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Signal Integrity - Simplified

Book Description

The complete guide to understanding and designing for signal integrity

Suitable for even non-specialists, Signal Integrity—Simplified offers a comprehensive, easy-to-follow look at how physical interconnects affect electrical performance. World-class engineer Eric Bogatin expertly reviews the root causes of the four families of signal integrity problems and offers solutions to design them out early in the design cycle. Coverage includes:

  • An introduction to signal integrity and physical design

  • A fundamental understanding of what bandwidth, inductance, and characteristic impedance really mean

  • Analysis of resistance, capacitance, inductance, and impedance

  • The four important practical tools used to solve signal integrity problems: rules of thumb, analytic approximations, numerical simulation, and measurements

  • The effect of the physical design of interconnects on signal integrity

  • Solutions that do not hide behind mathematical derivations

  • Recommendations for design guidelines to improve signal integrity, and much more

  • Unlike related books that concentrate on theoretical derivation and mathematical rigor, this book emphasizes intuitive understanding, practical tools, and engineering discipline. Specially designed for everyone in the electronics industry, from electrical engineers to product managers, Signal Integrity—Simplified will prove itself an invaluable resource for helping you find and fix signal integrity problems before they become problems.

    Table of Contents

    1. Copyright
    2. Prentice Hall Modern Semiconductor Design Series
    3. About Prentice Hall Professional Technical Reference
    4. Preface
      1. Top Ten Signal Integrity Principles
    5. 1. Signal Integrity Is in Your Future
      1. 1.1. What Is Signal Integrity?
      2. 1.2. Signal Quality on a Single Net
      3. 1.3. Cross Talk
      4. 1.4. Rail-Collapse Noise
      5. 1.5. Electromagnetic Interference (EMI)
      6. 1.6. Two Important Signal Integrity Generalizations
      7. 1.7. Trends in Electronic Products
      8. 1.8. The Need for a New Design Methodology
      9. 1.9. A New Product Design Methodology
      10. 1.10. Simulations
      11. 1.11. Modeling and Models
      12. 1.12. Creating Circuit Models from Calculation
      13. 1.13. Three Types of Measurements
      14. 1.14. The Role of Measurements
      15. 1.15. The Bottom Line
    6. 2. Time and Frequency Domains
      1. 2.1. The Time Domain
      2. 2.2. Sine Waves in the Frequency Domain
      3. 2.3. Shorter Time to a Solution in the Frequency Domain
      4. 2.4. Sine Wave Features
      5. 2.5. The Fourier Transform
      6. 2.6. The Spectrum of a Repetitive Signal
      7. 2.7. The Spectrum of an Ideal Square Wave
      8. 2.8. From the Frequency Domain to the Time Domain
      9. 2.9. Effect of Bandwidth on Rise Time
      10. 2.10. Bandwidth and Rise Time
      11. 2.11. What Does “Significant” Mean?
      12. 2.12. Bandwidth of Real Signals
      13. 2.13. Bandwidth and Clock Frequency
      14. 2.14. Bandwidth of a Measurement
      15. 2.15. Bandwidth of a Model
      16. 2.16. Bandwidth of an Interconnect
      17. 2.17. Bottom Line
    7. 3. Impedance and Electrical Models
      1. 3.1. Describing Signal-Integrity Solutions in Terms of Impedance
      2. 3.2. What Is Impedance?
      3. 3.3. Real vs. Ideal Circuit Elements
      4. 3.4. Impedance of an Ideal Resistor in the Time Domain
      5. 3.5. Impedance of an Ideal Capacitor in the Time Domain
      6. 3.6. Impedance of an Ideal Inductor in the Time Domain
      7. 3.7. Impedance in the Frequency Domain
      8. 3.8. Equivalent Electrical Circuit Models
      9. 3.9. Circuit Theory and SPICE
      10. 3.10. Introduction to Modeling
      11. 3.11. The Bottom Line
