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Signal and Power Integrity - Simplified, Third edition

Book Description

The #1 Practical Guide to Signal Integrity Design—with Revised Content and New Questions and Problems!

This book brings together up-to-the-minute techniques for finding, fixing, and avoiding signal integrity problems in your design. Drawing on his work teaching several thousand engineers and graduate students, world-renowned expert Eric Bogatin systematically presents the root causes of all six families of signal integrity, power integrity, and electromagnetic compatibility problems. Bogatin reviews essential principles needed to understand these problems, and shows how to use best design practices and techniques to prevent or address them early in the design cycle. To help test and reinforce your understanding, this new edition adds questions and problems throughout. Bogatin also presents more examples using free tools, plus new content on high-speed serial links, reflecting input from 130+ of his graduate students.

  • A fully up-to-date introduction to signal integrity and physical design
  • New questions and problems designed for both students and professional engineers
  • How design and technology selection can make or break power distribution network performance
  • Exploration of key concepts, such as plane impedance, spreading inductance, decoupling capacitors, and capacitor loop inductance
  • Practical techniques for analyzing resistance, capacitance, inductance, and impedance
  • Using QUCS to predict waveforms as voltage sources are affected by interconnect impedances
  • Identifying reflections and crosstalk with free animation tools
  • Solving signal integrity problems via rules of thumb, analytic approximation, numerical simulation, and measurement
  • Understanding how interconnect physical design impacts signal integrity
  • Managing differential pairs and losses
  • Harnessing the full power of S-parameters in high-speed serial link applications
  • Designing high-speed serial links associated with differential pairs and lossy lines—including new coverage of eye diagrams
  • Ensuring power integrity throughout the entire power distribution path
  • Realistic design guidelines for improving signal integrity, and much more

For professionals and students at all levels of experience, this book emphasizes intuitive understanding, practical tools, and engineering discipline, rather than theoretical derivation or mathematical rigor. It has earned a well-deserved reputation as the #1 resource for getting signal integrity designs right—first time, every time.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover Page
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright Page
  4. Dedication Page
  5. Contents at a Glance
  6. Contents
  7. Preface to the Third Edition
  8. Preface to the Second Edition
  9. Preface to the First Edition
  10. Acknowledgments
  11. About the Author
  12. Chapter 1. Signal Integrity Is in Your Future
    1. 1.1 What Are Signal Integrity, Power Integrity, and Electromagnetic Compatibility?
    2. 1.2 Signal-Integrity Effects on One Net
    3. 1.3 Cross Talk
    4. 1.4 Rail-Collapse Noise
    5. 1.5 Electromagnetic Interference (EMI)
    6. 1.6 Two Important Signal-Integrity Generalizations
    7. 1.7 Trends in Electronic Products
    8. 1.8 The Need for a New Design Methodology
    9. 1.9 A New Product Design Methodology
    10. 1.10 Simulations
    11. 1.11 Modeling and Models
    12. 1.12 Creating Circuit Models from Calculation
    13. 1.13 Three Types of Measurements
    14. 1.14 The Role of Measurements
    15. 1.15 The Bottom Line
    16. End-of-Chapter Review Questions
  13. Chapter 2. Time and Frequency Domains
    1. 2.1 The Time Domain
    2. 2.2 Sine Waves in the Frequency Domain
    3. 2.3 Shorter Time to a Solution in the Frequency Domain
    4. 2.4 Sine-Wave Features
    5. 2.5 The Fourier Transform
    6. 2.6 The Spectrum of a Repetitive Signal
    7. 2.7 The Spectrum of an Ideal Square Wave
    8. 2.8 From the Frequency Domain to the Time Domain
    9. 2.9 Effect of Bandwidth on Rise Time
    10. 2.10 Bandwidth and Rise Time
    11. 2.11 What Does Significant Mean?
    12. 2.12 Bandwidth of Real Signals
    13. 2.13 Bandwidth and Clock Frequency
    14. 2.14 Bandwidth of a Measurement
    15. 2.15 Bandwidth of a Model
    16. 2.16 Bandwidth of an Interconnect
    17. 2.17 The Bottom Line
    18. End-of-Chapter Review Questions
  14. Chapter 3. Impedance and Electrical Models
    1. 3.1 Describing Signal-Integrity Solutions in Terms of Impedance
    2. 3.2 What Is Impedance?
