You are previewing Signaling System No. 7 (SS7/C7): Protocol, Architecture, and Services.
O'Reilly logo
Signaling System No. 7 (SS7/C7): Protocol, Architecture, and Services

Book Description

A complete, practical guide to the world's most popular signaling system, including SIGTRAN, GSM-MAP, and Intelligent Networks.

  • Provides in-depth coverage of the SS7 protocols, including implementation details

  • Covers SS7 over IP (SIGTRAN) using real-world examples

  • Covers SS7/C7 from both a North American and European perspective, providing a broad international understanding of the technology and associated standards

  • Explains mobile wireless concepts and signaling, including mobile application part (MAP)

  • Provides a thorough explanation of the Intelligent Network (IN) and associated protocols (INAP/AIN)

  • Signaling System No. 7 (SS7) is a signaling network and protocol that is used globally to bring telecommunications networks, both fixed-line and cellular, to life. SS7 has numerous applications and is at the very heart of telecommunications. Setting up phone calls, providing cellular roaming and messaging, and supplying converged voice and data services are only a few of the ways that SS7 is used in the communications network. SS7 also provides the point of interconnection between converging voice and data networks. This transition, which affects everyone who works with the data network, has bolstered the need for practical and applied information on SS7. In short, anyone who is interested in telecommunications should have a solid understanding of SS7.

    Signaling System No. 7 (SS7/C7): Protocol, Architecture, and Services will help you understand SS7 from several perspectives. It examines the framework and architecture of SS7, as well as how it is used to provide today's telecommunications services. It also examines each level of the SS7 protocol-all the way down to the bit level of messages. In addition, the SIGTRAN standards are discussed in detail, showing the migration from SS7 to IP and explaining how SS7 information is transported over IP.

    Table of Contents

    1. Copyright
      1. Dedications
    2. About the Authors
      1. About the Technical Reviewers
    3. Acknowledgments
    4. Icons Used in This Book
    5. Command Syntax Conventions
      1. Reference Information
    6. Introduction
      1. Who Should Read This Book?
      2. How This Book Is Organized
    7. I. Introductions and Overviews
      1. 1. The Evolution of Signaling
        1. The History of Signaling
          1. 1889–1976
          2. 1976 to Present Day
        2. Subscriber Signaling
          1. Address Signals
          2. Supervisory Signals
          3. Tones and Announcements
          4. Ringing
          5. Network Signaling
        3. Channel Associated Signaling
          1. Address Signals
            1. Multifrequency
          2. Supervisory Signals
            1. Single Frequency(SF)
            2. Digital
          3. Limitations of CAS
            1. Susceptibility to Fraud
            2. Limited Signaling Information
            3. Inefficient Use of Resources
        4. Common Channel Signaling (CCS)
          1. Circuit-Related Signaling
          2. Non-Circuit-Related Signaling
          3. Common Channel Signaling Modes
            1. Associated Signaling
            2. Quasi-Associated Signaling
            3. Non-Associated Signaling
        5. Summary
      2. 2. Standards
        1. History of International Telephony Standards
          1. ITU-T (Formerly CCITT) International Standards
        2. Regional Standards
          1. ETSI
          2. 3rd Generation Partnership Project
          3. 3rd Generation Partnership Project 2
        3. National and Industry Standards
          1. ANSI
          2. T1 Committee
          3. Telcordia (Formerly Bellcore)
          4. TIA/EIA
          5. ATIS
          6. BSI
          7. NICC
          8. IETF
      3. 3. The Role of SS7
        1. Signaling System No. 7-Based Services
          1. Telephone-Marketing Numbers
          2. Televoting
