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Silicon Photonics: Fundamentals and Devices

Book Description

The creation of affordable high speed optical communications using standard semiconductor manufacturing technology is a principal aim of silicon photonics research. This would involve replacing copper connections with optical fibres or waveguides, and electrons with photons. With applications such as telecommunications and information processing, light detection, spectroscopy, holography and robotics, silicon photonics has the potential to revolutionise electronic-only systems. Providing an overview of the physics, technology and device operation of photonic devices using exclusively silicon and related alloys, the book includes:

  • Basic Properties of Silicon

  • Quantum Wells, Wires, Dots and Superlattices

  • Absorption Processes in Semiconductors

  • Light Emitters in Silicon

  • Photodetectors , Photodiodes and Phototransistors

  • Raman Lasers including Raman Scattering

  • Guided Lightwaves

  • Planar Waveguide Devices

  • Fabrication Techniques and Material Systems

Silicon Photonics: Fundamentals and Devices outlines the basic principles of operation of devices, the structures of the devices, and offers an insight into state-of-the-art and future developments.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Wiley Series in Materials for Electronic and Optoelectronic Applications
  3. Title Page
  4. Copyright
  5. Dedication
  6. Series Preface
  7. Preface
  8. Chapter 1: Introduction to Silicon Photonics
    1. 1.1 Introduction
    2. 1.2 VLSI: Past, Present, and Future Roadmap
    3. 1.3 The Interconnect Problem in VLSI
    4. 1.4 The Long-Haul Optical Communication Link
    5. 1.5 Data Network
    6. 1.6 Conclusions
    7. 1.7 Scope of the Book
  9. Chapter 2: Basic Properties of Silicon
    1. 2.1 Introduction
    2. 2.2 Band Structure
    3. 2.3 Density-of-States Function
    4. 2.4 Impurities
    5. 2.5 Alloys of Silicon and Other Group IV Elements
    6. 2.6 Heterojunctions and Band Lineup
    7. 2.7 Si-Based Heterostructures
    8. 2.8 Direct Gap: Ge/SiGeSn Heterojunctions
  10. Chapter 3: Quantum Structures
    1. 3.1 Introduction
    2. 3.2 Quantum Wells
    3. 3.3 Quantum Wires and Dots
    4. 3.4 Superlattices
    5. 3.5 Si-Based Quantum Structures
    6. 3.6 Effect of Electric Field
  11. Chapter 4: Optical Processes
    1. 4.1 Introduction
    2. 4.2 Optical Constants
    3. 4.3 Basic Concepts
    4. 4.4 Absorption Processes in Semiconductors
    5. 4.5 Fundamental Absorption in Direct Gap
    6. 4.6 Fundamental Absorption in Indirect Gap
    7. 4.7 Absorption and Gain
    8. 4.8 Intervalence Band Absorption
    9. 4.9 Free-carrier Absorption
    10. 4.10 Recombination and Luminescence
    11. 4.11 Nonradiative Recombination
    12. 4.12 Excitonic and Impurity Absorption
  12. Chapter 5: Optical Processes in Quantum Structures
    1. 5.1 Introduction
    2. 5.2 Optical Processes in QWs
    3. 5.3 Intersubband Transitions
    4. 5.4 Excitonic Processes in QWs
    5. 5.5 Effect of Electric Fields
    6. 5.6 Optical Processes in QWRs
    7. 5.7 Optical Processes in QDS
  13. Chapter 6: Light Emitters in Si
    1. 6.1 Introduction
    2. 6.2 Basic Theory of Light Emission
    3. 6.3 Early Efforts: Zone Folding
    4. 6.4 Band Structure Engineering Using Alloys
    5. 6.5 Quantum Confinement
    6. 6.6 Impurities in Silicon
    7. 6.7 Stimulated Emission: Prospect
    8. 6.8 Intersubband Emission
    9. 6.9 Tensile-Strained Ge Layers
  14. Chapter 7: Si Light Modulators
    1. 7.1 Introduction
    2. 7.2 Physical Effects
    3. 7.3 Electrorefraction in Silicon
    4. 7.4 Thermo-Optic Effects in Si
    5. 7.5 Modulators: Some Useful Characteristics
    6. 7.6 Modulation Bandwidth under Injection
    7. 7.7 Optical Structures
    8. 7.8 Electrical Structures
    9. 7.9 High-Bandwidth Modulators
    10. 7.10 Performance of EO Modulators
  15. Chapter 8: Silicon Photodetectors
    1. 8.1 Introduction
    2. 8.2 Optical Detection
    3. 8.3 Important Characteristics of Photodetectors
    4. 8.4 Examples of Types of Photodetectors
    5. 8.5 Examples of Photodiodes in Standard Silicon Technology
    6. 8.6 Phototransistors in Standard Silicon Technology
    7. 8.7 CMOS and BiCMOS
    8. 8.8 Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI)
    9. 8.9 Photodetectors Using Heteroepitaxy
  16. Chapter 9: Raman Lasers
    1. 9.1 Introduction
    2. 9.2 Raman Scattering: Basic Concepts
    3. 9.3 Simplified Theory of Raman Scattering
    4. 9.4 Raman Effect in Silicon
    5. 9.5 Raman Gain Coefficient
    6. 9.6 Continuous-Wave Raman Laser
    7. 9.7 Further Developments
  17. Chapter 10: Guided Lightwaves: Introduction
    1. 10.1 Introduction
    2. 10.2 Ray Optic Theory for Light Guidance
    3. 10.3 Reflection Coefficients
    4. 10.4 Modes of a Planar Waveguide
    5. 10.5 Wave Theory of Light Guides
    6. 10.6 3D Optical Waveguides
    7. 10.7 Loss Mechanisms in Waveguides
    8. 10.8 Coupling to Optical Devices
    9. 10.9 Tapers
  18. Chapter 11: Principle of Planar Waveguide Devices
    1. 11.1 Introduction
    2. 11.2 Model for Mode Coupling
    3. 11.3 Directional Coupler
    4. 11.4 Distributed Bragg Reflector
    5. 11.5 Some Useful Planar Devices
  19. Chapter 12: Waveguides for Dense Wavelength-Division Multiplexing (DWDM) Systems
    1. 12.1 Introduction
    2. 12.2 Structure and Operation of AWGs
    3. 12.3 AWG Characteristics
    4. 12.4 Methods for Improving Performance
    5. 12.5 Applications of AWGs
    6. 12.6 PHASAR-Based Devices on Different Materials
    7. 12.7 Echelle Grating
  20. Chapter 13: Fabrication Techniques and Materials Systems
    1. 13.1 Introduction
    2. 13.2 Planar Processing
    3. 13.3 Substrate Growth and Preparation
    4. 13.4 Material Modification
    5. 13.5 Etching
    6. 13.6 Lithography
    7. 13.7 Fabrication of Waveguides
    8. 13.8 Grating Formation Process
    9. 13.9 Materials Systems for Waveguide Formation
  21. Appendix A: k.p Method
  22. Appendix B: Values of Parameters
  23. Index