COLLABORATION
      6. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
    5. Chapter 17: Intermediary Design for Collaborative Ontology-Based Innovation Monitoring
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. INTERMEDIARY DESIGN
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
    6. Chapter 18: Adopting ICT in the Mompreneurs Business
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. FEMALE ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN IRELAND
      4. PROFILING FEMALE ENTREPRENEURS
      5. THE MOMPRENEUR
      6. INFORMATION COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES: AN ENABLER IN SMALL FIRM DEVELOPMENT
      7. ENABLING SMALL BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT: THE ISSUES AND CHALLENGE ENCOUNTERED IN THE ADOPTION OF ICT
      8. CHALLENGES ENCOUNTERED IN STARTING AND GROWING THE BUSINESS
      9. THE EMPIRICAL STUDY
      10. CHALLENGES ENCOUNTERED IN MANAGING THEIR BUSINESS
      11. CONCLUDING COMMENTS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
    7. Chapter 19: Semantic Web Applications to Enhance the Market Opportunities of SMEs
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. SEMANTIC WEB AS THE NEW FRONTIER OF INTER-ORGANISATIONAL RELATIONSHIP MANAGEMENT
      4. THE NEP4B ARCHITECTURE: AN IOIS BASED ON SEMANTIC WEB
      5. THE BENEFITS AND CHALLENGES OF NEP4B: THE POINT OF VIEW OF A BUSINESS CONSORTIUM OF SMALL FIRMS
      6. CONCLUSION
    8. Chapter 20: Risk-Off Method
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. ORGANIZATION BACKGROUND
      3. SETTING THE STAGE
      4. CASE DESCRIPTION
      5. CURRENT CHALLENGES FACING THE ORGANIZATION
      6. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
    9. Chapter 21: Structuring Knowledge for Enterprise Resource Planning Implementation through an Ontology
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
      4. LITERATURE REVIEW
      5. THE ONTOLOGY-BUILDING PROCESS
      6. THE RESULTS
      7. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE RESEARCH
    10. Chapter 22: ISMS Building for SMEs through the Reuse of Knowledge
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. RELATED WORK
      4. MSM2-SME OVERVIEW
      5. GENERATION OF PATTERNS AND ROOT PATTERN
      6. APPLICABILITY OF MSM2-SME
      7. CONCLUSION
    11. Chapter 23: Model Suggestion for SMEs Economic and Environmental Sustainable Development
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKROUND INFORMATION ABOUT SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND SMEs IN TURKEY
      4. SMEs ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL DEVELOPMENT
      5. ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS AS SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
      6. PROMOTING SMEs FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
      7. MODEL SUGGESTION FOR SUSTAINABLE SMEs
      8. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    12. Chapter 24: Assessing Knowledge Assets in Renewable Energy SMEs in Scotland
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. A METHODOLOGY FOR VALUING ORGANIZATIONAL KNOWLEDGE ASSETS
      4. MAIN EVIDENCES AND IMPLICATIONS OF ORGANIZATIONAL KNOWLEDGE IN SCOTTISH RENEWABLE ENERGY INDUSTRY SMES
      5. CLOSING REMARKS
  8. Section 3: Tools and Technologies
    1. Chapter 25: Incorporating Qualitative Information for Credit Risk Assessment through Frequent Subtree Mining for XML
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. STUDIES OF RELEVANT WORKS
      5. PROPOSED METHOD
      6. PRELIMINARY EXPERIMENTS
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
    2. Chapter 26: A Benchmarking Study on Organizational Creativity Practices in High Technology Industries1
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE EU APPROACH TO INNOVATION
      4. CREATIVITY, INNOVATION AND COMMITMENT
      5. BENCHMARKING ON CREATIVITY AND INNOVATION
      6. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
      7. RESULTS
      8. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION
    3. Chapter 27: Interference Mitigation in Femtocell using Optimized Power Control
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. INTERFERENCE MITIGATION IN FEMTOCELL