          3. Single Directory Number
          4. Enhanced 911
          5. Supplementary Services
          6. Custom Local Area Signaling Services (CLASS)
          7. Calling Name (CNAM)
          8. Line Information Database (LIDB)
          9. Local Number Portability (LNP)
          10. 2nd and 3rd Generation Cellular Networks
          11. Short Message Service (SMS)
          12. Enhanced Messaging Service (EMS)
          13. Private Virtual Networks
          14. Do-Not-Call Enforcement
        2. Signaling System No. 7: The Key to Convergence
          1. Internet Call Waiting and Internet Calling Name Services
          2. Click-to-Dial Applications
          3. Web-Browser-Based of Telecommunication Services
          4. WLAN “Hotspot” Billing
          5. Location-Based Games
        3. Summary
      4. 4. SS7 Network Architecture and Protocols Introduction
        1. Pre-SS7 Systems
        2. History of SS7
        3. SS7 Network Architecture
          1. Signaling Links and Linksets
          2. Routes and Routesets
          3. Node Types
            1. Signal Transfer Point
            2. Service Switching Point
            3. Service Control Point
          4. Link Types
            1. Access Links (A Links)
            2. Cross Links (C Links)
            3. Bridge Links (B Links)
            4. Diagonal Links (D Links)
            5. Extended Links (E Links)
            6. Fully-Associated Links (F Links)
          5. Signaling Modes
          6. Signaling Network Structure
        4. SS7 Protocol Overview
          1. MTP
            1. MTP2
            2. MTP3
          2. TUP and ISUP
          3. SCCP
          4. TCAP
        5. Summary
      5. 5. The Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN)
        1. Network Topology
        2. PSTN Hierarchy
          1. PSTN Hierarchy in the United States
            1. Local Exchange Network
            2. InterExchange Network
            3. International Network
            4. Service Providers
            5. Pre-Divestiture Bell System Hierarchy
          2. PSTN Hierarchy in the United Kingdom
        3. Access and Transmission Facilities
          1. Lines
            1. The Local Loop
            2. Analog Line Signaling
            3. Dialing
            4. Ringing and Answer
            5. Voice Encoding
            6. ISDN BRI
          2. Trunks
            1. ISDN PRI
        4. Network Timing
        5. The Central Office
          1. Main Distribution Frame
          2. The Digital Switch
          3. Switching Matrix
          4. Call Processing
            1. Origination
            2. Digit Collection
            3. Translation
            4. Routing
            5. Connection
            6. Disconnection
            7. Call Setup
        6. Integration of SS7 into the PSTN
          1. SS7 Link Interface
        7. Evolving the PSTN to the Next Generation
        8. Summary
    8. II. Protocols Found in the Traditional SS7/C7 Stack
      1. 6. Message Transfer Part 2 (MTP2)
        1. Signal Unit Formats
          1. Fill-In Signal Units
          2. Link Status Signal Units
          3. Message Signal Units
          4. MTP2 Overhead
          5. Field Descriptions
        2. Signal Unit Delimitation
        3. Length Indicator
        4. Signal Unit Alignment
        5. Error Detection
        6. Error Correction
          1. Basic Error Correction
            1. Sequence Numbering
            2. Positive Acknowledgment
            3. Negative Acknowledgment
            4. Response to a Positive Acknowledgment
            5. Response to a Negative Acknowledgment
            6. Examples of Error Correction
          2. Preventive Cyclic Retransmission
            1. Forced Retransmission Cycles
            2. Comparison with the Basic Error Correction Method
        7. Signaling Link Initial Alignment
          1. Status Indications
            1. Idle
            2. Not Aligned
            3. Aligned
            4. Proving
            5. Aligned/Ready
            6. In Service
        8. Signaling Link Error Monitoring
