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Six Sigma for Technical Processes: An Overview for R Executives, Technical Leaders, and Engineering Managers

Book Description

Use Six Sigma to achieve and sustain excellence in product development and commercialization!

To sustain growth and profitability, companies must tightly align product development and commercialization to fast-changing customer requirements. In this book, Clyde Creveling identifies the four process areas most crucial to doing so—and shows executives and managers how to optimize each of them.

Creveling introduces a Six Sigma-enabled workflow that encompasses strategic product/technology portfolio definition and development, research and technology development (R&TD), tactical design engineering processes for commercialization, and operational production and service support. He presents tools, methods, and best practices for selecting the right projects, prioritizing them, and executing them rapidly, consistently, and successfully.

  •  Integrate all key technical processes so they work together in harmony

  •  Create Phase/Gate control plans for delivering products with minimal risk

  •  Establish scorecards for risk management in technical processes

  • Use Six Sigma tools, such as Monte Carlo and FMEA, to improve project management

  • Bring discipline to your product and technology portfolio renewal processes

  • Systematically optimize your commercialization processes

  • Define stripped-down “Fast Track” processes for commercializing high-risk, high-reward opportunities

  • Provide effective operational support after you launch your product

  • Preview the future of “lean” and Six Sigma in technical processes

  • Use lean techniques to streamline repeatable processes such as R&D, product design, and post-launch production engineering support

  • Learn how to manage the risk of doing a fast track commercialization project when you really must cut corners to get a product out into the market before your opportunity evaporates

