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SiGe, GaAs, and InP Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors

Book Description

An up-to-date, comprehensive guide to heterojunction bipolar transistor technology.

Owing to their superior performance in microwave and millimeter-wave applications, heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBTs) have become a major force in mobile and wireless communications. This book offers an integrated treatment of SiGe, GaAs, and InP HBTs, presenting a much-needed overview of HBTs based on different materials systems-their fabrication, analysis, and testing procedures.

Highly respected expert Jiann S. Yuan discusses in depth the dc and RF performance and modeling of HBT devices, including simulation, thermal instability, reliability, low-temperature and high-temperature performance, and HBT analog and digital circuits. He provides step-by-step presentations of HBT materials-including Si HBTs and III-V and IV-IV compound HBTs, which are rarely described in the literature. Also covered are device and circuit interaction as well as specific high-speed devices in mobile and wireless communications.

This immensely useful guide to a rapidly expanding field includes more than 200 figures, tables of different material systems in terms of their physical parameters, and up-to-date experimental results culled from the latest research. An essential resource for circuit and device designers in the semiconductor industry, SiGe, GaAs, and InP Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors is also useful for graduate students in electrical engineering, applied physics, and materials science.

Table of Contents

  1. Coverpage
  2. Titlepage
  3. Copyright
  4. Dedication
  5. Contents
  6. Preface
  7. About the Author
  8. 1 Introduction
    1. References
  9. 2 Material Properties and Technologies
    1. 2.1 SiGe and Group III/V Compound Semiconductors
      1. 2.1.1 Bandgaps and Lattice Constants
      2. 2.1.2 Velocity Overshoot
      3. 2.1.3 Bandgap Discontinuity
      4. 2.1.4 Bandgap Narrowing
      5. 2.1.5 Strained Layer and Critical Thickness
      6. 2.1.6 Electron Mobility
      7. 2.1.7 Hole Drift Mobility
    2. 2.2 Heterojunction Technologies
      1. 2.2.1 Vapor-Phase Epitaxy
      2. 2.2.2 Molecular Beam Epitaxy
      3. 2.2.3 Gas-Source MBE and Metal-Organic MBE
    3. 2.3 Device Fabrication
      1. 2.3.1 SiGe HBTs
      2. 2.3.2 AlGaAs/GaAs HBTs
      3. 2.3.3 InP HBTs
    4. References
    5. Problems
  10. 3 DC Performance
    1. 3.1 General Structures and Steady-State Behavior
      1. 3.1.1 Electron and Hole Currents
      2. 3.1.2 Abrupt and Graded Heterojunctions
      3. 3.1.3 Undoped Setback Layer
      4. 3.1.4 Graded-Base HBTs
      5. 3.1.5 Double Heterojunctions
      6. 3.1.6 Electron Quasi-Fermi Level Splitting
      7. 3.1.7 Collector–Emitter Offset Voltage
      8. 3.1.8 Early Voltage
      9. 3.1.9 Bias-Dependent Base Resistance
      10. 3.1.10 High Injection Barrier Effect
    2. 3.2 SiGe Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors
      1. 3.2.1 Current Gain and Early Voltage Product
      2. 3.2.2 Temperature-Dependent Current Gain
      3. 3.2.3 Current Gain Roll-off in Graded SiGe Base
      4. 3.2.4 Early Voltage, Including Recombination in the SiGe Base
      5. 3.2.5 Inverse Base Width Modulation Effect
    3. 3.3 III/V Compound Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors
      1. 3.3.1 Self-Heating Effect
      2. 3.3.2 Recombination Currents
      3. 3.3.3 Temperature-Dependent Current Gain of AlGaAs/GaAs HBTs
      4. 3.3.4 Temperature-Dependent Current Gain of InP-Based HBTs
    4. References
    5. Problems
  11. 4 RF and Transient Performance
    1. 4.1 General Device Behavior
      1. 4.1.1 Output Conductance
      2. 4.1.2 Transconductance
      3. 4.1.3 Heterojunction Junction Capacitance
      4. 4.1.4 Base Transit Time
      5. 4.1.5 Collector-Base Space-Charge-Layer Delay
      6. 4.1.6 Cutoff Frequency
      7. 4.1.7 Maximum Frequency of Oscillation
      8. 4.1.8 NPN Versus PNP on RF Performance
      9. 4.1.9 Collector-Up Versus Collector-Down Influence on RF Performance
      10. 4.1.10 Noise
      11. 4.1.11 S-Parameters
      12. 4.1.12 Turn-off Transient
    2. 4.2 Silicon–Germanium Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors
      1. 4.2.1 Effect of Ge Profiles on go and τB
      2. 4.2.2 Effect of Ge Profiles on fT and fmax
      3. 4.2.3 Effect of Inverse Base Width Modulation on τB and τC