    3. 3.3 Real Versus Ideal Circuit Elements
    4. 3.4 Impedance of an Ideal Resistor in the Time Domain
    5. 3.5 Impedance of an Ideal Capacitor in the Time Domain
    6. 3.6 Impedance of an Ideal Inductor in the Time Domain
    7. 3.7 Impedance in the Frequency Domain
    8. 3.8 Equivalent Electrical Circuit Models
    9. 3.9 Circuit Theory and SPICE
    10. 3.10 Introduction to Measurement-Based Modeling
    11. 3.11 The Bottom Line
    12. End-of-Chapter Review Questions
  15. Chapter 4. The Physical Basis of Resistance
    1. 4.1 Translating Physical Design into Electrical Performance
    2. 4.2 The Only Good Approximation for the Resistance of Interconnects
    3. 4.3 Bulk Resistivity
    4. 4.4 Resistance per Length
    5. 4.5 Sheet Resistance
    6. 4.6 The Bottom Line
    7. End-of-Chapter Review Questions
  16. Chapter 5. The Physical Basis of Capacitance
    1. 5.1 Current Flow in Capacitors
    2. 5.2 The Capacitance of a Sphere
    3. 5.3 Parallel Plate Approximation
    4. 5.4 Dielectric Constant
    5. 5.5 Power and Ground Planes and Decoupling Capacitance
    6. 5.6 Capacitance per Length
    7. 5.7 2D Field Solvers
    8. 5.8 Effective Dielectric Constant
    9. 5.9 The Bottom Line
    10. End-of-Chapter Review Questions
  17. Chapter 6. The Physical Basis of Inductance
    1. 6.1 What Is Inductance?
    2. 6.2 Inductance Principle 1: There Are Circular Rings of Magnetic-Field Lines Around All Currents
    3. 6.3 Inductance Principle 2: Inductance Is the Number of Webers of Field Line Rings Around a Conductor per Amp of Current Through It
    4. 6.4 Self-Inductance and Mutual Inductance
    5. 6.5 Inductance Principle 3: When the Number of Field Line Rings Around a Conductor Changes, There Will Be a Voltage Induced Across the Ends of the Conductor
    6. 6.6 Partial Inductance
    7. 6.7 Effective, Total, or Net Inductance and Ground Bounce
    8. 6.8 Loop Self- and Mutual Inductance
    9. 6.9 The Power Distribution Network (PDN) and Loop Inductance
    10. 6.10 Loop Inductance per Square of Planes
    11. 6.11 Loop Inductance of Planes and Via Contacts
    12. 6.12 Loop Inductance of Planes with a Field of Clearance Holes
    13. 6.13 Loop Mutual Inductance
    14. 6.14 Equivalent Inductance of Multiple Inductors
    15. 6.15 Summary of Inductance
    16. 6.16 Current Distributions and Skin Depth
    17. 6.17 High-Permeability Materials
    18. 6.18 Eddy Currents
    19. 6.19 The Bottom Line
    20. End-of-Chapter Review Questions
  18. Chapter 7. The Physical Basis of Transmission Lines
    1. 7.1 Forget the Word Ground
    2. 7.2 The Signal
    3. 7.3 Uniform Transmission Lines
    4. 7.4 The Speed of Electrons in Copper
    5. 7.5 The Speed of a Signal in a Transmission Line
    6. 7.6 Spatial Extent of the Leading Edge
    7. 7.7 “Be the Signal”
    8. 7.8 The Instantaneous Impedance of a Transmission Line
    9. 7.9 Characteristic Impedance and Controlled Impedance
    10. 7.10 Famous Characteristic Impedances
    11. 7.11 The Impedance of a Transmission Line
    12. 7.12 Driving a Transmission Line
    13. 7.13 Return Paths
    14. 7.14 When Return Paths Switch Reference Planes
    15. 7.15 A First-Order Model of a Transmission Line
    16. 7.16 Calculating Characteristic Impedance with Approximations
    17. 7.17 Calculating the Characteristic Impedance with a 2D Field Solver
    18. 7.18 An n-Section Lumped-Circuit Model
    19. 7.19 Frequency Variation of the Characteristic Impedance
    20. 7.20 The Bottom Line
    21. End-of-Chapter Review Questions
  19. Chapter 8. Transmission Lines and Reflections
    1. 8.1 Reflections at Impedance Changes
    2. 8.2 Why Are There Reflections?