  • Foreword by John Boselli  xiii

    Preface  xv

    About the Author  xxi

    Chapter 1: Introduction to Six Sigma for Technical Processes  1

    Chapter 2: Scorecards for Risk Management in Technical Processes  21

    Chapter 3: Project Management in Technical Processes  35

    Chapter 4: Strategic Product and Technology Portfolio Renewal Process  51

    Chapter 5: Strategic Research and Technology Development Process  95

    Chapter 6: Tactical Product Commercialization Process  163

    Chapter 7: Fast Track Commercialization  275

    Chapter 8: Operational Post-Launch Engineering Support Processes  293

    Chapter 9: Future Trends in Six Sigma and Technical Processes  317

    Glossary 323

    Index 351

    Table of Contents

    1. Copyright
    2. Prentice Hall Six Sigma For Innovation and Growth Series
    3. Prentice Hall Six Sigma For Innovation and Growth Series
    4. Foreword
    5. Preface
      1. What Is in This Book?
    6. About the Author
    7. 1. Introduction to Six Sigma for Technical Processes
      1. Setting the Stage for Growth
      2. The Process Context
      3. Phases and Gates
      4. The Processes for Growth
    8. 2. Scorecards for Risk Management in Technical Processes
      1. Scorecards in Technical Processes
      2. Checklists
      3. Scorecards
      4. Task Scorecards
      5. Task Fulfillment vs. Gate Deliverable Requirement
      6. Gate Review Scorecards
      7. Summary
    9. 3. Project Management in Technical Processes
      1. Six Sigma Contributions to Project Management in Technical Processes
      2. Designing Cycle-Time: Critical Paths of Key Technical Tasks/Toolsets by Phase
      3. Nine Key Steps
      4. Modeling Technical Task Cycle-Time Using Monte Carlo Simulations
      5. Documenting Failure Modes in the Critical Paths of Technical Tasks by Phase
      6. Integrated Project Plan
    10. 4. Strategic Product and Technology Portfolio Renewal Process
      1. Six Sigma in the Strategic Product and Technology Portfolio Renewal Process
      2. Process Discipline in Product and Technology Portfolio Renewal
      3. The Phases of Product and Technology Portfolio Definition and Development
        1. The IDENTIFY Phase of Product Portfolio Definition and Development
        2. The DEFINE Phase Tools, Tasks, Deliverables, and Requirements
        3. The EVALUATE Phase Tools, Tasks, Deliverables, and Requirements
        4. The ACTIVATE Phase Tools, Tasks, Deliverables, and Requirements
      4. Summary of the Major Steps for Product Portfolio Definition and Development Process
    11. 5. Strategic Research and Technology Development Process
      1. Six Sigma–Enhanced Research and Technology Development
      2. The I2DOV Roadmap: Applying a Phase-Gate Approach to Research and Technology Development
      3. I2DOV Phase 1: Invent/Innovate Technology Concepts
        1. I2DOV Phase 1: Invention and Innovation Tasks
          1. Construct Technology Roadmaps and Document Technology Trends
          2. Gather and Translate “Over-the-Horizon” Voice of the Customer
          3. Define Product Line Strategies (PLS) and Family Plans
          4. Create Technology Houses of Quality
          5. Conduct Technology Benchmarking
          6. Generate Technology System Requirements Document
          7. Define Functions That Fulfill the Technology Requirements
          8. Enable Support and Conduct Invention (Generate New Knowledge)
          9. Enable, Support, and Conduct Innovation (Enhanced/Leveraged Reuse of Existing Knowledge)
          10. Refine, Link, and Document Discoveries, Learning, and Basic Models to PLS
          11. Transfer Refined, Linked, and Documented Knowledge into Technology Concept Design
          12. Generate Technology Concepts That Fulfill the Functions
          13. Generate Risk Assessments and Summary Profile
          14. Generate Development Phase Project Plan
            1. Gate 1 Readiness
        2. A General List of Phase 1 Tools, Methods, and Best Practices
        3. I2DOV Phase 2: DEVELOP Technology
          1. Generate and Refine Technology Concept-Evaluation Criteria
          2. Evaluate and Select Superior Technology Concepts
          3. Analyze, Characterize, Model, and Stabilize Nominal and Tunable Performance of Superior Technology
          4. Conduct SPC and Capability Studies under Nominal Conditions to Certify and Prepare Superior Technology Models and Prototypes to Take into Optimization
            1. Gate 2 Readiness
        4. A General List of Phase 2 Tools, Methods, and Best Practices
        5. I2DOV Phase 3: Optimization of the Robustness of the Baseline Technologies
          1. Review and Finalize CFRs for the New Subsystem Technologies
          2. Develop Subsystem Noise Diagrams and Platform Noise Maps
          3. Conduct Noise Factor Experiments
          4. Define Compounded Noises for Robustness Experiments
          5. Define Engineering Control Factors for Robustness Development Experiment
          6. Design for Additivity and Run Designed Experiment
