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Signal and Power Integrity–Simplified by Eric Bogatin

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Chapter 11. Differential Pairs and Differential Impedance

A differential pair is simply a pair of transmission lines with some coupling between them. The value of using a pair of transmission lines is not so much to take advantage of the special properties of a differential pair as to take advantage of the special properties of differential signaling, which uses differential pairs. Differential signaling is the use of two output drivers to drive two independent transmission lines, one line carrying one bit and the other line carrying its complement. The signal that is measured is the difference between the two lines. This difference signal carries the information.

Differential signaling has a number of advantages over single-ended signaling, ...

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