      5. CONCLUSION
    4. Chapter 28: ICT Mediated Value Chain for Managing Weavers’ Livelihoods
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. OVERVIEW OF RUGS WEAVING SECTOR
      4. ORGANIZATION BACKGROUND OF THE CASE: JRC
      5. SETTING THE STAGE
      6. EVOLUTION OF ICT IN JRC GROUP
      7. CURRENT CHALLENGES FACING THE ORGANIZATION
      8. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
    5. Chapter 29: Perceived Benefits and Barriers of ICT Adoption among SMEs
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. RESEARCH ISSUES
      4. LITERATURE REVIEW
      5. CONCEPTUAL DEVELOPMENT
      6. RESEARCH DESIGN
      7. DATA ANALYSIS AND FINDINGS
      8. BENEFITS AND BARRIERS OF INTERNET-BASED ICT ADOPTION
      9. BENEFITS OF INTERNET-BASED ICT ADOPTION
      10. BARRIERS OF INTERNET-BASED ICT ADOPTION
      11. FACTOR ANALYSIS RESULTS ON COMPOSITE ICT BENEFITS AND BARRIERS
      12. CORRELATION ANALYSIS FOR BENEFITS AND BARRERS OF ICT
      13. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION
      14. IMPLICATIONS FOR RESEARCH
      15. RECOMMENDATIONS
      16. LIMITATIONS OF STUDY
      17. AGENDA FOR FUTURE RESEARCH
    6. Chapter 30: Promoting Competitive Advantage in Micro-Enterprises through Information Technology Interventions
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THEORETICAL BACKGROUND
      4. METHODOLOGY
      5. RESULTS
      6. ANALYSIS
      7. CONCLUSION
    7. Chapter 31: Mobile Information Communication Technologies and Construction Project Management
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. MOBILE COMMUNICATIONS AND CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY
      4. INDIAN CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY
      5. CASE STUDY: RENOVATION AND EXPANSION OF INDIRA GANDHI INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT – NEW DELHI, INDIA
      6. DISCUSSION
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
    8. Chapter 32: Media Resource Adaptation for Multimedia Services and Streaming Media for Mobile Telephones
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. ADAPTATION ENGINE
      4. ALGORITHMS
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
    9. Chapter 33: SME Characteristics and the Use of the Internet to Expand the Scale and Geographic Scope of Sales
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. GROWTH, WEB SITE ADOPTION AND FUNCTIONALITY
      4. GEOGRAPHICAL SCOPE, INTERNATIONALIZATION AND WEB FUNCTIONALITY AND INTEGRATION
      5. SHORTAGES OF IT SKILLS AND WEB SITE FUNCTIONALITY AND INTEGRATION
      6. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. APPENDIX: OPERATIONALIZATION OF WEB SITE FUNCTIONALITY
    10. Chapter 34: Specifications for a Website Audit Tool for Small Businesses
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. MAIN FOCUS OF THE CHAPTER
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
    11. Chapter 35: Fault-Tolerant and Fail-Safe Design based on Reconfiguration
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND TO FAULT TOLERANT AND ON-LINE TESTING TECHNIQUES
      4. FAULT TOLERANT DESIGN TECHNIQUE WITH TOTALLY SELF-CHECKING PROPERTY
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH
      6. CONCLUSION
    12. Chapter 36: Prototyping Robotic Systems
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. ISSUES IN PROTOTYPING
      5. PROTOTYPE DEVELOPMENT METHODOLOGY
      6. CASE STUDIES
      7. FUTURE OF PROTOTYPING
      8. CONCLUSION
    13. Chapter 37: Canadian Biotechnology Systems
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION SYSTEM APPROACH
      4. CONCLUSION
  9. Section 4: Utilization and Application
    1. Chapter 38: SME Adoption and Use of ICT for Networked Trading Purposes
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LITERATURE REVIEW
      4. METHODOLOGY
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. APPENDIX
    2. Chapter 39: ICT Adoption in SME in an Arab GCC Country
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. ICT ADOPTION IN SMEs LITERATURE REVIEW
      4. ICT DIFFUSION IN ARAB AND GULF COOPERATION COUNCIL (GCC) COUNTRIES
      5. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
      6. RESEARCH DESIGN