          7. Analyze Data, Build Predictive Additive Model
          8. Run Verification Experiments to Certify Robustness
          9. Document Critical Functional Parameter Nominal Set Points and CFR Relationships
            1. Gate 3 Readiness
        6. A General List of Phase 3 Tools and Best Practices
        7. I2DOV Phase 4: Verification of the Platform or Sublevel Technologies
          1. Integrate Subsystems into Platform or Product Test Fixtures
          2. Refine and Confirm “Between and Within” SS CFRs
          3. Develop, Integrate, and Certify Platform Data-Acquisition Systems
          4. Design Platform or Integrated SS Nominal Performance Tests
          5. Conduct Nominal Performance Tests
          6. Evaluate Data Against Technology Requirements
          7. Design Platform or Integrated Subsystem Stress Tests
          8. Conduct Stress Tests
          9. Perform ANOVA on Data to Identify Sensitivities
          10. Refine and Improve Platform or Integrated Subsystem Performance
          11. Rerun Stress Tests and Perform ANOVA on Data to Verify Reduced Sensitivities
          12. Conduct Reliability Evaluations for New Subsystems Technologies and Platforms
          13. Document CFPs and CFR Relationships and Certify That the Technology Is Transferable
            1. Gate 4 Readiness
        8. A General List of Phase 4 Tools and Best Practices
      4. References
    12. 6. Tactical Product Commercialization Process
      1. Six Sigma–Enhanced Product Commercialization
      2. Preparing for Product Commercialization
      3. Defining a Generic Product Commercialization Process Using the CDOV Roadmap
      4. The CDOV Process and Critical Parameter Management during the Phases and Gates of Product Commercialization
        1. Concept Phase: Develop a System Concept Based on Market Segmentation, the Product Line, and Technology Strategies
          1. Gather the Specific Voice of the Customer by Market Segment for the Idea Bounded by the Project Being Activated from the Portfolio
          2. Refine and Rank the Voice of the Customer Using KJ Analysis
          3. Create Product- or System-Level House of Quality
          4. Conduct Competitive Product Benchmarking
          5. Generate Product- or System-Level Requirements Document
          6. Design Functions That Fulfill the System Requirements
          7. Generate System Concept-Evaluation Criteria
          8. Generate System Concepts That Fulfill the Functions
          9. Evaluate System Concepts
          10. Select Superior System Concept
          11. Analyze, Characterize, Model, and Predict Nominal Performance of the Superior System
          12. Develop Reliability Requirements and Initial Reliability Model for the System
          13. Gate 1 Readiness
          14. Prerequisite Information to Conduct Phase 1 Activities
          15. General Phase 1 Gate Review Topics
          16. General List of Phase 1 Tools and Best Practices
        2. Design Phase: Design Subsystem-, Subassembly-, and Part-Level Elements Based on System Requirements
          1. Create Sublevel Houses of Quality
          2. Conduct Sublevel Benchmarking
          3. Generate Sublevel Requirements Documents
          4. Develop Functions That Fulfill the Sublevel Requirements
          5. Generate Sublevel Concept-Evaluation Criteria
          6. Generate Sublevel Concepts That Fulfill the Functions
          7. Evaluate Sublevel Concepts
          8. Select Superior Sublevel Concepts
          9. Analyze, Characterize, Model, Predict, and Measure Nominal Performance of Superior Sublevel Designs (including DFMA, Initial Tolerances, and Cost Analysis)
          10. Analysis, Characterization, and Modeling in the Design Phase
          11. Measurement Systems in the Design Phase
          12. Produceability in the Design Phase
          13. Develop Reliability Model and FMEA for Each Sublevel Design
          14. Design Process Steps Down to the Subassembly, Component, and Manufacturing Process Levels
          15. Gate 2 Readiness
          16. Phase 2 Gate Review Topics
          17. A General List of Phase 2 Tools, Methods, and Best Practices
      5. The CDOV Process and Critical Parameter Management during the Phases and Gates of Product Commercialization
        1. Optimize Phase: Optimize Sublevel Designs and the Integrated System
          1. Review and Finalize the Critical Functional Responses for the Subsystems and Subassemblies
          2. Develop Subsystem Noise Diagrams and System Noise Map
          3. Conduct Noise Factor Experiments
          4. Define Compounded Noises for Robustness Experiments
          5. Define Engineering Control Factors for Robustness-Optimization Experiments
          6. Design for Additivity and Run Designed Experiments
          7. Analyze Data and Build a Predictive Additive Model
          8. Run Verification Experiments to Verify Robustness
          9. Conduct Response Surface Experiments onCritical Adjustment Parameters