    8. 4. The Physical Basis of Resistance
      1. 4.1. Translating Physical Design into Electrical Performance
      2. 4.2. The Only Good Approximation for the Resistance of Interconnects
      3. 4.3. Bulk Resistivity
      4. 4.4. Resistance per Length
      5. 4.5. Sheet Resistance
      6. 4.6. The Bottom Line
    9. 5. The Physical Basis of Capacitance
      1. 5.1. Current Flow in Capacitors
      2. 5.2. The Capacitance of a Sphere
      3. 5.3. Parallel Plate Approximation
      4. 5.4. Dielectric Constant
      5. 5.5. Power and Ground Planes and Decoupling Capacitance
      6. 5.6. Capacitance per Length
      7. 5.7. 2D Field Solvers
      8. 5.8. Effective Dielectric Constant
      9. 5.9. The Bottom Line
    10. 6. The Physical Basis of Inductance
      1. 6.1. What Is Inductance?
      2. 6.2. Inductance Principle #1: There Are Circular Magnetic-Field Line Loops Around All Currents
      3. 6.3. Inductance Principle #2: Inductance Is the Number of Webers of Field Line Loops Around a Conductor per Amp of Current Through It
      4. 6.4. Self-Inductance and Mutual Inductance
      5. 6.5. Inductance Principle #3: When the Number of Field Line Loops Around a Conductor Changes, There Will Be a Voltage Induced Across the Ends of the Conductor
      6. 6.6. Partial Inductance
      7. 6.7. Effective, Total, or Net Inductance and Ground Bounce
      8. 6.8. Loop Self- and Mutual Inductance
      9. 6.9. The Power-Distribution System (PDS) and Loop Inductance
      10. 6.10. Loop Inductance per Square of Planes
      11. 6.11. Loop Inductance of Planes and Via Contacts
      12. 6.12. Loop Inductance of Planes with a Field of Clearance Holes
      13. 6.13. Loop Mutual Inductance
      14. 6.14. Equivalent Inductance
      15. 6.15. Summary of Inductance
      16. 6.16. Current Distributions and Skin Depth
      17. 6.17. High-Permeability Materials
      18. 6.18. Eddy Currents
      19. 6.19. The Bottom Line
    11. 7. The Physical Basis of Transmission Lines
      1. 7.1. Forget the Word Ground
      2. 7.2. The Signal
      3. 7.3. Uniform Transmission Lines
      4. 7.4. The Speed of Electrons in Copper
      5. 7.5. The Speed of a Signal in a Transmission Line
      6. 7.6. Spatial Extent of the Leading Edge
      7. 7.7. “Be the Signal”
      8. 7.8. The Instantaneous Impedance of a Transmission Line
      9. 7.9. Characteristic Impedance and Controlled Impedance
      10. 7.10. Famous Characteristic Impedances
      11. 7.11. The Impedance of a Transmission Line
      12. 7.12. Driving a Transmission Line
      13. 7.13. Return Paths
      14. 7.14. When Return Paths Switch Reference Planes
      15. 7.15. A First-Order Model of a Transmission Line
      16. 7.16. Calculating Characteristic Impedance with Approximations
      17. 7.17. Calculating the Characteristic Impedance with a 2D Field Solver
      18. 7.18. An n-Section Lumped Circuit Model
      19. 7.19. Frequency Variation of the Characteristic Impedance
      20. 7.20. The Bottom Line
    12. 8. Transmission Lines and Reflections
      1. 8.1. Reflections at Impedance Changes
      2. 8.2. Why Are There Reflections?
      3. 8.3. Reflections from Resistive Loads
      4. 8.4. Source Impedance
      5. 8.5. Bounce Diagrams
      6. 8.6. Simulating Reflected Waveforms
      7. 8.7. Measuring Reflections with a TDR
      8. 8.8. Transmission Lines and Unintentional Discontinuities
      9. 8.9. When to Terminate
      10. 8.10. The Most Common Termination Strategy for Point-to-Point Topology
      11. 8.11. Reflections from Short Series Transmission Lines
      12. 8.12. Reflections from Short-Stub Transmission Lines
      13. 8.13. Reflections from Capacitive End Terminations
      14. 8.14. Reflections from Capacitive Loads in the Middle of a Trace
      15. 8.15. Capacitive Delay Adders
      16. 8.16. Effects of Corners and Vias
      17. 8.17. Loaded Lines