      7. RESEARCH FINDINGS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. LIMITATIONS OF THE RESEARCH AND DIRECTIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH
    3. Chapter 40: An Investigation into the Adoption and Implementation of Electronic Commerce in Saudi Arabian Small and Medium Enterprises
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE RESEARCH NATIONAL CONTEXT
      4. SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES (SMEs) DEFINITIONS
      5. THEORETICAL BACKGROUND
      6. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
      7. RESEARCH RESULTS
      8. DISCUSSION
    4. Chapter 41: E-Commerce Adoption in Nigerian Businesses
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. A REVIEW OF THE RELEVANT LITERATURE AND HYPOTHESES FORMULATION
      4. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
      5. DATA ANALYSIS AND RESULTS
      6. DISCUSSION
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. APPENDIX
    5. Chapter 42: An Eclectic Perspective on the Internationalization of Australian Mobile Services SMEs
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LITERATURE REVIEW
      4. METHOD
      5. FINDINGS
      6. DISCUSSION
      7. MANAGERIAL RELEVANCE
      8. CONCLUSION
    6. Chapter 43: Marketing in SMEs
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. RELATIONSHIP STRATEGY
      5. ETHICS/TRUST-BASED SELLING
      6. PRODUCT STRATEGY
      7. CUSTOMER STRATEGY
      8. PRESENTATION STRATEGY
      9. CONCLUSION
    7. Chapter 44: Euroalert.net
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. OPEN DATA AND PUBLIC PROCUREMENT: NEW OPPORTUNITIES IN COMMERCIAL INTELLIGENCE
      5. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK
    8. Chapter 45: The Case of a Portuguese Intermediary of Open Innovation
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. ORGANIZATION BACKGROUND
      3. SETTING THE STAGE
      4. CASE DESCRIPTION
      5. CURRENT CHALLENGES FACING THE ORGANIZATION
      6. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
    9. Chapter 46: Open Innovation in SMEs of Developing and Transitional Economies
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. INNOVATION AND DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
      5. CASE DESCRIPTIONS
      6. SYNTHESIS AND THE FRAMEWORK
      7. CURRENT CHALLENGES
      8. RECOMMENDATIONS AND FUTURE RESEARCH
      9. CONCLUSION
    10. Chapter 47: Open Innovation for Non- High-Tech SMEs
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. ORGANIZATION BACKGROUND
      3. SETTING THE STAGE
      4. PLASTICS UA CASE STUDY
      5. CURRENT CHALLENGES
      6. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
    11. Chapter 48: Mona El Fadly
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. ORGANIZATIONAL BACKGROUND
      4. THE SUPPLY SIDE OF THE SUPPLY CHAIN
      5. CONCLUSION
    12. Chapter 49: Building a Sustainable Regional Eco System for Green Technologies
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. BACKGROUND /LITERATURE REVIEW
      3. SELECTION OF SUPPLY CHAIN COMPONENTS
      4. CASE STUDY OF PACIFIC ETHANOL
      5. CONCLUSION
    13. Chapter 50: Green Manufacturing Practices and Performance among SMEs
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. REVIEW OF LITERATURE AND HYPOTHESES DEVELOPMENT
      4. METHODOLOGY
      5. ANALYSIS AND RESULTS
      6. DISCUSSION AND IMPLICATIONS
      7. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE RESEARCH
    14. Chapter 51: Operational Hedging Strategies to Overcome Financial Constraints during Clean Technology Start-Up and Growth
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. CLEAN TECHNOLOGY FINANCING
      5. OPERATIONAL HEDGING
      6. RESEARCH OPPORTUNITIES
      7. CONCLUSION
    15. Chapter 52: Warehouse Financing Risk Analysis and Measurement with Case Study in Carbon Trading
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. ACTIVITIES IDENTIFICATION
      5. ANALYZING RISK
      6. RISK MANAGEMENT AND MITIGATION
      7. COST OF IMPLEMENTING THE MEASURES
      8. CASE STUDY: CARBON TRADING
      9. CONCLUSION
  10. Section 5: Organizational and Social Implications
    1. Chapter 53: Green Supply Chain Management
