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Signal Integrity and Radiated Emission of High-Speed Digital Systems

Book Description

Before putting digital systems for information technology or telecommunication applications on the market, an essential requirement is to perform tests in order to comply with the limits of radiated emission imposed by the standards.

This book provides an investigation into signal integrity (SI) and electromagnetic interference (EMI) problems. Topics such as reflections, crosstalk, switching noise and radiated emission (RE) in high-speed digital systems are covered, which are essential for IT and telecoms applications. The highly important topic of modelling is covered which can reduce costs by enabling simulation data to demonstrate that a product meets design specifications and regulatory limits. According to the new European EMC directive, this can help to avoid the expensive use of large semi-anechoic chambers or open area test sites for radiated emission assessments. Following a short introduction to signalling and radiated interference in digital systems, the book provides a detailed characterization of logic families in terms of static and dynamic characteristic useful for modelling techniques. Crosstalk in multi-coupled line structures are investigated by analytical, graphical and circuit-based methods, and techniques to mitigate these phenomena are provided. Grounding, filtering and shielding with multilayer PCBs are also examined and design rules given.

  • Written by authors with extensive experience in industry and academia.

  • Explains basic conceptual problems from a theoretical and practical point of view by using numerous measurements and simulations.

  • Presents models for mathematical and SPICE-like circuit simulators.

  • Provides examples of using full-wave codes for SI and RE investigations.

  • Companion website containing lists of codes and sample material.

Signal Integrity and Radiated Emission of High-Speed Digital Systems is a valuable resource to industrial designers of information technology, telecommunication equipment and automation equipment as well as to development engineers. It will also be of interest to managers and designers of consumer electronics, and researchers in electronics.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover Page
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright
  4. Contents
  5. List of Examples
  6. Foreword
  7. Preface
  8. Chapter 1: Introduction to Signal Integrity and Radiated Emission in a Digital System
    1. 1.1 Power and Signal Integrity
    2. 1.2 Radiation Emission
    3. 1.3 Signaling and Logic Devices
    4. 1.4 Modeling Digital Systems
  9. Chapter 2: High-Speed Digital Devices
    1. 2.1 Input/Output Static Characteristic
    2. 2.2 Dynamic Characteristics: Gate Delay and Rise and Fall Times
    3. 2.3 Driver and Receiver Modeling
    4. 2.4 I/O Buffer Information Specification (IBIS) Models
    5. References
  10. Chapter 3: Inductance
    1. 3.1 Loop Inductance
    2. 3.2 Partial Inductance
    3. 3.3 Differential Mode and Common Mode Inductance
    4. References
  11. Chapter 4: Capacitance
    1. 4.1 Capacitance Between Conductors
    2. 4.2 Differential Mode and Common Mode Capacitance
    3. References
  12. Chapter 5: Reflection on Signal Lines
    1. 5.1 Electrical Parameters of Interconnects
    2. 5.2 Incident and Reflected Waves in Lossless Transmission Lines
    3. 5.3 Signal Distribution Architecture
    4. 5.4 Line Terminations
    5. References
  13. Chapter 6: Crosstalk
    1. 6.1 Lumped-Circuit Model of Coupled Lines
    2. 6.2 Common and Differential Modes
    3. 6.3 Models for Digital Devices: Simulation and Measurements
    4. 6.4 General Distributed Model for Lossless Multiconductor Transmission Lines
    5. 6.5 Techniques to Reduce Crosstalk
    6. References
  14. Chapter 7: Lossy Transmission Lines
    1. 7.1 Lossy Line Fundamental Parameters
    2. 7.2 Modeling Lossy Lines in the Time Domain by the Segmentation Approach and Vector Fitting Technique
    3. 7.3 Modeling Lossy Lines in the Time Domain by the Scattering Parameters Technique
    4. 7.4 Conclusions
    5. References
  15. Chapter 8: Delta I-Noise
    1. 8.1 Switching Noise
    2. 8.2 Filtering Power Distribution
    3. 8.3 Ground Bounce
    4. 8.4 Crosstalk and Switching Noise
    5. References
  16. Chapter 9: PCB Radiated Emission
    1. 9.1 Frequency Characterization of a Digital Signal
    2. 9.2 The Radiated Emission Problem
    3. 9.3 Emission from Traces
    4. 9.4 Emission from ICs
    5. 9.5 Emission from a Real PCB
    6. 9.6 Emission from a PCB with an Attached Cable
    7. 9.7 Differential Drivers as Sources of Emission
    8. 9.8 Emission from a Complex System
    9. 9.9 Radiation Diagrams
    10. 9.10 Points to Remember and Design Rules for Radiated Emission
    11. References
  17. Chapter 10: Grounding in PCBs
    1. 10.1 Common-Mode Coupling
    2. 10.2 Ground and Power Distribution in a Multilayer PCB
    3. 10.3 Grounding at PCB Connectors
    4. 10.4 Partitioning and Modeling
    5. 10.5 Points to Remember and Design Rules for Grounding in PCBs
    6. References
  18. Chapter 11: Measurement and Modeling
    1. 11.1 Time-Domain Reflectometer (TDR)
    2. 11.2 Vector Network Analyzer (VNA)
    3. 11.3 Prediction Model Validation by Radiated Emission Measurements
    4. References
  19. Chapter 12: Differential Signaling and Discontinuity Modeling in PCBs
    1. 12.1 Differential Signal Transmission
    2. 12.2 Modeling Packages and Interconnect Discontinuities in PCBs
    3. References
  20. Appendix A: Formulae for Partial Inductance Calculation
    1. A.1 Round Wires
    2. A.2 Busbars
    3. A.3 Examples of Application of the Inductance Formulae
    4. References
  21. Appendix B: Characteristic Impedance, Delay Time, and Attenuation of Microstrips and Striplines
    1. B.1 Microstrip
    2. B.2 Stripline
    3. B.3 Trace Attenuation and the Proximity-Effect Parameter
    4. References
  22. Appendix C: Computation of Resonances in the Power Distribution Network of a PCB
    1. C.1 Cavity Model
    2. C.2 Spice Model
    3. C.3 Numerical Model
    4. C.4 Results of the Simulations
    5. References
  23. Appendix D: Formulae for Simple Radiating Structures
    1. D.1 Wire Structures
    2. D.2 Wires and Ground Planes
    3. D.3 Emission from Apertures
    4. References
  24. Appendix E: The Nodal Method to Calculate the Partial Inductance of Finite Ground Planes
    1. E.1 Nodal Method Equations
    2. E.2 Nodal Method Applied to Compute the Partial Inductance Associated with a Finite Ground Plane
    3. References
  25. Appendix F: Files on the Web
    1. F.1 Program Files of Chapter 1
    2. F.2 Program Files of Chapter 2
    3. F.3 Program Files of Chapter 5
    4. F.4 Program Files of Chapter 6
    5. F.5 Program Files of Chapter 7
    6. F.6 Program Files of Chapter 8
    7. F.7 Program Files of Chapter 9
    8. F.8 Program Files of Chapter 10
  26. Index