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Signal Integrity Issues and Printed Circuit Board Design

Book Description

The definitive high-speed design resource for every PCB designer

In this book, renowned engineer, author, and seminar leader Douglas Brooks teaches PCB designers how to successfully design boards for any high-speed application. Brooks begins with an easy-to-understand electronics primer for every PCB designer, then offers practical, real-world solutions for every important signal-integrity problem.Based on his legendary seminars, this book offers even more design rules, specific recommendations, examples, illustrations, and diagrams.

Coverage includes– 

  • Essential electronics concepts: propagation, current, resistance, reactance, impedance, phase shifts, and more

  • EMI principles and controls: loop area, uncontrolled differential currents, and common mode currents

  • Controlling signal reflections: transmission lines, proper terminations, and trace layer design

  • Power system stability (bypass capacitor decoupling): Traditional approaches, and techniques based on power-system impedance

  • Eliminating forward crosstalk, and eliminating or controlling backwards crosstalk

  • Power-system conditioning: power-system plane design and correct board stackups

  • Lossy lines and eye diagrams: skin effects, dielectric absorption, and more

  • Two full chapters of simulation illustrations–ideal for those without access to high-speed simulation tools

    Table of Contents

    1. Copyright
      1. Dedication
    2. About the Web Site
    3. Prentice Hall Modern Semiconductor Design Series
    4. Preface
      1. How It All Started
      2. Acknowledgments
    5. 1. Basic Concepts
      1. 1. Electronic Concepts
        1. Current
        2. Charge
        3. Voltage
        4. Direct and Alternating Voltage and Current
        5. Harmonics
        6. Measurement of AC Voltage or Current
        7. Frequency, Rise/Fall Times, and Period
        8. Frequency Measurement
        9. Complex Waveforms (Fourier Analyses)
        10. Chapter Endnotes
          1. Direction of Current Flow
          2. Some Standard Symbols Used in Electronics
          3. Some Fundamental Definitions
          4. Important Names in Electronics
      2. 2. Propagation Times
        1. Propagation Speed
        2. Propagation Times
        3. Trace Configurations and Signal Propagation
        4. Circuit Timing Issues
        5. Wavelength
      3. 3. Electrical Components
        1. The Three Basics
        2. Resistance
        3. Ohm’s Law
        4. Capacitance
        5. Charge Storage
        6. Formula for Capacitance
        7. Capacitance Functions and Effects
        8. Inductance
        9. Formulas for Inductance
        10. Charge and Discharge Currents
        11. Resonance
      4. 4. Voltage and Current Changes and Time Constants
        1. Voltage and Current Changes Through Resistors
        2. Voltage and Current Changes Through Capacitors
        3. Voltage and Current Changes Through Inductors
        4. Some Interesting Inductive Circuit Dynamics
        5. Time Constants
        6. A Note on Charge and Discharge Equations
      5. 5. Resistance
        1. Kirchhoff’s Laws
        2. Series Resistors
        3. Parallel Resistors
        4. Voltage Dividers
        5. Amplifier Feedback and Gain
        6. Power
        7. Equivalent Circuits
        8. Power Curve
        9. Power Sources
        10. Conductance
      6. 6. Reactance
        1. Capacitive Reactance
        2. Inductive Reactance
        3. Ohm’s Law for Reactance
        4. Series LC Combinations
        5. Parallel LC Circuits
        6. Resonance
        7. Poles and Zeros
        8. Susceptance
      7. 7. Impedance and Phase Shift
        1. Impedance
        2. Effect of Frequency
        3. Another RC Example
        4. Classic RC Filter
        5. Combining Impedances
        6. Resonance and Q
        7. Series RLC Circuits
        8. Series RLC at Resonance
        9. Admittance
        10. Chapter Endnotes
          1. Detailed Calculations for Figure 7-8
          2. RLC Simulation
          3. Imaginary Numbers
    6. 2. Signal Integrity Issues
      1. 8. Signal Integrity Overview
      2. 9. Electromagnetic Interference (EMI)
        1. Background
        2. Fields and Cancellations
        3. Some Basic “Truths”
        4. Signal Coupling
        5. Loop Area
          1. Slots in Planes 1
          2. Return Pathways
          3. Power Plane Returns
          4. Changing Trace Layers
          5. Unrelated Planes
          6. Stripline
        6. Stubs
        7. Common Mode
        8. The 20-H Rule
        9. Picket Fences (Faraday Shields)
      3. 10. Reflections and Transmission Lines
        1. Communications Model
        2. Transmission Lines
        3. Critical Length