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. SUPPLY CHAIN STRATEGIES FOR SUPPLIER ENVIRONMENTAL PERFORMANCE AND RISKS
      5. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS FOR SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES (SMES)
    2. Chapter 54: SME Financial Management
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. COMPONENTS OF SMEs RISK MANAGEMENT FRAMEWORK
      4. CONCLUSION
    3. Chapter 55: Key Contracts Needed for SMEs Conducting e-Business
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. DEFINITIONS
      4. THE NEED FOR THIS GUIDE
      5. WEBSITE DEVELOPMENT AGREEMENTS
      6. DEVELOPMENT
      7. GENERAL ISSUES
      8. WEBSITE HOSTING AGREEMENTS
      9. OTHER KEY ISSUES TO CONSIDER FOR WEBSITE HOSTING AGREEMENTS
      10. INTERNET ACCESS AGREEMENTS
      11. KEY ISSUES
      12. CONTENT AND ADVERTISING AGREEMENTS
      13. KEY ISSUES: CONTENT AND ADVERTISING AGREEMENTS
      14. SUMMARY AND OVERALL RECOMMENDATIONS
    4. Chapter 56: eBusiness among Ethnic Minority Businesses
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. SUMMARY OF ICT ADOPTION AND eBUSINESS
      4. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
      5. CASE STUDIES
      6. YAP ET AL. (1992) AND DYERSON & SPINELLI (2010) APPLIED TO CASES
      7. CRITICAL VIEW OF THE CASES AND SOLUTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
    5. Chapter 57: Black Economic Empowerment, ICT, and Preferential Public Procurement in South Africa
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. SOUTH AFRICA DURING APARTHEID
      4. BACKGROUND OF BLACK ECONOMIC EMPOWERMENT
      5. FRAMEWORK FOR MEASUREMENT OF BEE COMPLIANCE
      6. THE PREFERENTIAL PROCUREMENT SYSTEM IN SOUTH AFRICA
      7. THE CHALLENGES OF BLACK ECONOMIC EMPOWERMENT AND PREFERENTIAL PROCUREMENT
      8. ICT AND PREFERENTIAL PUBLIC PROCUREMENT IN SOUTH AFRICA
      9. ICT CHALLENGES FOR E-GOVERNANCE AND E-PROCUREMENT
      10. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      11. CONCLUSION
    6. Chapter 58: The Effect of Gender on Associations between Driving Forces to Adopt ICT and Benefits Derived from that Adoption in Medical Practices in Australia
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. DISCUSSION
      4. CONCLUSION
    7. Chapter 59: Protected Health Information (PHI) in a Small Business
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. ORGANIZATION BACKGROUND
      3. SETTING THE STAGE
      4. CASE DESCRIPTION
      5. CURRENT CHALLENGES
      6. APPENDIX
    8. Chapter 60: SMEs E-Business Security Issues
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. E-BUSINESS IN SMEs
      4. WHY WE NEED INFORMATION
      5. PEOPLE ON ORGANIZATIONS AND SOCIETY
      6. SOME INFORMATION SECURITY ISSUES
      7. WHAT E-BUSINESS INFORMATION SECURITY SOLUTIONS?
      8. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      9. CONCLUSION
    9. Chapter 61: Sustainability for SMEs
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1 INTRODUCTION
      3. 2 MEANING OF SUSTAINABILITY
      4. 3 DO SMEs NEED SUSTAINABILITY?
      5. 4 BENEFITS OF FOLLOWING THE SUSTAINABILITY PATH
      6. 5 IMPLEMENTING SUSTAINABILITY
      7. CONCLUSION
    10. Chapter 62: Preparing for Change
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. MANAGING KNOWLEDGE IN SMEs
      4. IDENTIFYING KNOWLEDGE ACTIVITIES
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
    11. Chapter 63: Global Innovators
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. MAIN THRUST
      5. VESTERGAARD FRANDSEN SA
      6. KIVA15
      7. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      8. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      9. CONCLUSION
    12. Chapter 64: Crowdsourcing in Small and Medium Sized Enterprises
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. CROWDSOURCING IN SMEs: FINANCE, COMPETITION AND LEARNING
      5. A FEW SMEs MAKING STRIDES IN CROWDSOURCING
      6. CROWDSOURCING IN SMEs
      7. FURTHER RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
    13. Chapter 65: The Relevance of Customers as a Source of Knowledge in IT Firms
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. KNOWLEDGE GENERATION