          1. SUERM
          2. AERM
        9. Processor Outage
        10. Flow Control
        11. Summary
      2. 7. Message Transfer Part 3 (MTP3)
        1. Point Codes
          1. ITU-T International and National Point Codes
          2. ANSI National Point Codes
        2. Message Format
          1. Service Information Octet
          2. Signaling Information Field (SIF)
            1. ITU-T Routing Label
            2. ANSI Routing Label
        3. Signaling Message Handling
          1. Discrimination
          2. Distribution
          3. Routing
            1. ANSI Network and Cluster Routing
            2. Alias Point Code Routing
          4. Message Load Sharing
            1. Load Sharing and MTP3 User Parts
            2. SLS in ITU-T Networks
            3. SLS in ANSI Networks
          5. Comparing the IP and MTP3 Protocols
          6. MTP3 Message Handling Example
        4. Signaling Network Management
          1. Network Management Messages (H0/H1 Codes)
          2. Link Management
            1. Signaling Link Test Control
            2. Automatic Allocation of Signaling Terminals and Links
          3. Route Management
            1. Transfer Restricted
            2. Transfer Prohibited
            3. Transfer Allowed
              1. Routeset Test
            4. Transfer Controlled
              1. Multiple Congestion Levels
              2. Routeset Congestion Test
          4. Traffic Management
            1. Changeover
            2. Emergency Changeover
            3. Time-Controlled Changeover
            4. Changeback
            5. Time-Controlled Diversion
            6. Forced Rerouting
            7. Controlled Rerouting
            8. MTP Restart
            9. Management Inhibiting
              1. Inhibiting
              2. Uninhibiting
              3. Forced Uninhibiting
          5. MTP3/User Part Communication
          6. Signaling Network Management Example
        5. Summary
      3. 8. ISDN User Part (ISUP)
        1. Bearers and Signaling
        2. ISUP and the SS7 Protocol Stack
          1. ISUP Standards and Variants
        3. ISUP Message Flow
          1. Call Setup
          2. Call Release
          3. Unsuccessful Call Attempt
        4. Message Timers
        5. Circuit Identification Codes
          1. DPC to CIC Association
          2. Unidentified Circuit Codes
        6. Enbloc and Overlap Address Signaling
          1. Enbloc Signaling
          2. Overlap Signaling
        7. Circuit Glare (Dual-Seizure)
          1. Resolving Glare
          2. Avoiding Glare
        8. Continuity Test
          1. Loopback and Transceiver Methods
          2. Continuity Check Procedure
        9. ISUP Message Format
          1. Basic Call Message Formats
            1. Initial Address Message (IAM)
            2. Subsequent Address Message (SAM–ITU Networks Only)
            3. Continuity Message (COT)
            4. Address Complete Message (ACM)
            5. Answer Message (ANM)
            6. Release Message (REL)
            7. Release Complete Message (RLC)
        10. Detailed Call Walk-Through
          1. Call Setup
          2. Call Release
          3. Terminal Portability
        11. Circuit Suspend and Resume
        12. ISUP and Local Number Portability
          1. All Call Query (ACQ)
          2. Query On Release (QOR)
          3. Dropback (Also Known as Release to Pivot)
          4. Onward Routing (OR)
        13. ISUP-ISUP Tandem Calls
          1. ISUP Message Processing at a Tandem
          2. Continuity Testing
          3. Transporting Parameters
        14. Interworking with ISDN
          1. End-to-End Signaling
          2. ISDN Signaling Indicators in the IAM
        15. Supplementary Services
          1. Calling Line Identification (CLI) Example
          2. Call Forwarding Example
        16. Additional Call Processing Messages
        17. Maintenance Messages and Procedures
          1. Circuit Ranges
          2. Circuit States
          3. Circuit Validation (ANSI Only)
          4. Continuity Testing
