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Signal Integrity - Simplified by Eric Bogatin

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Chapter 3. Impedance and Electrical Models

In high-speed digital systems, where signal integrity plays a significant role, we often refer to signals as either changing voltages or a changing currents. All the effects that we lump in the general category of signal integrity are due to how analog signals (those changing voltages and currents) interact with the electrical properties of the interconnects. The key electrical property with which signals interact is the impedance of the interconnects.

Impedance is defined as the ratio of the voltage to the current. We usually use the letter Z to represent impedance. The definition, which is always true, is Z = V/I. The manner in which these fundamental quantities, voltage and current, interact with the ...

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