      4. METHODS
      5. DATA ANALYSIS AND RESULTS
      6. DISCUSSION
      7. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    14. Chapter 66: Optimising Customers as Knowledge Resources and Recipients
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. DEFINING KNOWLEDGE TYPES
      4. ESTABLISHING A CLASSIFICATION OF KNOWLEDGE ACTIVITIES
      5. UNDERSTANDING THE ROLE OF THE CUSTOMER IN SMEs
      6. RESEARCH APPROACH
      7. ORGANISATION BACKGROUND
      8. CASE DESCRIPTION
      9. CUSTOMER-FOCUSED KM APPROACH ACROSS FIVE SMEs
      10. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      11. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
  11. Section 6: Managerial Impact
    1. Chapter 67: The Use of Collaborative Technologies within SMEs in Construction
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND
      3. INFLUENCING FACTORS RELATING TO IMPLEMENTING COLLABORATION TECHNOLOGY
      4. SMEs CASE DESCRIPTION
      5. RESULTS AND MAIN FINDINGS
      6. FACTORS AFFECTING THE SUCCESS OF THE COLLABORATIVE ENVIRONMENTS
      7. RECOMMENDATIONS
    2. Chapter 68: The Role of the Consultant in Enterprise Development
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE CONTEXT OF CONSULTANCY: THE SME SECTOR
      4. THE SME AND GROWTH
      5. GROWTH, SKILL SET, AND THE CONSULTANT
      6. THE LINKS BETWEEN SME COMPETENCES, DECISION MAKING, AND LEARNING
      7. THE RELATIONSHIP FROM AN SME PERSPECTIVE
      8. THE RELATIONSHIP FROM A CONSULTANT/ADVISOR PERSPECTIVE
      9. CONSULTANTS, SMES’ PERFORMANCE, AND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
      10. SUMMARY
      11. REVIEW QUESTIONS
      12. APPENDIX
    3. Chapter 69: Network Perspective on Structures Related to Communities
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. ON DEFINING COMMUNITIES
      4. ON VARIETIES OF COMMUNITIES
      5. ARENSBERG’S TYPES OF AMERICAN COMMUNITIES
      6. REDFIELD ON VARIATIONS AMONG COMMUNITIES AND HOW TO VIEW THEM
      7. “LOOSELY ORGANIZED” SOCIAL STRUCTURES, AND SO-CALLED “ATOMISTIC SOCIETIES”
      8. WELLMAN, AND OTHERS, ON COMMUNITIES LOST, SAVED, AND LIBERATED
      9. WHAT IS A COMMUNITY?
      10. NETWORK PERSPECTIVE ON COMMUNITIES
      11. SORTING THE SUBSYSTEMS
    4. Chapter 70: The Influence of Social Business Networks of Top Managers on the Financial Performance of UK Biopharmaceutical SMEs
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. SOCIAL NETWORKS AND FIRM PERFORMANCE
      4. THE COMPETITIVE CHALLENGES OF BIOPHARMACEUTICAL SMEs
      5. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
      6. PRESENTATION OF FINDINGS
      7. THE INFLUENCE OF NETWORKS SIZE ON COMPANY PERFORMANCE
      8. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      9. CONCLUSION
    5. Chapter 71: Knowledge Sharing among Employees in the Manufacturing SMEs
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. SMEs DEVELOPMENT AND DEFINITION IN MALAYSIA
      4. PERSPECTIVES ON KNOWLEDGE SHARING PRACTICES
      5. KNOWLEDGE SHARING RESEARCH IN MALAYSIA
      6. CONCEPTUAL DEVELOPMENT
      7. RESEARCH METHOD
      8. DATA ANALYSIS AND FINDINGS
      9. DISCUSSION AND IMPLICATIONS
      10. SUGGESTIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH
      11. CONCLUSION
    6. Chapter 72: Human Resource Management in SMEs
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. HRM IN SMEs
      4. BUILDING ACTION REFERENTIAL DEFINITION
      5. CONCLUSION
    7. Chapter 73: Behavioral Initiatives
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. MAIN FOCUS OF THE CHAPTER
      5. ISSUES, CONTROVERSIES, PROBLEMS
      6. FUTURE TRENDS
      7. CONCLUSION
    8. Chapter 74: Socio-Technical Issues in Youth Employment in SMEs
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. TECHNOLOGY/SKILL DEBATE
      4. YOUTH EMPLOYMENT IN TURKEY
      5. EMPIRICAL FINDINGS
      6. CONCLUSION
    9. Chapter 75: Copying with Dynamic Change
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. INTEGRATED eOPERATIONS (IO)
      4. THE CASE OF SME UNDER INTEGRATED eOPERATIONS
      5. BRIDGING THE GAPS AND FUTURE RESEARCH
      6. CONCLUSION
    10. Chapter 76: Strategies for Sustainable Succession Planning in Family Business
