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Signal Integrity Issues and Printed Circuit Board Design by Douglas Brooks

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Chapter 7. Impedance and Phase Shift

Impedance

Most people find that analyses regarding resistance are fairly easy. Analyses-regarding capacitive reactance aren’t too difficult, because capacitive effects seem to be somewhat intuitive to a lot of people. The effects of inductors are much less intuitive, and people tend to have more problems with them. And then there is impedance.

Table 7-1. Summary of the Effects of the Primary Passive Components

Component

“Impedance” to Current

Measured in

Voltage Phase

Frequency Dependent?

Impedance Is High if

R

Resistive (R)

ohms

0

No

R ⇒ high

L

Inductive reactance (X)

ohms

+90

Yes

L ⇒ high

f ⇒ low

C

Capacitive reactance (X)

ohms

–90

Yes

C ⇒ low

f ⇒ high

Consider the simple RC circuit shown in Figure 7-1, driven by an AC constant current ...

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