          5. Blocking and Unblocking Circuits
          6. Circuit Reset
        18. Summary
      4. 9. Signaling Connection Control Part (SCCP)
        1. SCCP Architecture
        2. SCCP Message Transfer Services
          1. Connection-oriented Versus Connectionless Services
          2. User Data and Segmentation
          3. Connectionless Protocol Classes
          4. Connection-oriented Protocol Classes
          5. SCCP Connectionless Control (SCLC)
          6. SCCP Connection-Oriented Control (SCOC)
        3. SCCP Messages and Parameters
          1. Message Structure
            1. Mandatory Fixed Part (MF)
            2. Mandatory Variable Part (MV)
            3. Optional Part (O)
          2. Message Types
            1. Connection Request (CR)
            2. Connection Confirm (CC)
            3. Connection Refused (CREF)
            4. Released (RLSD)
            5. Release Complete (RLC)
            6. Data Form 1 (DT1)
            7. Unitdata (UDT)
            8. Unitdata Service (UDTS)
        4. SCCP Routing Control (SCRC)
          1. Subsystem Number (SSN) Routing
          2. Global Title Routing
            1. Global Title Translation
            2. Calling Party Address (CgPA) and Called Party Address (CdPA)
              1. Address Indicator (AI)
              2. Translation Type (TT)
              3. Encoding Scheme (ES)
              4. Numbering Plan (NP)
              5. Nature of Address Indicator (NAI)
              6. Address Information (AI)
        5. SCCP Management (SCMG)
          1. Replicate Subsystems
          2. SCMG Messages
            1. Signaling Point Status Management
            2. Subsystem Status Management
        6. Summary
      5. 10. Transaction Capabilities Application Part (TCAP)
        1. Overview
          1. Generic Service Interface
          2. Role of TCAP in Call Control
          3. TCAP Within the SS7 Protocol Stack
          4. Transaction and Component Sublayers
        2. Message Types
        3. Transactions
          1. Transaction IDs
          2. Establishing Transaction IDs
          3. Releasing Transaction IDs
          4. Transaction Message Sequence
        4. Components
          1. Invoke and Return Result Components
          2. Component IDs
          3. Operation Codes
          4. Parameters
            1. ITU Parameters
        5. Dialogue Portion
          1. ITU Dialogue
          2. ANSI Dialogue
        6. Message Encoding
        7. Element Structure
          1. Element Identifier
            1. Constructors and Primitives
            2. Identifier Tag
          2. Length Identifier
          3. Message Layout
        8. Error Handling
          1. Protocol Errors
            1. Errors at the Transaction Layer
            2. Errors at the Component Layer
          2. Application Errors
          3. End-User Errors
          4. Handling Application and End-User Errors
        9. ITU Protocol Message Contents
          1. Unidirectional Message
          2. Begin Message
          3. EndMessage
          4. Continue Message
          5. Abort Message
        10. ANSI Protocol Message Contents
          1. Unidirectional Message
          2. Query With/Without Permission
          3. Conversation With/Without Permission
          4. Response Message
          5. Protocol Abort (P-Abort) Message
          6. User Abort (U-Abort) Message
        11. ANSI National Operations
        12. ANSI Parameters
        13. Summary
    9. III. Service-oriented Protocols
      1. 11. Intelligent Networks (IN)
        1. The Intelligent Network
        2. Service Logic and Data
          1. Service Logic
          2. Service Data
          3. Service Distribution and Centralization
        3. IN Services
        4. IN and the SS7 Protocol
        5. Evolution of the Network
        6. IN/1
          1. Initial Services
          2. IN/1 Toll-Free (E800) Example
        7. The Advanced Intelligent Network (AIN 0.X, IN CS-X)
          1. Basic Call State Models (BCSM)
            1. Point in Call (PIC)
            2. Detection Point (DP)
            3. Trigger Detection Point (TDP)