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LITERATURE REVIEW
      4. BACKGROUND OF THE BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT IN THAILAND
      5. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
      6. ANALYSIS AND RESULTS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. FUTURE RESEARCH
  12. Section 7: Critical Issues
    1. Chapter 77: Open Innovation
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. OPPORTUNITIES
      5. CHALLENGES
      6. RESEARCH RECOMMENDATIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
    2. Chapter 78: Impact of SME Policies on Innovation Capabilities
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. SMEs, CAPABILITIES, AND SME POLICIES IN TURKEY
      4. DATABASE, VARIABLES, AND EMPIRICAL METHODOLOGY
      5. RESULTS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. APPENDIX A
      8. APPENDIX B: TABLES
    3. Chapter 79: Rvolta, a Case for Open Innovation
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. CASE ORGANIZATION
      3. NETWORK BACKGROUND: THREE MAIN PARTNERS
      4. SETTING THE STAGE
      5. A CASE FOR AN INNOVATOR
      6. CURRENT CHALLENGES FACING PARTNERS
      7. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
    4. Chapter 80: Business Agility and Process Agility
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. VIEWPOINTS ON BUSINESS PROCESSES
      4. CONVERSATIONS
      5. PROCESS MODELS
      6. ROLE PROCESSES
      7. AGILE ROLE PROCESSES
      8. COOPERATIVE OBJECTS
      9. CONCLUSION
    5. Chapter 81: Internal Key Factor in the Export Performance of Spanish SMEs
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. PROBLEM STATEMENT AND RESEARCH OBJECTIVES
      3. THEORETICAL MODEL
      4. AN INTEGRATIVE MODEL OF STUDY
      5. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
      6. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION
    6. Chapter 82: Reflecting on New Businesses Models for SMEs through Technological Application
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. BRAZIL: A CASE STUDY FOR SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTREPRENEURSHIP
      4. CONCLUSION
    7. Chapter 83: Collaborative Networks
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE NETWORKED ENTERPRISE
      4. CHARACTERISTICS OF A NETWORK
      5. KNOWLEDGE SHARING CHALLENGES FOR SMEs
      6. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
    8. Chapter 84: Why Select an Open Source ERP over Proprietary ERP?
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. FACTORS THAT MOTIVATE SMES TO SELECT OPEN SOURCE ERP
      5. RESEARCH METHODS
      6. EMPIRICAL FINDINGS
      7. ANALYTICAL DISCUSSION
      8. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      9. CONCLUSION
    9. Chapter 85: Measuring Utilization of ERP Systems Usage in SMEs
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. MEASURING USE OF ERP SYSTEMS IN SMEs
      4. RESEARCH MODEL
      5. METHODOLOGY
      6. RESULTS
      7. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION
    10. Chapter 86: How can Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and Innovation Enhance Enterprise Performance?
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. ORGANIZATION BACKGROUND
      3. SETTING THE STAGE
      4. CASE DESCRIPTION: CSR IN ROMANIAN SMEs
      5. GOOD PRACTICE COMPANY CASE STUDIES
      6. CURRENT CHALLENGES, RECOMMENDATIONS AND SOLUTIONS
    11. Chapter 87: Investigating the Impact of Entrepreneurship Online Teaching on Science and Technology Degrees on Students Attitudes in Developing Economies
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THEORETICAL BACKGROUND AND LITERATURE REVIEW
      4. RESEARCH AIMS AND IMPORTANCE
      5. RESEARCH PROBLEM, QUESTIONS AND HYPOTHESES
      6. METHODOLOGY
      7. ANALYSIS AND RESULTS
      8. RESULTS OF HYPOTHESES TESTING
      9. DISCUSSION
      10. RESEARCH IMPLICATIONS
      11. CONCLUSION, LIMITATIONS AND RECOMMNEDATIONS
    12. Chapter 88: How do Professionals’ Attitudes Differ between what Game-Based Learning could Ideally Achieve and what is Usually Achieved
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. METHODS
      4. FINDINGS
      5. DISCUSSION