    3. 8.3 Reflections from Resistive Loads
    4. 8.4 Source Impedance
    5. 8.5 Bounce Diagrams
    6. 8.6 Simulating Reflected Waveforms
    7. 8.7 Measuring Reflections with a TDR
    8. 8.8 Transmission Lines and Unintentional Discontinuities
    9. 8.9 When to Terminate
    10. 8.10 The Most Common Termination Strategy for Point-to-Point Topology
    11. 8.11 Reflections from Short Series Transmission Lines
    12. 8.12 Reflections from Short-Stub Transmission Lines
    13. 8.13 Reflections from Capacitive End Terminations
    14. 8.14 Reflections from Capacitive Loads in the Middle of a Trace
    15. 8.15 Capacitive Delay Adders
    16. 8.16 Effects of Corners and Vias
    17. 8.17 Loaded Lines
    18. 8.18 Reflections from Inductive Discontinuities
    19. 8.19 Compensation
    20. 8.20 The Bottom Line
    21. End-of-Chapter Review Questions
  20. Chapter 9. Lossy Lines, Rise-Time Degradation, and Material Properties
    1. 9.1 Why Worry About Lossy Lines?
    2. 9.2 Losses in Transmission Lines
    3. 9.3 Sources of Loss: Conductor Resistance and Skin Depth
    4. 9.4 Sources of Loss: The Dielectric
    5. 9.5 Dissipation Factor
    6. 9.6 The Real Meaning of Dissipation Factor
    7. 9.7 Modeling Lossy Transmission Lines
    8. 9.8 Characteristic Impedance of a Lossy Transmission Line
    9. 9.9 Signal Velocity in a Lossy Transmission Line
    10. 9.10 Attenuation and dB
    11. 9.11 Attenuation in Lossy Lines
    12. 9.12 Measured Properties of a Lossy Line in the Frequency Domain
    13. 9.13 The Bandwidth of an Interconnect
    14. 9.14 Time-Domain Behavior of Lossy Lines
    15. 9.15 Improving the Eye Diagram of a Transmission Line
    16. 9.16 How Much Attenuation Is Too Much?
    17. 9.17 The Bottom Line
    18. End-of-Chapter Review Questions
  21. Chapter 10. Cross Talk in Transmission Lines
    1. 10.1 Superposition
    2. 10.2 Origin of Coupling: Capacitance and Inductance
    3. 10.3 Cross Talk in Transmission Lines: NEXT and FEXT
    4. 10.4 Describing Cross Talk
    5. 10.5 The SPICE Capacitance Matrix
    6. 10.6 The Maxwell Capacitance Matrix and 2D Field Solvers
    7. 10.7 The Inductance Matrix
    8. 10.8 Cross Talk in Uniform Transmission Lines and Saturation Length
    9. 10.9 Capacitively Coupled Currents
    10. 10.10 Inductively Coupled Currents
    11. 10.11 Near-End Cross Talk
    12. 10.12 Far-End Cross Talk
    13. 10.13 Decreasing Far-End Cross Talk
    14. 10.14 Simulating Cross Talk
    15. 10.15 Guard Traces
    16. 10.16 Cross Talk and Dielectric Constant
    17. 10.17 Cross Talk and Timing
    18. 10.18 Switching Noise
    19. 10.19 Summary of Reducing Cross Talk
    20. 10.20 The Bottom Line
    21. End-of-Chapter Review Questions
  22. Chapter 11. Differential Pairs and Differential Impedance
    1. 11.1 Differential Signaling
    2. 11.2 A Differential Pair
    3. 11.3 Differential Impedance with No Coupling
    4. 11.4 The Impact from Coupling
    5. 11.5 Calculating Differential Impedance
    6. 11.6 The Return-Current Distribution in a Differential Pair
    7. 11.7 Odd and Even Modes
    8. 11.8 Differential Impedance and Odd-Mode Impedance
    9. 11.9 Common Impedance and Even-Mode Impedance
    10. 11.10 Differential and Common Signals and Odd- and Even-Mode Voltage Components