      4. 4.2.4 Transconductance Degradation at High Current Densities and Low Temperatures
      5. 4.2.5 Ge and Collector Doping Profile Design to Improve the Clipping Effect
    3. 4.3 III/V Compound Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors
      1. 4.3.1 Emitter Delay
      2. 4.3.2 AlGaAs and InGaAs Graded Bases
      3. 4.3.3 Heterojunction Capacitance, Including the Composition Grading and a Setback Layer
      4. 4.3.4 Thermal Effects on fT and fmax
    4. References
    5. Problems
  12. 5 HBT Modeling
    1. 5.1 Silicon–Germanium HBT Models
      1. 5.1.1 Analytical Collector Current Equation
      2. 5.1.2 Generalized Integral Charge-Control Relation for SiGe HBTs
      3. 5.1.3 Base Current of SiGe HBTs
      4. 5.1.4 High Current Operation
    2. 5.2 III/V Compound HBT Models
      1. 5.2.1 Thermionic-Field-Diffusion Model
      2. 5.2.2 Grinberg–Luryi Physics-Based Collector Current Model
      3. 5.2.3 New Charge-Control Model
      4. 5.2.4 Base Recombination Currents
        1. 5.2.4.1 Space-Charge-Region Recombination Currents
        2. 5.2.4.2 Surface Recombination Currents
        3. 5.2.4.3 Quasi-Neutral Recombination Currents
      5. 5.2.5 Analytical Collector Current Model, Including the Self-Heating Effect
      6. 5.2.6 Compact Gummel-Poon Model, Including the Self-Heating Effect
    3. 5.3 Large- and Small-Signal Models for RF Applications
    4. 5.4 Parameter Extraction
    5. References
    6. Problems
  13. 6 Heterojunction Device Simulation
    1. 6.1 Boltzmann Transport Equation
    2. 6.2 Monte Carlo Simulation
    3. 6.3 Drift and Diffusion Equations
    4. 6.4 Hydrodynamic Equations
    5. 6.5 Transistor Design Using Heterojunction Device Simulation
    6. 6.6 Multiemitter Simulation
    7. References
    8. Problems
  14. 7 Breakdown and Thermal Instability
    1. 7.1 Avalanche Breakdown
      1. 7.1.1 Reverse Base Current Phenomenon
      2. 7.1.2 Nonlocal Avalanche Effect
      3. 7.1.3 Influence of the Base Thickness on the Collector Breakdown
      4. 7.1.4 Avalanche Effect on the Collector-Base Junction Capacitance
      5. 7.1.5 Avalanche Effect on the Output Conductance
      6. 7.1.6 Breakdown and Speed Considerations in InGaAs HBTs
    2. 7.2 Thermal Instability
      1. 7.2.1 Emitter Collapse Phenomenon
      2. 7.2.2 Relation Between Emitter Collapse and Avalanche Breakdown
      3. 7.2.3 InP HBT Thermal Instability
      4. 7.2.4 Modeling the Emitter Collapse Loci
    3. 7.3 Design In Thermal Stability
      1. 7.3.1 Emitter Ballasting Resistors
      2. 7.3.2 Emitter Thermal Shunt
      3. 7.3.3 Base Ballasting Resistors
    4. References
    5. Problems
  15. 8 Reliability
    1. 8.1 Electrical and Thermal Overstress
      1. 8.1.1 Forward- and Reverse-Bias Stress Effects
      2. 8.1.2 Thermal Overstress
      3. 8.1.3 Burn-in
    2. 8.2 Process-Related Reliability Issues
      1. 8.2.1 Base Dopant Out-diffusion
      2. 8.2.2 Sensitivity of Emitter–Base Junction Design
      3. 8.2.3 Influence of Dislocations on the Transistor Current Gain
      4. 8.2.4 Effect of Passivation on InAlAs/InGaAs HBTs
      5. 8.2.5 Effect of Hydrogen Out-diffusion in InGaP/GaAs HBTs
    3. 8.3 Hot Carrier Behavior
    4. 8.4 Radiation Effects
      1. 8.4.1 Si-Based Bipolar Transistors
        1. 8.4.1.1 Oxide Trapped Charge and Excess Base Current
        2. 8.4.1.2 Low-Dose-Rate Radiation
        3. 8.4.1.3 Implications for Circuit Behavior
      2. 8.4.2 GaAs- and InP-Based Bipolar Transistors
        1. 8.4.2.1 Total Dose Effects
        2. 8.4.2.2 Transient Radiation Effects
    5. References
    6. Problems
  16. 9 RF and Digital Circuits for Low-Voltage Applications
    1. 9.1 Low-Voltage Applications
    2. 9.2 Wideband Amplifiers
    3. 9.3 RF Power Amplifiers
      1. 9.3.1 Power-Added Efficiency
      2. 9.3.2 Impact of Device Parameters on the HBT Large-Signal Gain
      3. 9.3.3 Heterojunction Bipolar Transistor Design for Power Applications
      4. 9.3.4 Class E Power Amplifiers
      5. 9.3.5 Third-Order Intermodulation
      6. 9.3.6 Self-Linearizing Technique for the L-Band HBT Power Amplifier
    4. 9.4 Low-Noise Amplifiers
    5. 9.5 HBT Oscillators
      1. 9.5.1 Modeling the Bipolar Phase Noise
    6. 9.6 Analog Multipliers
    7. 9.7 A/D Converters
    8. 9.8 Diode-HBT Logic with ECL/CML Circuits
      1. 9.8.1 Gate Delay Versus Power
      2. 9.8.2 Figure of Merit for CML
      3. 9.8.3 Figure of Merit for ECL
      4. 9.8.4 SiGe Digital Circuit Performance
    9. 9.9 Phototransistors
    10. 9.10 Photoreceivers
    11. References
  17. Index