      6. CONCLUSION
  13. Section 8: Emerging Trends
    1. Chapter 89: Innovating Elite Undergraduate Education through Quality Continuous Improvement
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. THE LEARNING ENTERPRISE INNOVATION CHALLENGE
      5. FUTURE TRENDS FOR CONTINUOUS INNOVATION
      6. REMARKS FOR CONTINUING CHALLENGE
      7. CONCLUSION
    2. Chapter 90: Sources of Innovation and Success in the Food Service Industry
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND AND KEY CONCEPTS
      4. INNOVATION IN A BUSINESS NETWORK CONTEXT
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    3. Chapter 91: Trends of Open Innovation in Developing Nations
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. ORGANIZATIONAL BACKGROUND
      3. SETTING THE STAGE
      4. CASE DESCRIPTIONS
      5. CURRENT CHALLENGES FACING THE SCENARIO
      6. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
    4. Chapter 92: Resource Based Internationalization from Small Developing Countries
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION: CHALLENGES OF INTERNATIONALIZATION FROM SMALL STATES
      3. DISCUSSION: INTERNATIONALIZATION AND RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT
      4. CONCLUSION
    5. Chapter 93: Building Innovative Business Ideas in Small Business Enterprises
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LITERATURE REVIEW
      4. BUILDING INNOVATIVE BUSINESS IDEAS IN SMES: THE CASE OF BIRD ICT
      5. DISCUSSION
      6. CONCLUSION
    6. Chapter 94: E-Novation and Start-Up Companies
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION; THE STARTUP DEFINED AND COMPLEX SYSTEMS
      3. COMPLEX SYSTEMS, SURPRISE AND ENTREPRENEURSHIP
      4. BUSINESS PROCESS AS EXECUTION
      5. CORE EMPLOYEES AND COLLABORATION
      6. THE DEATH OF EMAIL AND RISE OF WIKI COLLABORATION
      7. FREE COLLABORATION TOOLS AND SERVICE
      8. VIRTUAL WORLDS AND AUGMENTED REALITY
      9. FOUNDING MYTH
      10. SERVICE AND CUSTOMER EXPERIENCE
      11. E-NOVATION AND THE STARTUP IN 2010
    7. Chapter 95: Challenges for Adoption of e-Procurement
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. CURRENT STATE OF THE ART WITHIN E-PROCUREMENT
      5. ELECTRONIC PROCUREMENT FROM AN SME PERSPECTIVE
      6. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
    8. Chapter 96: Next Generation Collaborative Information Platforms
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. A DAY IN THE LIFE OF E-NOVATION: 2020
      3. DISCUSSION ON SCENARIO
      4. CURRENT E-NOVATION PLATFORM
      5. TRIPLE CONVERGENCE (BEFORE AND AFTER)
      6. WEB 3.0/4.0: THE WEB AS A BRAIN
      7. REDEFINED COLLABORATIVE COMMUNICATION
      8. VIRTUAL/AUGMENTED REALITY
      9. SERVICE-DOMINANT LOGIC (SDL) MARKETING AND INNOVATION
      10. OPEN-SOURCE CREATION, DEVELOPMENT AND DISTRIBUTION
      11. DIGITAL BRANDING
      12. CRM REDEFINED
      13. COMPLEXITY AND SME’S
      14. E-NOVATION OFFICE
      15. E-NOVATION CURRICULUM
      16. SOCIAL GRAPHING E-NOVATION
      17. SUSTAINABILITY: PLATFORMS AND INNOVATION
      18. E-NOVATION TODAY AND IN 2020: CLOSING COMMENTS
    9. Chapter 97: Web 2.0 and Opportunities for Entrepreneurs
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. METHODOLOGY
      5. FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION
      6. RESEARCH LIMITATIONS
      7. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH
      8. CONCLUSION
    10. Chapter 98: Mining User-Generated Content for Social Research and Other Applications
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. MAIN TECHNICAL CHALLENGES
      4. APPLICATIONS RELATED TO USER-GENERATED CONTENT ANALYSIS
      5. FUTURE TRENDS AND RESEARCH OPPORTUNITIES
      6. ETHICAL AND LEGAL ISSUES
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. APPENDIX
    11. Chapter 99: The Redefined Role of Consumer as a Prosumer
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION: THE IMPORTANCE OF STAKEHOLDERS IN BUSINESS
      3. LITERATURE REVIEW
      4. THE BUSINESS POSSIBILITIES FOR SMEs IN THE CONTEXT OF CONSUMER COOPETITION, PROSUMING, AND CROWDSOURCING: SOME EXAMPLES
      5. OTHER ALTERNATIVE BUSINESS MODELS IN THE BRANCH OF ICT
      6. CONCLUSION