        4. Reflection Coefficients
        5. Visualizing Reflections
        6. Determining Trace Impedance
        7. Termination Techniques
          1. Parallel
          2. Thevenin
          3. AC Termination
          4. Series
          5. Diode
        8. Some Design Issues
          1. Changing Trace Layers 1
          2. Power Planes
          3. Changing Trace Layers 2
          4. Slots in Planes 2
        9. Stubs
        10. Absolute vs. Relative Value of Zo
        11. Chapter Endnote
          1. On Formulas
      4. 11. Some Transmission Line Simulations
        1. Basic Simulation
        2. Series Termination
        3. Placement Issues
        4. Branches, or Ys
      5. 12. Crosstalk
        1. Forward versus Backward Crosstalk
          1. Backward Crosstalk
          2. Forward Crosstalk
          3. In Summary
        2. Estimating Crosstalk
          1. Calculations
          2. Coupling
          3. Distance
          4. Terminations
          5. UltraCAD Calculator
          6. HyperLynx Simulation Tool
        3. Design Considerations
          1. Slots in Planes, 3
          2. Guard Bands
      6. 13. Crosstalk Simulations
        1. Basic Model
        2. Add an Uncoupled Region
        3. Effect of Length
        4. Stripline
        5. Stripline with Terminations
        6. More Realistic Example
        7. Summary
      7. 14. Differential Traces and Impedance
        1. Background
          1. Advantages
          2. Key Assumption
        2. Design Rules
          1. Design Rule 1
            1. Common Mode Implications
            2. Differential Signals and Loop Areas
          2. Design Rule 2
            1. Rule 2 Consequence
          3. Design Rule 3
            1. Differential Mode Impedance
            2. Common Mode Impedance
          4. Design Rule 4
        3. Differential Simulations
        4. Calculating Differential Impedance
          1. Edge Coupled
          2. Comparison
          3. Broadside Coupled
      8. 15. Bypass Caps and Decoupling Systems
        1. Traditional Approach
          1. Size and Quantity
          2. Placement
          3. Connection
        2. Power System Impedance Approach
          1. Ideal Response
          2. Capacitor Response
          3. Inductance Effects
          4. Multiple Capacitors
          5. Additional Capacitor Value
          6. Planar Capacitance
          7. Equivalent Series Resistance (ESR)
            1. Self-Resonant Frequencies
            2. Effects of Multiple Capacitors
            3. Parallel Capacitors
              1. Resonance
              2. Impedance at fr1
              3. Impedance at Anti-Resonance
            4. General Case Analysis
            5. Consequences
        3. Summary
      9. 16. Power Systems
        1. Power Supply Voltages
        2. Need for Power Planes
        3. Strategies for Designing with Planes
        4. Some Design Rules
          1. Connecting Reference Planes Together
          2. Overlapping Planes
          3. Decoupling to Wrong Plane
          4. Signals Crossing Separations
        5. Stackups
        6. Conclusion
      10. 17. Lossy Lines and Eye Diagrams
        1. Lossy Lines
          1. Skin Effect
          2. Dielectric Absorption
        2. Lossy Line Model
        3. Eye Diagrams
        4. Equalization
          1. Passive Equalization
          2. Active Equalization
        5. Summary
    7. 3. Appendices, Glossary, and Index
      1. A. UltraCAD’s Square Wave Simulator
      2. B. Why Inductors Induct
        1. Electromagnetic Concepts
        2. Right-Hand Rule
        3. Coil
        4. Simple Motor
        5. Simple Generator
        6. Inductance
        7. Return Currents
      3. C. Logarithms
        1. Definition
        2. Other Bases
        3. Converting Between Bases
        4. Usefulness Of Logs
      4. D. Phase Shift Simulation
        1. Background
        2. First Step
        3. Second Step
        4. Third Step
        5. Fourth Step
      5. E. Complex Algebra
        1. Web Sites
        2. Computer Resources
        3. Euler’s Formula
        4. Complex Numbers (Reprinted by Permission from Microsoft Encarta 2000)
          1. I Introduction
          2. II History
          3. III Properties
          4. IV The Complex Plane
          5. V Solutions to Polynomials
      6. F. Transmission Line Simulator
      7. G. Echo Illustration
      8. H. UltraCad Freeware Calculators
        1. Impedance (Ultraclc.Exe)
        2. Crosstalk (Ultra_Ct.Exe)
        3. Bypass Cap and Esr (Ucadesr3.Exe)
      9. I. TDRs and VNAs
        1. Basic Concepts
        2. TDR vs. VNA
        3. Principles of Operation: TDR
        4. Principles of Operation: VNA
      10. J. Right Angle Corners
        1. Impedance Control
        2. EMI Radiation
        3. Conclusion
      11. Glossary
    8. About the Author