    11. 11.11 Velocity of Each Mode and Far-End Cross Talk
    12. 11.12 Ideal Coupled Transmission-Line Model or an Ideal Differential Pair
    13. 11.13 Measuring Even- and Odd-Mode Impedance
    14. 11.14 Terminating Differential and Common Signals
    15. 11.15 Conversion of Differential to Common Signals
    16. 11.16 EMI and Common Signals
    17. 11.17 Cross Talk in Differential Pairs
    18. 11.18 Crossing a Gap in the Return Path
    19. 11.19 To Tightly Couple or Not to Tightly Couple
    20. 11.20 Calculating Odd and Even Modes from Capacitance- and Inductance-Matrix Elements
    21. 11.21 The Characteristic Impedance Matrix
    22. 11.22 The Bottom Line
    23. End-of-Chapter Review Questions
  23. Chapter 12. S-Parameters for Signal-Integrity Applications
    1. 12.1 S-Parameters, the New Universal Metric
    2. 12.2 What Are S-Parameters?
    3. 12.3 Basic S-Parameter Formalism
    4. 12.4 S-Parameter Matrix Elements
    5. 12.5 Introducing the Return and Insertion Loss
    6. 12.6 A Transparent Interconnect
    7. 12.7 Changing the Port Impedance
    8. 12.8 The Phase of S21 for a Uniform 50-Ohm Transmission Line
    9. 12.9 The Magnitude of S21 for a Uniform Transmission Line
    10. 12.10 Coupling to Other Transmission Lines
    11. 12.11 Insertion Loss for Non-50-Ohm Transmission Lines
    12. 12.12 Data-Mining S-Parameters
    13. 12.13 Single-Ended and Differential S-Parameters
    14. 12.14 Differential Insertion Loss
    15. 12.15 The Mode Conversion Terms
    16. 12.16 Converting to Mixed-Mode S-Parameters
    17. 12.17 Time and Frequency Domains
    18. 12.18 The Bottom Line
    19. End-of-Chapter Review Questions
  24. Chapter 13. The Power Distribution Network (PDN)
    1. 13.1 The Problem
    2. 13.2 The Root Cause
    3. 13.3 The Most Important Design Guidelines for the PDN
    4. 13.4 Establishing the Target Impedance Is Hard
    5. 13.5 Every Product Has a Unique PDN Requirement
    6. 13.6 Engineering the PDN
    7. 13.7 The VRM
    8. 13.8 Simulating Impedance with SPICE
    9. 13.9 On-Die Capacitance
    10. 13.10 The Package Barrier
    11. 13.11 The PDN with No Decoupling Capacitors
    12. 13.12 The MLCC Capacitor
    13. 13.13 The Equivalent Series Inductance
    14. 13.14 Approximating Loop Inductance
    15. 13.15 Optimizing the Mounting of Capacitors
    16. 13.16 Combining Capacitors in Parallel
    17. 13.17 Engineering a Reduced Parallel Resonant Peak by Adding More Capacitors
    18. 13.18 Selecting Capacitor Values
    19. 13.19 Estimating the Number of Capacitors Needed
    20. 13.20 How Much Does a nH Cost?
    21. 13.21 Quantity or Specific Values?
    22. 13.22 Sculpting the Impedance Profiles: The Frequency-Domain Target Impedance Method (FDTIM)
    23. 13.23 When Every pH Counts
    24. 13.24 Location, Location, Location
    25. 13.25 When Spreading Inductance Is the Limitation
    26. 13.26 The Chip View
    27. 13.27 Bringing It All Together
    28. 13.28 The Bottom Line
    29. End-of-Chapter Review Questions
  25. Appendix A. 100+ General Design Guidelines to Minimize Signal-Integrity Problems
  26. Appendix B. 100 Collected Rules of Thumb to Help Estimate Signal-Integrity Effects
  27. Appendix C. Selected References
  28. Appendix D. Review Questions and Answers
  29. Index