In the preceding chapter we examined several of the most important numerical constants appearing in mathematics. The best known of these “famous numbers” are, of course, *π* (the ratio of the circumference and diameter of a circle) and *e* (the base of natural logarithms). We also looked briefly at three other important numbers: ø (the golden ratio), γ (Euler's constant), and δ (the Feigenbaum number).

In this chapter, the subject of famous numbers is continued but aimed in a somewhat different direction. We begin with what are called real numbers, imaginary numbers, and complex numbers. First, some rules are given for procedures such as the addition of complex numbers—so-called vector addition. Then a very ...

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