            4. Event Detection Point (EDP)
            5. Trigger and Event Precedence
            6. Escape Codes
            7. Originating and Terminating Call Models
          2. Network Architecture
            1. Service Switching Point (SSP)
            2. Service Control Point (SCP)
            3. Adjunct
            4. Intelligent Peripheral (IP)
            5. Service Management System (SMS)
            6. Service Creation Environment (SCE)
          3. ITU Intelligent Network Conceptual Model (INCM)
            1. Correlating Distributed Functional Plane and Physical Plane
          4. AIN 0
          5. IN CS-1/AIN 0.1
            1. IN CS-1 OBCSM
            2. IN CS-1 TBCSM
            3. AIN Toll-Free Service Example
          6. IN CS-2/AIN 0.2
            1. Originating Basic Call State Model (BCSM)
            2. IN CS-2 OBCSM PICs
            3. IN CS-2 OBCSM TDPs and Trigger Types
              1. Origination Attempt
              2. Origination Attempt Authorized
              3. Collected Information
              4. Analyzed Information
              5. Route Select Failure
              6. O Called Party Busy
              7. O Term Seized
              8. O Answer
              9. O No Answer
              10. O Suspend
              11. O Re-Answer (IN CS-2 DP Only)
              12. O Midcall
              13. O Disconnect
              14. O Abandon
            4. Terminating Basic Call State Model
            5. IN CS-2 TBCSM PICs
            6. IN CS-2 TBCSM TDPs and Trigger Types
              1. Termination Attempt
              2. Termination Attempt Authorized
              3. T Busy
              4. Facility Selected and Available
              5. Call Accepted
              6. T No Answer
              7. T Answer
              8. T Suspended
              9. T Disconnect
              10. T Midcall
              11. T Re-Answer (IN CS-2 DP Only)
              12. T Abandon
          7. AIN 0.2 Call Control Messages from the SCP
          8. AIN 0.2 Time Of Day (TOD) Routing Example
        8. Additional IN Service Examples
          1. Local Number Portability (LNP)
          2. Private Virtual Network (PVN)
        9. Intelligent Network Application Protocol (INAP)
          1. Basic Toll-Free Example Using INAP
          2. Service Creation Environment (SCE)
            1. Service Independent Building Blocks (SIB)
            2. Service Logic Programs (SLP)
        10. Summary
      2. 12. Cellular Networks
        1. Network Architecture
          1. Mobile Station (MS)
            1. IMEI
            2. IMSI
            3. TMSI
            4. MSISDN
            5. MSRN
          2. Subscriber Identity Module (SIM)
          3. Base Transceiver Station (BTS)
          4. Base Station Controller (BSC)
          5. Mobile Switching Centre (MSC)
          6. Home Location Register (HLR)
          7. Visitor Location Register (VLR)
          8. Equipment Identity Register (EIR)
          9. Authentication Center (AuC)
          10. Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN)
          11. Gateway GPRS Support Node (GGSN)
        2. Interfaces and Protocols
          1. BSSAP (DTAP/BSSMAP)
          2. Mobile Application Part (MAP)
        3. Mobility Management and Call Processing
          1. Location Update
          2. Mobile Terminated Call (MTC)
        4. Summary
      3. 13. GSM and ANSI-41 Mobile Application Part (MAP)
        1. MAP Operations
        2. Mobility Management
          1. Location Management
            1. updateLocation
            2. cancelLocation
            3. sendIdentification
            4. purgeMS
          2. Handover
            1. prepareHandover
            2. sendEndSignal
            3. processAccessSignaling
            4. forwardAccessSignaling
            5. prepareSubsequentHandover
          3. Authentication Management
          4. IMEI Management
          5. Subscriber Management
            1. insertSubscriberData
            2. deleteSubscriberData
          6. Fault Recovery
            1. reset