          10. Run Verification Experiments to Verify Tunability and Robustness Parameters for Subsystems and Subassemblies
          11. Document Critical Functional Parameter Nominal Set Points and CAP and CFR Relationships
          12. Develop, Conduct, and Analyze Reliability/Capability Evaluations for Each Subsystem and Subassembly
          13. Gate 3A Readiness
          14. A General List of Phase 3A Tools, Methods, and Best Practices
          15. Phase 3B: System Integration, Nominal Performance Evaluation, Robustness Optimization, and Initial System Reliability Assessment
          16. Integrate Sublevel Designs into System Test Units
          17. Verify Capability of the System-Wide Data-Acquisition System
          18. Conduct Nominal Performance Evaluation on the System
          19. Conduct System-Robustness Stress Tests
          20. Refine Subsystem Set Points to Balance System Performance
          21. Conduct Initial System Reliability Assessment
          22. Verify System Readiness for Final Product Design Capability Development and Assessment
          23. Document System Risk Profile
          24. Generate Verify Phase Project Plan
          25. Gate 3B Readiness
          26. Phase 3B Gate Review Topics
          27. A General List of Phase 3B Tools, Methods, and Best Practices
        2. Verify Phase: Verification of Final Product Design, Production Processes, and Service Capability
          1. Conduct Final Tolerance Design on Components and Subsystems
          2. Place All CTF Components and CFRs under SPC in Supply Chain and Assembly
          3. Build Product Design Certification Units Using Production Parts
          4. Evaluate System Performance under Nominal Conditions
          5. Evaluate System Performance under Stress Conditions
          6. Complete Corrective Actions on Problems
          7. Evaluate System Performance and Reliability
          8. Verify That Product Design Meets All Requirements
          9. Develop Transfer Plan for the Critical Parameter Database for Production, Supply Chain, and Service Organizations
          10. Gate 4A Readiness
          11. Phase 4A Gate Review Topics
          12. A General List of Phase 4A Tools and Best Practices
          13. Phase 4B: Capability of Production, Assembly, and Manufacturing Processes within the Business as well as the Extended Supply Chain and Service Organization
          14. Build Initial Production Units Using Inspected Production Parts
          15. Assess Capability of All CFRs and CTFs in Production and Assembly Processes
          16. Assess Capability of All Product-Level and Sublevel CFRs During Assembly
          17. Assess Reliability of Production Units
          18. Verify That All Requirements Are Being Met across Assembly Processes
          19. Verify That All Requirements Are Being Met across Production Processes
          20. Verify That All Service Requirements Are Being Met with Service/Support Processes
          21. Verify That Product, Production, Assembly, and Service/Support Processes Are Ready for Launch
          22. Gate 4B Readiness
          23. Phase 4B Gate Review Topics
          24. A General List of Phase 4B Tools, Methods, and Best Practices
    13. 7. Fast Track Commercialization
      1. Six Sigma Applications for Fast Track Commercialization Projects
      2. DMAIC Six Sigma Project Capability to Support a Fast Track Project
      3. Technology Development Capability to Support Fast Track Projects
        1. Concept Phase Risk Profiles and Tool-Task Recommendations
          1. Summary: What Must Be Done at a Bare Minimum in the Concept Phase?
          2. Key Tools, Methods, and Best Practices to Consider as You Control Risk
        2. Design Phase Risk Profiles and Tool-Task Recommendations
          1. Summary: What Must Be Done at a Bare Minimum in the Design Phase?
          2. Key Tools, Methods, and Best Practices to Consider as You Control Risk
        3. Optimize Phase Risk Profiles and Tool-Task Recommendations
          1. Summary: What Must Be Done at a Bare Minimum in the Optimize Phase?
          2. Key Tools, Methods, and Best Practices to Consider as You Control Risk
        4. Verify Phase Risk Profiles and Tool-Task Recommendations
          1. Summary: What Must Be Done at a Bare Minimum in the Verify Phase?
          2. Key Tools, Methods, and Best Practices to Consider as You Control Risk
        5. Macrosummary of Fast Track Projects
    14. 8. Operational Post-Launch Engineering Support Processes
      1. Post-Launch Product, Production System, and Service Support Engineering Six Sigma in the Operational Technical Process
      2. Hard vs. Easy Data Sets
      3. The Tools, Methods, and Best Practices That Enable the LMAD Tasks
      4. The LAUNCH Phase
      5. The MANAGE Phase
      6. The ADAPT Phase
      7. The DISCONTIUE Phase
    15. 9. Future Trends in Six Sigma and Technical Processes
      1. Trends in Lean and Six Sigma for Technical Processes
    16. Glossary