      18. 8.18. Reflections from Inductive Discontinuities
      19. 8.19. Compensation
      20. 8.20. The Bottom Line
    13. 9. Lossy Lines, Rise-Time Degradation, and Material Properties
      1. 9.1. Why Worry About Lossy Lines
      2. 9.2. Losses in Transmission Lines
      3. 9.3. Sources of Loss: Conductor Resistance and Skin Depth
      4. 9.4. Sources of Loss: The Dielectric
      5. 9.5. Dissipation Factor
      6. 9.6. The Real Meaning of Dissipation Factor
      7. 9.7. Modeling Lossy Transmission Lines
      8. 9.8. Characteristic Impedance of a Lossy Transmission Line
      9. 9.9. Signal Velocity in a Lossy Transmission Line
      10. 9.10. Attenuation and the dB
      11. 9.11. Attenuation in Lossy Lines
      12. 9.12. Measured Properties of a Lossy Line in the Frequency Domain
      13. 9.13. The Bandwidth of an Interconnect
      14. 9.14. Time-Domain Behavior of Lossy Lines
      15. 9.15. Improving the Eye Diagram of a Transmission Line
      16. 9.16. Pre-emphasis and Equalization
      17. 9.17. The Bottom Line
    14. 10. Cross Talk in Transmission Lines
      1. 10.1. Superposition
      2. 10.2. Origin of Coupling: Capacitance and Inductance
      3. 10.3. Cross Talk in Transmission Lines: NEXT and FEXT
      4. 10.4. Describing Cross Talk
      5. 10.5. The SPICE Capacitance Matrix
      6. 10.6. The Maxwell Capacitance Matrix and 2D Field Solvers
      7. 10.7. The Inductance Matrix
      8. 10.8. Cross Talk in Uniform Transmission Lines and Saturation Length
      9. 10.9. Capacitively Coupled Currents
      10. 10.10. Inductively Coupled Currents
      11. 10.11. Near-End Cross Talk
      12. 10.12. Far-End Cross Talk
      13. 10.13. Decreasing Far-End Cross Talk
      14. 10.14. Simulating Cross Talk
      15. 10.15. Guard Traces
      16. 10.16. Cross Talk and Dielectric Constant
      17. 10.17. Cross Talk and Timing
      18. 10.18. Switching Noise
      19. 10.19. Summary of Reducing Cross Talk
      20. 10.20. The Bottom Line
    15. 11. Differential Pairs and Differential Impedance
      1. 11.1. Differential Signaling
      2. 11.2. A Differential Pair
      3. 11.3. Differential Impedance with No Coupling
      4. 11.4. The Impact from Coupling
      5. 11.5. Calculating Differential Impedance
      6. 11.6. The Return-Current Distribution in a Differential Pair
      7. 11.7. Odd and Even Modes
      8. 11.8. Differential Impedance and Odd-Mode Impedance
      9. 11.9. Common Impedance and Even-Mode Impedance
      10. 11.10. Differential and Common Signals and Odd- and Even-Mode Voltage Components
      11. 11.11. Velocity of Each Mode and Far-End Cross Talk
      12. 11.12. Ideal Coupled Transmission-Line Model or an Ideal Differential Pair
      13. 11.13. Measuring Even- and Odd-Mode Impedance
      14. 11.14. Terminating Differential and Common Signals
      15. 11.15. Conversion of Differential to Common Signals
      16. 11.16. EMI and Common Signals
      17. 11.17. Cross Talk in Differential Pairs
      18. 11.18. Crossing a Gap in the Return Path
      19. 11.19. To Tightly Couple or Not to Tightly Couple
      20. 11.20. Calculating Odd and Even Modes from Capacitance- and Inductance-Matrix Elements
      21. 11.21. The Characteristic Impedance Matrix
      22. 11.22. The Bottom Line
    16. A. 100 General Design Guidelines to Minimize Signal-Integrity Problems
      1. A.1. Minimize Signal-Quality Problems on One Net
      2. A.2. Minimize Cross Talk
      3. A.3. Minimize Rail Collapse
      4. A.4. Minimize EMI
    17. B. 100 Collected Rules of Thumb to Help Estimate Signal-Integrity Effects
      1. B.1. Chapter 2
      2. B.2. Chapter 3
      3. B.3. Chapter 4
      4. B.4. Chapter 5
      5. B.5. Chapter 6
      6. B.6. Chapter 7
      7. B.7. Chapter 8
      8. B.8. Chapter 9
      9. B.9. Chapter 10
      10. B.10. Chapter 11
    18. C. Selected References
    19. About the Author