            2. forwardCheckSsIndication
            3. restoreData
        3. Operation and Maintenance
          1. Subscriber Tracing
            1. activateTraceMode
            2. deactivateTraceMode
          2. Miscellaneous
        4. Call Handling
          1. sendRoutingInfo (SRI)
          2. provideRoamingNumber (PRN)
        5. Supplementary Services
          1. Unstructured Supplementary Services (USSs)
          2. Operations
        6. Short Message Service (SMS)
          1. forwardSM
          2. sendRoutingInfoForSM
          3. reportSMDeliveryStatus
          4. informServiceCentre
        7. Summary
    10. IV. SS7/C7 Over IP
      1. 14. SS7 in the Converged World
        1. Next Generation Architecture
        2. SigTran
          1. Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP)
            1. Head-of-Line Blocking
            2. Failure Detection
            3. Multihoming and Failure Recovery
            4. Proposed Additions
        3. User Adaptation (UA) Layers
          1. UA Common Terminology
          2. Routing Keys and Interface Identifiers
        4. MTP Level 3 UA (M3UA)
          1. Messages and Formats
            1. Transfer Messages
            2. SS7 Signaling Network Management (SSNM) Messages
          2. ASPSM and ASPTM Messages
            1. Management (MGMT) Messages
            2. Routing Key Management (RKM) Messages
          3. SS7/C7 Variant Specifics
          4. Message Flow Example
        5. SCCP User Adaptation (SUA)
          1. Messages and Formats
            1. Connectionless Messages
            2. Connection-Oriented Messages
            3. MGMT Messages
            4. ASPSM and ASPTM Messages
            5. RKM Messages
          2. Message Flow Example
        6. MTP Level 2 User Adaptation (M2UA)
          1. Messages and Formats
            1. MTP2 User Adaptation (MAUP) Messages
              1. MGMT Messages
              2. ASPSM and ASPTM Messages
              3. Interface Identifier Management (IIM) Messages
            2. SS7 Variant Specifics
            3. Message Flow Examples
          2. MTP Level 2 Peer Adaptation (M2PA)
            1. M2PA and M2UA Comparison
            2. M2PA Differences from Other UAs
            3. Messages and Formats
              1. MTP2 Peer Adaptation Messages
            4. Message Flow Example
        7. ISDN User Adaptation (IUA)
        8. Transport Adaptation Layer Interface (TALI)
        9. Early Cisco SS7/IP Solution
        10. SS7 and SIP/H.323 Interworking
        11. Summary
    11. V. Supplementary Topics
      1. 15. SS7 Security and Monitoring
        1. Traffic Screening
          1. Screening Considerations
            1. MTP
            2. SCCP
        2. MTP3: Management Messages
          1. Originating Point Code
          2. Destination Point Code
        3. SCCP
          1. SCCP User Messages
          2. Management Messages
            1. Subsystem Prohibited (SSP)
            2. Subsystem Allowed (SSA)
            3. Subsystem Status Test (SST)
        4. Parameters
        5. Traffic Monitoring
          1. Q.752 Monitoring Measurements
            1. MTP: Link Failures
            2. MTP: Surveillance
            3. MTP: Detection of Routing and Distribution Table Errors
            4. MTP: Detection of Increases in Link SU Error Rates
            5. MTP: Detection of Marginal Link Faults
            6. MTP: Link, Linkset, Signaling Point, and Route Set Utilization
            7. MTP: Component Reliability and Maintainability Studies
            8. SCCP: Routing Failures
            9. SCCP: Configuration Management
            10. SCCP: Utilization Performance
            11. SCCP: Quality of Service
            12. ISUP: Availability/Unavailability
            13. ISUP: Errors
            14. ISUP: Performance
            15. TCAP Fault Management
            16. TCAP Performance
        6. Summary
      2. 16. SS7 Testing
        1. Test Equipment
        2. Test Specification Creation
        3. MTP 2 Testing
          1. Test Configuration
          2. Example 1: Initialization (Power-up), Test 1.1
            1. Part (a)
            2. Part (b)
          3. Example 2: Normal Alignment—Correct Procedure (FISU), Test 1.5
            1. Part (a)
            2. Part (b)
          4. Example 3: Individual End Sets Emergency, Test 1.22
          5. Example 4: SIO Received During Link In-Service, Test 1.28
          6. Example 5: Unexpected Signal Units/Orders in “In-Service” State, Test 2.7
          7. Example 6: Link Aligned Ready (Break Tx Path), Test 3.1
          8. Example 7: Link Aligned Ready (Corrupt FIBs—Basic), Test 3.2
          9. Example 8: Set and Clear LPO While Link In-Service, Test 4.1
          10. Example 9: SU Delimitation, Alignment, Error Detection, and Correction, Test 5.1
          11. opkiExample 10: Error Rate of 1 in 256—Link Remains In-Service, Test 6.1
          12. Example 11, Test 7.1
          13. Example 12: Check RTB Full, Test 8.3
          14. Example 13: Forced Retransmission with the Value N1, Test 9.3
          15. Example 14: Congestion Abatement, Test 10.1
        4. MTP 3 Testing
          1. Test Configuration
          2. Example 1: First Signaling Link Activation, Test 1.1
          3. Example 2: Load Sharing within a Linkset (All Links Available), Test 2.4.1
          4. Example 3: Inaccessible Destination—Due to a Linkset Failure, Test 2.6.1
        5. ISUP Testing
          1. Test Configuration
          2. Example 1: CCR Received—Successful, Test 1.4.1
          3. Example 2: Overlap Operation (with SAM), Test 2.2.2
          4. Example 3: Timers T1 and T5—Failure to Receive a RLC, Test 5.2.3
        6. ISUP Supplementary Services Testing
          1. Test Configuration
          2. Example 1: CUG Call with Outgoing Access Allowed and Sent, Test 2.1.1
          3. Example 2: CLIP—Network Provided and Sent, Test 3.1.1
          4. Example 2: COL—Requested and Sent, Test 6.1.1
        7. SCCP Testing
          1. Test Configuration
          2. Example 1: Local DPC and SSN Included, DPC and SSN Available, GT and SSN Included and Sent, Test 1.1.1.1.1.1
          3. Example 2: Remote DPC and SSN Included, DPC and/or SSN Unavailable—Return Option Not Set, Test 1.1.1.1.6
          4. Example 3: Local DPC and SSN, and SSN Available GT Not Included, SSN Included, Test 1.1.2.2.1.2
        8. TCAP Testing
          1. Test Configuration
          2. Example 1: Clearing Before Subsequent Message; Valid Clearing from Initiating Side; Prearranged Ending, Test 1.1.2.1.1 (1)
          3. Example 2: First Continue Message; OTID Absent, Test 1.2.2.3 (1)
          4. Example 3: Inopportune Reject Component, Test 2.3.2.4 (1)
        9. Summary
    12. VI. Appendixes
      1. A. MTP Messages (ANSI/ETSI/ITU)
      2. B. ISUP Messages (ANSI/UK/ETSI/ITU-T)
      3. C. SCCP Messages (ANSI/ETSI/ITU-T)
      4. D. TCAP Messages and Components
      5. E. ITU-T Q.931 Messages
      6. F. GSM and ANSI MAP Operations
        1. GSM MAP Operations
        2. ANSI-41 MAP Operations
      7. G. MTP Timers in ITU-T/ETSI/ANSI Applications
        1. Message Transfer Part 2 Timers
        2. Message Transfer Part 3 Timers
      8. H. ISUP Timers for ANSI/ETSI/ITU-T Applications
      9. I. GSM Mobile Country Codes (MCC) and Mobile Network Codes (MNC)
      10. J. ITU and ANSI Protocol Comparison
        1. Message Transfer Part 3
        2. ISDN User Part
        3. Signaling Connection User Part
        4. Transaction Capabilities User Part
      11. K. SS7 Standards
        1. ITU-T Recommendations
        2. ETSI Publications
        3. 3GPP Publications
        4. ANSI Standards
        5. Telcordia Standards
        6. BSI and BTNR standards
        7. IETF Documents
        8. Test Documents
      12. L. Tektronix Supporting Traffic
      13. M. Cause Values
      14. Acronyms
        1. 0–9
        2. A
        3. B
        4. C
        5. D
        6. E
        7. F
        8. G
        9. H
        10. I
        11. J - K - L
        12. M
        13. N
        14. O
        15. P
        16. Q - R
        17. S
        18. T
        19. U - V - W
      15. References